Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 11-1 (Text)

(!!nurnr~ia m~tnln!lttal :SlnntlJly Continuing LEHRE UND ~EHRE MAGAZIN FUER Ev.-LUTH. HOMILETIK THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY-THEOLOGICAL MONTHLY Vol. XI January, 1940 No.1 CONTENTS Page Foreword. w. Arndt ____________ ____ . __ .. ... ____ ._____ . .. ____ . . .. _ ... _. __ _ ._. . 1 Der Lutherische Weltkonvent. Th. Engelder _____ . ______ .. _._. __ .... _ .. _ .. ___ ... _ .. _ 11 The Significance of the Doctrine of the Church and the Ministry J. Theodore Mueller ____ .. __ .. . _ . ____ ... _. ___ .________ 19 Entwuerfe ueber die von der Synodalkonferenz angenommene EpisteIreihe _________ .... _____ ..... ___ ... __ .. _. __ ._ .. _ .. __ ._______ .. _ . __ ._ ... . __ . ___ .. _______ 36 Miscellanea ___ __ ._. _____ . __ . _ .. ____ ._ . _____ .... . . ___ . __ ... _ .... ________ . ________ . __ . ____ ._. ____ ...... _____ . 50 Theological Observer - Kirchlich-Zeitgeschichtliches . ______ ._ .. _. ._. 59 Book Review - Literatur .. _____________________ ... ... _. _ .. _. __ .. _. __________ ._._._ _ 73 Ein Predlger muss nicht a1lein wei- den, also dass er die Schafe unter- weise. wie sie rechte Christen sollen sein, sondern auch daneben den Woel- fen wehTen, dass sie die Schafe nlcht angreifen und mit falscher Lehre ver- fuehren und Irrtum einfuehren. LutheT Es ist kein Ding, das die Leute mehr bel der K1rche behaelt denn die gute Predigt. - Apologie, Arl.24 If the trwnpet give an uncertain sound. who shall prepare himself to the battle? -1 COT. 14:8 Published for the Ev. Luth. Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States CONCORDIA PUBUSHING HOUSE, St. Louis, Mo. Theological Observer - .Rh:d)Iirf)'Seitgefdyid)tlici)e§ 59 'fhe~:~;,;:cal C hserver - ~irdjIidj~ 3eitgef djidjtIidje§ Lutheran World Convention will Not Meet in 1940. - Owing to the world situation the American section of the Lutheran World Convention's executive committee has canceled the meeting originally scheduled for 1940 at Philadelphia. It is proposed, however, to hold a conference of representative Lutheran leaders from such nations as will be able to send delegates. The commission which was to submit a study to the proposed convention on the general theme "The Church in the World" is con- tinuing its work and has submitted a preliminary paper. This committee is discussing the Church in her domestic, economic, political, cultural, and educational relationships. F. E. M. On the Unscriptural Character of Lodges. - From a letter which Pastor O. F. Engelbrecht of Milwaukee, member of Synod's Lodge Com- mittee, wrote to a young inquiring brother, we quote the following excellent, serviceable paragraphs: "The Masons and Odd-Fellows, together with their Women's Auxiliaries, are full-fledged lodges. The ritual is not only deistic but saturated with self-righteousness and universalism. All their members go to heaven. The ritual must be used as it is. It must not be omitted or changed by local organizations. I hardly think that we shall ever see the time when these two organizations shall change their character. They will always be lodges, antichristian organizations, and so you are safe in investing some of your money in the rituals - if you can still purchase them. "When you are through with your course in Christian fundamentals, take up the lodge in particular: "1. Discuss oaths in general, then oaths in uncertain things. Discuss Lev. 5: 4, 5. Show the effect of such an oath. Point out its blasphemous character. Ask the lodge-members belonging to the discussion group whether a Christian can belong to a society which demands such oaths. Some did not realize the sinfulness of the oath when they swore it, but now they see it. Is it enough to confess that they sinned in swearing their oath? Ought they not to renounce the order that demands of all members that they commit this sin and that they continue in this sin? "2. Discuss the Trinity. Show that they must honor the Son even as they honor the Father. Show that the lodge admits men of all faiths, Christ-denying Jews, Unitarians, etc. And for this reason they ignore the Triune God. Show them that the lodge is deistic, that the God they worship is not the true God, hence lodge worship is idolatry. "3. Discuss Christless prayers. Show that they are an insult and an abomination to God. How can I belong to a society that has no place for my Savior, who loved me and gave Himself for me? Denying Christ. "4. Discuss the way to salvation, Christianity vs. paganism, salvation by faith and by works. Show them that all who want to be saved by their works are under the curse. Show them that the lodge teaches 60 Theological Observer - Ritd)tid}=3elt\ltfcf)id)tYld)d this soul-destroying, pagan doctrine: salvation by works. Discuss certain passages in the Epistle to the Galatians. "5. Discuss the universalism of the lodge. All members sent to heaven, whether they believed in Christ or not. Show that this is a denial of Christ's words in Mark 16: 16: 'He that believeth not shall be damned.' Show that the lodge holds out a false hope to unbelievers and leads them on to hell. Can they support such an organization? "6. Discuss unionism and syncretism. Discuss 2 Cor. 6: 14-18. "7. You might also discuss the fatherhood of God. Discuss the passages which tell us that we are children of wrath by nature, children of the devil, and that we are children of God by adoption, through faith in Christ. Show how the lodge deceives men into thinking that they are God's children without believing in Christ. In each case be sure to have them look up the passage in the Bible and to read it with you. Let the W m'd soak in and do its work. And be sure also that you are able to produce the teaching of the lodge in the very words of the ritual. The contrast cannot but impress them, and if they are Christians, they will feel constrained to come out of the lodge." G. Such Is Fame! - In the Diapason, the foremost organ magazine of America, under date of November 1, 1939, one of the editorial writers, Hamilton C. Macdougall, Mus. D. (Brown University), A. G. 0., A. R. C. 0., professor emeritus, Wellesley College, writes: "The Walther League 0;' Chicago, at the suggestion of Herbert Bruening, sends me copies of the sixth and seventh bulletins of distinctive choral music selected for the Lutheran Choral Union." After a description of these bulletins the writer continues: "The name Walther League puzzled me, since it did not seem reasonable to assume that the society was named for Walther von del' Vogelweide of the twelfth century. It seems that Johann Walther, a friend of Luther, who helped Luther in his work of pre- paring suitable church music, is commemorated in the title." - So with all the publicity of the last two years it seems that the Saxon immigration, the ll,llissouri Synod, and its great founder are not as well known as we may have imagined. Also, here is an example of history as it is "made." When in doubt, guess - when a one-cent postal card to the sender of the bulletins would have brought the writer the correct information. H. The Unionistic Campaign. Reports from the Field. - The Christian Herald, December, 1939, is happy to report: "Inclusive. - 'Methodist I was born, Methodist I will die.' . .. That used to be one trite expression of the old denominational adhesiveness which forbade crossing of the sectarian line. Born into a denomination, we usually stayed there until death us did part. Those days are over now; sectarian lines mean less and less. We are becoming more inclusive, less exclusive. Witness the case of young Rev. Edward M. Cadigan as example. "Mr. Cadigan was born a Methodist. He has two brothers who are Episcopalian ministers. Called to a charge under the United Church of Canada, in Saskatchewan, he ran into difficulties when the superintendent Theological Observer - .Ritd)nd)~8ettgefd)id)tlid)ell 61 of the United Church district desired that he be ordained. Ordination was refused him because he had obtained no academic degree. The Methodist Church offered to give him deacon's orders, but that wouldn't permit him to administer all the ordinances of the Church. Then stepped in Dr. Finis Idelman or the Central Church of Disciples of Christ in New York, who saw to it that the young man was ordained. "He was ordained by the historic method of 'laying on of hands,'- on his head were laid the hands of ministers Presbyterian, Congrega- tional, Disciple, Episcopal. If that isn't an ecclesiastical League of Nations, what is? And if it isn't a good sign, then we can't read the signs of the times." Here is another report, from the manifesto issued by the W orId Conference of Christian Youth, in session July 24 to Aug. 2, 1939, in Amsterdam: "Toward World-wide Unity. - Characteristic of this time in which we meet is not only the fact of international tension and social unrest, but also the fact of a rising ecumenical consciousness. The nations and peoples of the world are drifting apart, the churches are coming together. There is a growing conviction of the essential togetherness of all Chris- tians. Our conference takes its place in the line of a great succession of world gatherings, and we are ambitious to add to the momentum of this quest for Christian unity. "At this conference we have not only discovered fellow-Christians, but also fellow-churches with our own. In common worship through the services of different traditions, to a degree which has never been achieved before, we have seen of each other's faith, shared in each other's riches, and understood together more deeply the £Ulness of the stature of Christ. We look forward to the time when the Church in every land will bring its own peculiar gifts to the worship of the one Lord. "We believe that the different churches need each other. A great responsibility rests, therefore, on us to seek opportunity in our own countries and in the places where we live for closer cooperation in work and for larger sharing in worship with our fellow-Christians. The world needs a united Church. We must be one, that the world may believe. The world will not wait while we argue, neither will God have us ask Him to achieve by miracle what we are unwilling to work for ourselves. "Many of us have been puzzled and distressed about our separation at the Table of our Lord. While we rejoice that He has come to all of us through the Sacrament, we cannot believe that these divisions in the most central act of our worship must of necessity persist. We affirm our faith that it is in the purpose of God that Christ shall be Victor here likewise." Commenting on this, the Kirchliche Zeitschrift, November, 1939, speaks of misguided enthusiasm and chasing after a phantom. They are certainly playing with an illusion. "Sharing in each other's riches," "each Church bringing its own peculiar gifts," "the different churches needing each other," - that is the give-and-take plan of union so much advocated today. We must "pool our truths," says E. Stanley Jones. "This plan 62 Theological Observer - Rird)1id)~3citgcfd)id)tlid)c5 would not ask any denomination to give up any truth it may possess. It would not have to give it up; it would give it to the rest of us. And each needs the other's truth." (The Lutheran Companion, March 18, 1937, calls this "a notable utterance.") That is certainly chasing a phantom. It is aiming at the impossible. Let us ask the Catholic Church to share in our riches! The great treasure of the Lutheran Church is "justification by faith." E. Stanley Jones specifically mentions that as the contribution of the Lutherans to the common treasury, the common pool. If the Catholics accept this treasure, what becomes of their treasured teaching "Justification by works"? Perhaps the Lutherans will take it over! Perhaps they can find a way of combining justification through faith and justification through works. The Episcopalians insist on the Apos- tolic Succession. The Lutherans insist on the equality of the ministers. Let them share in each other's riches! The Lutherans have been teaching m.onergism, the Arminian Methodists synergism. That will never do, says E. Stanley Jones and the World Conference of Christian Youth; you must share each other's riches and preach synergistic monergism or monergistic synergism. It seems these misguided unionists honestly believe it can be done. The Living Church frequently reports on the proposed concordat aiming at the union of Presbyterians and Episcopalians. It denounces the straddling phrases used in the concordat and publishes the following communication (Nov. 1, 1939): "Comprehensive Concordat. - To the Editor: The Commission on Reunion with the Jewish Church has now completed its work, and it is with great pleasure that I submit its findings for the instruction and edification of your readers. "In the course of our discussions an astonishing measure of agree- ment has been reached in all important questions of faith and order: "1. Both Churches - Jewish and Christian - believe in the Christ, that is to say, the Messiah. The only real difference lies in the question whether He has already come or is yet to come. A merely abstract theological problem of that nature should certainly not be regarded as an impediment to that larger unity after which we are both striving. "2. As regards the Trinity, we both believe in one Messiah, one God, and one Spirit of the Lord. All these phrases are used in both Old and New Testaments. It is clear that there is no essential barrier here .... "4. As regards Baptism, the Commission expresses the hope that Jewish congregations may be led to appreciate its value and that, when the Rabbi-presbyter celebrates the Holy Communion or Passover in a formerly Christian congregation, he will insist upon it, but that, when he is celebrating in a formerly Jewish congregation, it shall be left to the consciences of individual members .... "Thus all apparent difficulties are seen to disappear when examined with the big, broad, flexible outlook, together with the recommendations herein enclosed. It is anticipated that our proposals may not be enthusi- astically welcomed by all members of both churches - that there may be a number of narrow-minded, uncharitable, medievalist, obscurantist Theological Observer - ~itcf)nc!),,(lcitgefC!)icf)tlic!)es 63 bigots in both bodies who will object to this eminently lucid and com- prehensive concordat. However, we feel sure that such a narrow, schis- matic, sectarian spirit will be disavowed by the churches concerned and that the big, broad, flexible outlook and a few more ambiguous formulae will dispose of all difficulties and divergences, past, present, and future. "Philadelphia "(Rev.) William H. Dunphy "Secretary of the Commission on Reunion with Everything and Everybody" The Christian Herald, December, 1939, reports further: "A Jewish Rabbi, J. Gerson Brenner, of Philadelphia's Logan Community Synagog, has been unanimously elected an honorary member of the Men's Asso- ciation of All Saints' Lutheran Church. This is the response of the men of All Saints' to Rabbi Brenner's work in the promotion of Jewish- Christian understanding and good will. Well done, Lutherans!" A report from the Lutheran, Nov. 15, 1939. The editor interviewed Dr. Offermann, and we submit the following paragraph because of the statement made in the concluding sentence. "When asked what he considered the most hopeful phase of present- day Lutheranism, he replied promptly: 'Its rapid strides toward unity, especially in the United States.' It will be remembered that Dr. Offer- mann has figured prominently in the negotiations carried on by a com- mission of the U. C. L. A. in conference with commissions of the Missouri Synod and the American Lutheran Church. He believes that, while there is no immediate prospect of organic union amongst the different groups of Lutherans in North America, there are excellent prospects for a clearer and, therefore, more unanimous understanding and acceptance of the historic Lutheran Confessions. He believes that Christian unity has advanced in many ways in the past fifty years. He remembers vividly controversies that existed amongst Lutherans and between Lutherans and other groups. He believes that while Christianity has been approaching a higher valuation of its essentials in doctrine and in life, it has at the same time become conscious of the unworthiness of many of the questions that have aroused controversies and caused divisions." If the reference is to the controversies on Conversion and Pre- destination, on Inspiration, and on the Four Points (unionism, chiliasm, etc.), we have here one of the favorite maneuvers of the unionists. The unionists have always insisted that in essentials there must be unity, but that it is unworthy of the Church to insist on unity in less important doctrines, and that the doctrine of Conversion, of Inspiration, etc., are among the less important ones. E. Dr. Little on the Descent of Jesus into Hell. - We are happy to state that, in discussing the descent of Jesus into hell, Dr. Little, professor of the U. L. C. A. seminary in Waterloo, Canada, sets forth the teachings of Holy Scripture. His remarks kave the heading "Now or Never." Referring to the question whether Jesus preached the Gospel to the spirits in prison for their conversion, Dr. Little says: "This present life is the period of grace, and there is not a particle of evidence anywhere in the Scriptures of a preaching of the Gospel to any who have departed from this life." On the character of that preaching Dr. Little remarks: 64 "It was not a preaching of the Gospel, but a preaching of the Law- a vindication of His righteous servant Noah and of all His righteous servants who, like Noah, have faithfully proclaimed His Word to a jeering world. It was a proclamation of victory on Christ's part." That is good, sound doctrine. More power to such testimony. A. Our Neglect of Individual Soul-Care. - Since it is now both a theological and a psychological axiom that "confession is good for the soul," I want to open this discussion with a confession. Whatever faults of character and conduct I may possess, this has been, I believe, the sin of my ministry: I have not sufficiently and adequately dealt with the in- dividual in soul-care. Without any desire to condemn or criticize my brother pastors, I will include you in my confession, I have a growing conviction that this is the sin of sins of the Lutheran ministry, yes, of the Protestant clergy. My experience and observation convince me that we have, in the Lutheran Church at least, tried to proclaim Christ. We have endeavored to rightly distinguish and apply Law and Gospel in our preaching of sin and grace. There may still be much to be desired by way of inspirational, spiritually productive public worship and efficient church administration, but I believe our greatest fault is that we have so largely neglected individual soul-care. Time was in the history of our Church and in the memory of some of our readers when most public Christian rites, such as baptism, con- firmation, Communion, marriage, burial, were attended with thorough- going individual Seelsorge. This was particularly true of the Lord's Sup- per, participation in which was always preceded by, and often contingent on, a private conversation on the state of the soul with an earnest, God- fearing pastor. Now the Lutheran confessional has practically, if not theoretically, broken down, with irreparable damage to the vital discipli- nary functions of the church and to the development of Christian faith and character in the individual. Our modern hurried registration for Communion is scarcely better than a farce, having in it little of spiritual, though some statistical, value. The historical reason for this wholesale discontinuance of the con- fessional we may find in the Roman abuse of it and the consequent Protestant reaction. But our failure to reestablish the confessional on a pure, evangelical, Lutheran basis prompts a heart-searching introspec- tion on the part of every pastor: Wherein have I failed to inspire in my people the confidence needed to draw them to me with their personal and spiritual problems? Is it an apparent apathetic lack of concern for the temporal and spiritual welfare of my flock? Is it the violation of sacred confidences in the past in sermon or conversation, or, at any rate, a suspicion instilled in the parishioner's mind that I, his pastor, cannot be trusted as absolutely as his family physician or lawyer? Or is it his instinctive feeling that no real help is to be derived from such an inter- view with me? Now, if our people have not come to us, we should have gone to them. In some places there has been too little home visitation. In our care of the sick we have, on the whole, been diligent and faithful. Where we have not been as prompt as we should, or where we have overlooked Theological Observer - ~itcf;ncf;~8eitgefcf;icf)tHcf;e~ 65 anyone, it has usually been the failure of some one to notify us. The faithful pastor has of course not waited for an invitation to visit a sick member or associate if he has known of the illness; but since he is not, like Joseph, able to divine, he has constantly encouraged his people to promptly notify him, and by generous and specific inquiry has gathered the information indirectly. There has been, however, a temptation to neglect calling on those who are bodily well and active, who may need a pastor's ministrations fully as much as the sick and disabled. Can we say that we have been sufficiently interested in the poor and the friend- less, the tempted and the sinning, the stranger and the outsider, the youth? "Thy should we wait till a man's life is spent or he is about to die before we become actively interested in his soul? How many, do you suppose, have gone from our churches thinking: No man careth for my soul? In too many instances the visitation has not been truly pastoral in character. It may have been merely a pleaEant social call, without spir- itual purpose or result. Even such a call is better than none, for it reveals at least a certain amount of interest and helps to create a bond! between church and home. Or it may have been a perfunctory call about church matters. I wonder if most of our calls have not been of this type: we come hurriedly to invite children to Sunday-school or parents to church. In many homes repeated invitations go unheeded because there is little spiritual interest, such as might have been aroused by a genuine pastoral call. At times, where it appeared appropriate, as in a sick-room or among the aged and the infirm, we went so far as to read a passage of Scripture, often chosen at random, and closed with prayer. Now, this can prove a great blessing; but I have known pastors who let this suffice, even for the mortally sick and dying! This was the extent of their individual soul-care. Such sad neglect is not representative of Lutheran pastoral care among the sick, however, for at the sick- and death-bed the Lutheran pastor stands without a peer. In this respect Goldsmith's touching description of a faithful pastor in The Deserted Villuge applies to him. But our individual soul-curacy otherwise has often been very supedicial and inadequate. May I here quote from Dr. Sverre Norborg: "Superficial Christian soul-care is no weakness; it is a bloody crime. Some day it will perhaps be avenged in a drastic manner." - "If it is criminal negligence on the part of a doctor to rush like a nonsensical tourist through the wards of his patients, such a hurried 'have-no-time' attitude on the part of a rep- resentative of Christian soul-care is an unforgivable sin. It is here that the greatest challenge comes to the Christian ministry of souls from untiring, thorough psychiatrists. The criminal negligence, day out and day in, on the part of men called pastors is a shame." (Varieties of Chris- tian EJ.."Perience, pp. 218, 216.) The reasons for this tragic neglect may be many. It may be the residual influence of the early Lutheran theologians who restricted pri- vate care to the confessional and the sick-room, to which they needed an invitation. It may be due to a transplanting of the official, perfunctory 5 66 church-life of the European state churches to American soil. An excuse has been found in the validity and efficacy of the means of grace. We have not always understood the tremendous importance of it nor realized our grave responsibility. Some of our congregations have been too large for an effective soul-ministry. Right here it might be well to question the wisdom of ever striving for bigger churches, as if bigness of itself were the true criterion of success. I am afraid we have had a mania for numbers; we are flushed with statistical fever. No pastor, however able, can do intensive soul- curacy for 2,000 members. Rather than keep on admitting new members into the fold, when we cannot take care of those we already have, would it not be better to organize new congregations under new shepherds? The only alternative would be to increase the working force. Journal of the American Lutheran Conference, June, 1939 "Dealing with the Individual in Soul-care," by Henry Westby Presidential Masons. - Under this heading Time (Aug. 21, 1939) replies to the inquiry of a reader: "I have recently heard from both Masons and non-Masons that no man will ever go to the White House who is not a 32d-degree Mason. If true, here is a political factor far more important than the Legion. How many of our Presidents have been Masons, and how do the prospective 1940 candidates stand in this re- spect?" as follows: "Of the thirty-one U. S. Presidents twelve have been known Masons: George Washington (Past Master), James Monroe, An- drew Jackson (Grand Master), James K. Polk (Royal Arch), James Buchanan (Past Master), Andrew Johnson (32d Degree), James A. Gar- field (14th Degree), William McKinley (Knight Templar), Theodore Roosevelt, William H. Taft, Warren G. Harding (33d Degree), Franklin D. Roosevelt (32d Degree). (Whether Thomas Jefferson and James Madi- son were Masons is a moot question. Of the 1940 Presidential possibili- ties, Masons are Thomas Edmund Dewey, Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg (32d Degree), Paul Vories McNutt (32d Degree). No Masons are Robert Alphonso Taft, James Aloysius Farley, John Nance Garner, Cordell Hull, Harry Lloyd Hopkins." This bit of information may be interesting to our readers at this time, when Freemasonry has encountered so much opposition on the part of governments that regard it as so very dangerous to the welfare of the State that in their view absolute elimination is the only measure of pro- tection against it. J. T. M. Rome in Scandinavia. - The Lutheran lately called attention to Catholic hopes of reconquering Scandinavia. In Sweden, where legal restrictions were removed sixty years ago, Catholics today number 33,800; in a population of 6,000,000 this means 1 in 180. In Denmark, Catholics number 26,400, 1 in 140, with 16 native priests; in Norway 3,000, about 1 in 967. The Lutheran closes its article thus: "There's no law against being hopeful if it makes them happy." All the same, may these Lutheran countries be on their guard - and read history! Catholics are going at their work in the old accustomed way: first a finger, then the hand, then the arm, etc. In 1923 the nuns of the Order of St. Bridget, Sweden's medieval saint, exiled since 1595, were asked to take part in 67 a purely secular celebration in honor of the saint; presumably they stayed, for around the cult of St. Bridget, Catholics are now centering their work. Just so, in Norway, there is that old saint King Olaf, reputed founder of Christianity in Norway; Catholics are now looking around for a relic of Olaf to be used in a shrine. The Lutheran thinks: "It ought not to be hard to 'discover' one in some miraculous way." It's a beginning; and that's all they want - and all they need! H. The Indefatigable Church of Rome. - Under this heading the Sunday-school Times (November 11) quotes an article by F. C. Gibson in the Christian b-ishman, in which he sums up various forms of Catholic organizations that look toward control of individuals and governments in Ireland. Such are: the Catholic Council of International Relations, which keeps in touch with societies in various countries in order to insure concerted international action; the Grail, conducted by Belgian nuns with a view to teaching non-Catholic young women of the better classes; the Guild of Ransom, organizer of outdoor processions and spectacular displays, especially in Protestant communities; the Catholic Aid Society to help ministerial converts to the Church of Rome; the Catholic Truth Society, a publication propaganda society; the Catholic Evidence Guild, whose members lecture in public parks and many more. Among other methods of Catholic ",tion is the "capture of labor" by securing strategic positions in the labor world, which may be used to supplant Protestant labor by that of Roman Catholics. So complete is the organization in this respect that a Roman Catholic laborer in the west of Ireland, through his local priest, can obtain a place in Scotland before he leaves his native district. In this way manual labor and domestic service are increasingly getting into Roman Catholic hands, with effects detrimental to Protestantism. Increasing efforts are made to increase Roman Catholic population. Very young people are urged to marry. Nazareth homes and Orphanages are used to capture children of Protestant families. In thousands of homes the presence of Catholic maids or men servants negatives Protestant votes. In some places committees of Catholic women seek to introduce young Protestant men into Roman Catholic social circles in the hope of an eventual Catholic marriage. Every possible means is employed by the Church of Rome to break down the Protestant Sabbath, which in the past has been one of the greatest bulwarks of Protestantism. Dance-halls are springing up all over the county (Ulster), licensed for use on the Sabbath, and many of these are frequented by non-Catholics. This is one of the most prolific causes of mixed marriages. Papistic propaganda in Ireland, as here demonstrated, is essentially the same as that carried on in our own country. The Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation is still on and becoming increasingly effective as faithless Protestantism apostatizes from the divine truth. To us who still value the pure Gospel the Catholic Action must be an incentive to witness the divine Word all the more zealously; this, after all, is the only safe method to halt the carefully planned and executed offensive of antichristian Rome. J.T.M. 68 Theological Observer - ~ird)Hd)=8eitgefd)td)tIld)e~ The "Christian Beacon's" Comment on "Snmmi Pontificatns."- The Christian Beacon (November 2) contains the following editorial on the first encyclical letter of Pope Pius XII, known by its first words as Summi Pontificatus. It writes: "Pope Pius XII, in his first encyclical, has appealed to all who call upon the name of Jesus Christ to join with him in opposition to totalitarianism in the state. There is a sense in which he feels that he is speaking for the entire visible Church. What is more significant is that in the wide-spread comment, editorially pub- lished in the daily press, by the general approval given to the principle which he enunciates, subconsciously and psychologically, Christians of other bodies are drawn into a closer feeling for the Pope. There is the feeling that there should be some one who can speak for all Christians. Rome has that some one. Other differences and variances dwindle into insignificance in the minds of these men as they place their eye upon the greater enemy. This, in our opinion, of course simply points the way clearly to that which is revealed in Scripture as true of the end time. The tendency of union among the Protestant churches follows logically and naturally the path of union represented by Rome, a tendency which will find its complete issue in reunion with Rome and the establishment of one voice. This will be the picture of the harlot Church that opposes the dictators, the Beast, as revealed in Revelation. However, tn; Protestants, that is, those who believe in individual liberty of conscience as taught in the Scriptures, will give careful thought to the appeal of the Pope. At basis his appeal is simply that one conception of totali- tarianism will not tolerate another conception of totalitarianism; that is, a totalitarian Church which is represented in the infallible Pope and the authority of Rome cannot brook a totalitarian State which is represented by dictators. There is no room for a totalitarian Church where there is a totalitarian State. Neither is there room for a totalitarian State where there is a totalitarian Church. The two totalitarianisms are equally exclusive. No man can serve two masters. The Protestant, however, is opposed to both. He is opposed to totalitarianism whether it is found in the Church or in the State. He wants the liberty wherewith Christ hath made him free." This is substantially what Luther writes in regard to the Pope in Article IV, "Of the Papacy," in his famous confession ''The Smalcald Articles." Luther there rejects the assumption as untrue that the Church could be unified under the Pope, accepted as such ito'C humano. He writes: "Nevertheless, even in this way Christianity would not be helped, but many more sects would arise than before"; and then he bursts forth into the glorious confession: "Therefore the Church can never be better governed and preserved than if we all live under one head, Christ, and all the bishops, equal in office (although they be unequal in gifts), be diligently joined in unity of doctrine, faith, Sacra- ments, prayer, and works of love, etc." (Triglot, p. 472 f.) It is this union which Protestantism must seek today if it wishes to be pre- served; any union with Rome is bound to lead to its destruction. J.T.M. 69 Tenth Anniversary of the First Humanist Society. - In Manhattan, New York City, the First Humanist Society, led by Dr. Charles Francis Potter, "one-time Baptist, one-time Unitarian, one-time Universalist" (d. Time, November 6), celebrated the tenth anniversary of its founding. Religious Humanism, as Time points out, must be distinguished from Literary Humanism, championed by Walter Lippmann, Irving Babbitt, and Paul Elmer More some years ago. Substantially it is not new, for non-supernatural beliefs have been preached ever since atheism rejected the specific creed of Christianity and substituted for its mysteries of doctrine a faith that is thoroughly man-centered. Humanist Potter's religion is entirely man-centered and God-denying. At its tenth birthday the First Humanist Society dedicated itself to the following causes: birth control, group health, euthanasia (mercy-killing), the abolition of capital punishment, eugenics, and calendar reform. Personally its leader is deeply interested in the study of extrasensory perception, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, prophecy, and the like. Humanist Potter thus proves the inefficiency and superficiality of man's religious thinking apart from revealed religion as set forth in the Bible; apart from God's Word perverse human reason finds no worth-while program for ecclesiastical activity. Of Dr. Potter, Time writes: "It has been Dr. Potter's custom to brighten his services by such devices as using rosebuds to baptize babies. He has made his Humanists work at their rather insubstantial faith by devoting themselves to self-improvement (through art, music, etc.) and to human improvement through cooperation with 'progressive' organizations. Hence Dr. Potter chose, from among 20-odd causes recommended to Humanists, the six rosebuds represented at last week's meeting." We mention this humanistic sect because very easily Religious Humanism may be confused with Literary Humanism, the representatives of which, it may be said, are likewise basically godless. J.T.M. Mixed l\>iarriages. - The Board of American Missions of the U. L. C. has completed a study showing the effect of the marriage of Lutherans to non-Lutherans in relation to continued active membership in the Church. The News Builetin (N. L. C.) reports as follows: "Of the 3,101 marriages reported by one member of the staff the greatest number, 806, were found to be Lutheran-Catholic, followed by the marriage of Lutherans to unbelievers, 568, and Lutherans to Metho- dists, 519. In most cases less than Ys of the once Lutheran parties retained their connection with the Church, 'not only to the Lutheran Church but with any other communion as well.''' Of 806 Lutheran-Catholic mixed marriages 68.1 per cent. are not now affiliated with any church; of 519 Lutheran-Methodist, 75.3; of 304 Lutheran-Baptist, 71.1; of 300 Lutheran Presbyterian, 69.3; of 207 Lutheran-Episcopalian, 72.9; of 59 Lutheran-Congregational, 83.1; of 46 Lutheran-Evangelical, 65.3; of 292 Lutheran-sects, 62.7; and of 568 Lutheran-unbelievers, 62.5 per cent. While these statistics are not an absolute criterion, the findings nevertheless show, as also similar studies have shown, that mixed mar- riages are a positive danger to continued membership in the Church. 70 Theological Observer - ~ird)ndH3eitgefd)id)tIid)eg However, defections from the Church are due not only to mixed mar- riages. The same study, covering 31,969 marriages, brings out the follow- ing interesting facts: Of 6,763 Lutherans in active membership in 14.3 per cent. marriages one party was of another religious affiliation; of 5,725 Lutherans not in active membership in 62.8 per cent. marriages both parties were Lutheran. Of 19,481 married couples with church- membership in various denominations 19.6 per cent. were of different religious faiths. F. E. M. !)10m nub bie @illf)ctt her SIird;e. ~ie ,,&. @. 2. S\'.", bie nun wieber bon ber iT/aai."megierung freigcgeoen worben ift, fdjreibt in beaug aUf bie ®teUung mom£l au ben ,,i.ifumenifdjen Cfinigung£loeftreoungen im ~roteftanti£lmu0" ba0 {Solgenbe: ,,~n einem j80drag bon ~. [ongar, D. ~., in @enf iiber ,S\'atf)ortaitiit unb :bfumcniaitiit', ben ber Osservatore Romano aU03ug0weife wiebcrgab, wurbe bie ®teUung ber Iatf)oIifdjen Stirdje au ben iifumenifdjen @inigung0beftrebungen im ~roteftan±i£lmUi3 umriffen. SDcr mebner befdjiif. tigte fidj unter anberm mit ber 3ielfeJJung ber iifumenifdjen lBewegung, unter jffiaf)rung ber @igenad ber einae1nen Stirdjen eine iioer aUen fteljenbe neue @emeinfdjaft ljer3ufteUen. @r erfIiirte, baB bie failjolifdje SHrdje feine SDeutung anneljmen fann, nadj ber bie wefentIic1je Cfinljeit erf± wieberljer. gefterrt l1.Jerben miiBte. SDie Cfinljeit ber StireI)e befteljt feit [ljriftu0; fie fann H)rem jfficfcn nac1j n ic1jt 3crfti5rt werben unb nidjt berIorengcljen. ®ic Iebt in ber fatr)oIijc1jen Stircije unb bie fatljoIifdje StireI)e fann Datum bel: iifumcnifd)cn i$rage eincn naren unb tiefen ~nljaIt geben. S1aH)ori8itiit be" beuid linibcr(aIitiit. SlJie Ia±~oIifcf)e SHreI)e ~at bie i$iiljigfeit llnb lBerufung in fic1j, aUe WCen\cf)cn unb aUe j80Ifer in trljriftu0, in bem einen 2eili [ljrifti, ilu bereincn. S8cr Ulllftanb, baB ljeute grobe ~eiIe ber WCenfcf)f)eit, bai3 ljcif3i, aueI) gro[je ~eUe mcn\eI)!ic1jer lBcgabungen unb jffierte, fieI) au[jerljaIo biefet @inljeit ocfinbcn, nimm± ±atfi1cijheI) etwa0 ljinweg bon ber boflfommenen j8Ct" widlicljung unb CfrfiiITung bet ~lailjoIi3itiit. jffienn bie ruffi\eI)e :melt ljeute ,odljobo.!;' unb bie \fanbinabifeI)e ,.proteftantifdj' ift, fo ergilit lieI) l.larau5, baE einige djriftlidje jffierte, bie bei jenen j8iiffern befonber£l aU0gepriigt finb, l1.Jenigften0 aum ~eil ber {SiiIle feljlen. SDie jffiiebereinglieberung biefer j8iiI. fer in bie fatljolifeI)e @inljeit wi.irbe bie Slirdje in gewiffem Sinn fa±ljolifdjer maeI)en. ~n biefem 6inn wirb bie wieberbereinie SHrc1je einmal innerlidj reieI)er fein, a15 e0 bie romifdj~fatf)oIifeI)e SHreI)e beraeit 1ft. jffiieberbereini. gung bebeutet alfo nic1jt ein bIoBei3 &ufgeljen, (onbern bie jffiiel.lerljerf±eUung eine0 boITfommeneren @anaen, wobureI) aIle bereieI)er± werben." .\)ier ljaben wir 9tom0 flare, fc1jarfe &ntwort auf ben j)rotef±antifeI)en @ebanfen, cine "iifumenifeI)e t>;inignng" bet berfeI)iebenen Sl'irdjengemeinfc1jaften ljerbei3u~ fi.iljren mit ,,~aljrung bet @igenart ber einaeInen Sl'ireI)en". ®o etwai3 gilS! e0 fi.it bie ~apfmrc1je nic1jt. SDie riimifdje SHreI)e wm eben bie in e fen t I i dj e Sl'iteI)e fein, iuorin jeber @Iiebfc1jaft ljaben mUB, ber wirflidj ein [ljrift 1ein rom, eoen wel! nUt ber ~apft a15 ®tellberiteter [ljrifti auf Cfrben ~rager unb !Organ bes infpirierenben S)eHigen @eifte0 ift. Cfinen populus spiritua- lis, cine ecclesia invisibilis edennt mom nieI)t an. Cf0 gibt baljer bom romi" feI)en ®tanbpunft aui3 nUt etnen lJRobu0 aur S)erbeifiiljrung einet iifumenifeI)en Cfinigung, namliclj ben, baB man fidj ber ~utoritiit be£l ~apf±e£l untertlJirft. mom0 6teUung ift natiirIieI) arrogant. Unfinnig tiber aIle ID~af3en aber ift bie ber ±ljeoIogifc1j berlumpten protefiantifeI)en @emeinfc1jaften, bie eine 71 iifumenifcfje