Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 8-8 (Text)

I I Continuing LEHRE UNO WEHRE MAGAZIN FUER Ev.-LuTH. HOMILETIK THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLy-THEOLOGICAL MONTHLY Vol. VITI August, 1937 No.8 CONTENTS Page The Pastor and Youth. o. P. Kretzmann . _______________ . ___________________ . ___ ______ 569 Modern Psychiatry and the Bible. H. D. MellSing . ___________________________ 576 Jobann Gerhard aIs lutherisc:her Kirchenlehrer. 3. T. MaeDer . _____ 592 Outlines on the Eisenach Epistle Selections _ ____ ____ __ __ _ .______ .. __ _ G05 Miscellanea __ _ __ . _. _________ . ________ . _____ ._ .. _________ . __________ .. _____ ___ . _____ . __ _____ _ 615 Theological Observer. - Kirchlich-ZeitgeschichtIiches _________________ . ___ 622 Book Review. - Literatur _. ___ . _____________________________________________ __ _____ ._ 639 Ein Prediger muss nieht alleln toei- den, also dass er die Schafe unter- weise. wle sle reehte Christen soilen sein, sondern auch daneben den Woel- fen weh,.en, dass sie die Schafe nieht angreifen und mit falscher Lehre ver- fuehren und Irrtum elnfuehren. Luthe,. Es 1st kein Ding, das die Leute mehr bel der Kirche behaelt denn die gute Predlgt. - Apologle, Arl. 24. If the trumpet give an uncertain sound who shail prepare himself to the battle? - 1 Cor. 14, 8. Published for the Ev. Luth. Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States L CONCORDIA PUBLISHING HOUSE, St. Louis, Mo. 622 Theological Observer - .reitc9!id)~.8eit\lefc9icf)md)e!l Theological Observer - Sfirdjlidj • .8eitgefdjidjtIidje~ I. .2tmtrikll Is Pure Doctrine a Relative Concept? - Evangelisk Luthersk Tidende (March, 1937, Nos.5 and 7), under the headings "Ren Laere et relativt Begreb?" ("Is Pure Doctrine a Relative Concept?") and "Lutheraneren og Folkebladet om 'Verbalinspirationen'" ("Luthemneren and Folke- bladet on 'Verbal Inspiration' "), points out very strikingly how also within the "American Lutheran Conference" the· doctrine of verbal in- spiration is being assailed and discredited. The controversy began when Folkebladet, representing the enthusiastic, sectarian elements of the Norwegian Lutheran Free Church (Jan. 20, 1937), wrote the following modernistic nonsense: "Clear lines are not necessarily the same as pure doctrine; for this [pure doctrine] is a relative concept (relativt begreb); it is conditioned by the individual person's view and opinion (syn og mening). That which is pure doctrine in one place is not necessarily pure doctrine in another. No one had the truth revealed to him in such a way that, when he speaks, he speaks the truth itself. There is only One who could have said that, and He was more than a man. This concerns secondary things, even important secondary things. With regard to fundamental matters there must and will be unity, namely, in things on which life itself rests, both spiritual and bodily." - For this pernicious bit of perversion Lutheraneren (Feb. 3, 1937) took Folkebladet to task, though somewhat mildly, stating in substance that "it can hardly be possible that Folkebladet really believes anything like that." - Rev. J. E. Thoen, editor of the Tidende, thereupon pointed out (March 3, 1937) that the modernistic doctrine set forth in Folkebladet is precisely the same view on "pure doctrine" and "inspira- tion" which this periodical has always held and defended, a fact well known to Lutheraneren. In spite of this the United Norwegian Lu- theran Church joined hands with the Norwegian Lutheran Free Church and declared that they were united in faith and doctrine, so that they recognized each other as brethren in faith. Both synods were along with others in founding a federation of synods under the name The Amer- ican Lutheran Conference. Yet Folkebladet has not at all changed its position in doctrine and practise, but teaches now as before that "Chris- tianity must progress to clear knowledge of truth by reason, step by step, according as it finds the truth revealed in the course of history." Next Editor Thoen shows that Lutheraneren, too, has not always stood to its post in defending the principle of the absolute truth of the inspired Bible. This widely read paper has not only been indifferentistic with regard to the question of true unity, but has also set aside the Holy Scriptures as the only source and standard of faith and life by tolerating error and erroneous practise in the Norwegian Lutheran Church of America (the United Norwegian Lutheran Church), for example, by allowing women to speak and vote in the congregation. Much worse is the fact that in the United Norwegian Lutheran Church some ministers favor theistic evolution, and yet Lutheraneren has not properly supported Theological Observer - Sfitd)lid)~8eit\Jefd)id)tHd)es 623 those defenders of the Biblical truth who wrote against the evolutionary teachings of these outspoken Liberalists. So far Rev. J. E. Thoen's criticism in Tidende of March 3. In the mean while Folkebladet (Feb. 17), reacting upon Luthera- -nerlil'/t's criticism, explained and defended its statement that "ren laere er et relativt begreb." It wrote: "Yes, we do think that pure doctrine is very often a relative concept." The periodical thus remained impenitent, though it added: "But a distinction should be made between original and derived doctrine." (Italics our own; "oprindeIig og avledet Iaere".) With this strange explanation Lutheraneren declared itself satisfied, though it stipulated that it would not use the word relative in such a connection. Since it was thus made to appear that the disagreement eonsisted merely in a misunderstanding ("misforstaaelse"), Pastor Thoen (Tidende, March 21) makes the further charge that both periodicals in the final analysis reject verbal inspiration. This charge is based upon the words which Folkebladet uses in further development of its defense. Fol7cebladet said (and let us note the full implication of its words): "But that was not what we were thinking of (namely, that we acknowl- edge only part of God's Word) when we in this paper for January 20 wrote of pure doctrine as a relative concept. We were thinking of the human interpretations of the sacred truths. We were thinking of many points in that which is called theology. For the sake of clarity let us mention a few. We can take, for example, the doctrine that the Bible is God's Word, because Lutheraneren mentions that and the Church teaches it. It should be clear that the Church must hold fast to that truth; for if she gives it up, then her whole foundation is torn away; she annihilates herself. To be sure, the Catholic Church has almost given up this dogma, because it has subordinated the Holy Scriptures to 'tradition,' which it places above the Bible. It teaches indeed that the .Bible is God's Word, but that tradition is more God's Word than the Bible. Sometimes we have wondered whether the German theologians, the most prominent of whom are the Missourians, do not place their propositions or interpretations ("sine satser eller utlaeggelser") higher than the Bible. [What propositions or interpretations, please? And why this dig at Missouri in this uncalled-for manner?] But the Church, or the theologians, was not satisfied with the simple truth that the Bible is God's Word [a very unfair misrepresentation]. They began to ask how the Bible was God's Word [just that, too, the Bible teaches in ·clear words, which are quoted afterwards], and to this question came 'many answers. It concerns the question of inspiration. Questions can go out from such words ("Spoergerne kan gaa ud fra ord sam dette"): 'Holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.' Or this: 'All Scripture is given by inspiration of God' ("Den hellige .skrift er indblaest af Gud"). These are the principal proof-texts for the doctrine of inspiration. There are many other passages in Scrip- ture that speak of the same matter. But all expositors start out from the same words of Scripture. They are all believing Christian men . . Some come to the conclusion that the Scriptures are a dictation of the .Holy Ghost, and in explanation they form an answer that says: 'God's 624 Theological Observer - ~it~n~~.8eitgef~i~tn~es Spirit put into their minds [of the sacred penmen] what and with. which words they should speak and write.' Thus teach the Missourians. [We indeed teach verbal inspiration in the fullest sense of the term, but avoid the word dictation, since we do not teach that mechanical inspiration with which that term is commonly associated.] Thus teaches the Norwegian Synod [our brethren in the faith]. And thus also teaches Lutheraneren. But H. U. Sverdrup, who wrote the explanation most used in the Norwegian Church [of the old country] and also over here, struck out the words 'and with which words,' letting only 'what' stand. That is to say: The German theologians teach the verbal inspiration of the Scrip- tures, but H. U. Sverdrup does not. But he isn't alone in this. He has a large following. Mission Secretary Lars Dahle is agreed with H. U. Sverdrup. Dr. Sigurd Odland is also agreed with him. Likewise also, in the main point, are the teachers at the Menighedsfakultaetet and all the Norwegian bishops. A great number of other outstanding Lutheran theologians could be mentioned who do not favor the doctrine of in- spiration that Lutheraneren favors. Lutheraneren and the Missourians think that the theory of verbal inspiration is 'pure doctrine.' And the others hold that it is not 'pure doctrine.' Therefore the doctrine of verbal inspiration is a relative concept; but not that the Bible is God's Word [sc., is a relative concept]. In that they are agreed." So far Folkebladet. Rev. J. E. Thoen comments on this subtle piece of sophism thus: "From this and other things that Folkebladet mentions, we cannot under- stand anything else than that, because there are many different inter- pretations with regard to the inspiration of the Scriptures within the Church, we cannot be sure which is the correct or pure doctrine in the matter. Thus also with other doctrines, such as the doctrine of the Sacraments. It is not God's Word, or the Word of the Bible, that must decide what is correct or pure doctrine. It is not the Bible's clear, straightforward words and sentences which are the sure test for doc- trine. It is only human interpretation to teach that the word and sen- tences of Scripture are inspired. The revelation of truth occurs in another way than by the Word of Scripture, Folkebladet thinks. It says: 'We come nearest to the truth of a doctrine when we try it out in our lives and see what fruit it bears. That is the only certain test! Not in conferences and learned discussions, not in propositions, but in practise, the truth of a doctrine will be shown. Life is the test of doctrine.' [Italics our own.] With that Lutheraneren lets the matter rest. It is therefore agreed with Folkebladet. Certainty of the truth is found not by searching the Scriptures; it must be found in the experiences of life. It is not certain whether the Bible's Word is the correct and un- mistakable rule for true doctrine and life. The truth is revealed not by the Word, but by works. That is the doctrine of Folkebladet. And it satisfied Lutheraneren! How this can be Lutheran doctrine we do not understand. God's Word and Luther's doctrine is exactly the opposite." So far Editor Thoen. This controversy, we believe, is of tremendous importance, since it clearly shows the following facts: 1. The Lutheran synods making up Theological Observer - Ritdjrid),,Beitgefdjidjtlidjes 625 the American Lutheran Conference are certainly not agreed on the doctrine of verbal inspiration. 2. Within the American Lutheran Con- ference there are men who boastingly defend the same un-Lutheran, unbiblical, modernistic views against the true doctrine of Biblical in- spiration which Kantonen and others in the United Lutheran Church have held forth so persistently these last years. Folkebladet stands side by side with The Lutheran in repudiating the Biblical doctrine of verbal and plenary inspiration. 3. There are within the American Lutheran Conference voices that still champion the Lutheran doctrine of inspira- tion, but they are not as vigorous and insistent as they should be. 4. The sorry fate of those confessional elements that blindly walked into the disunion of the sham merger shows us what we must expect if we enter into a union with Lutheran synods which do not agree with us in doctrine. J. T. M. The New Strong Voice of Fundamentalism. - When from October 4 to 11, 1936, the San Gabriel Union Church of San Gabriel, Cal., dedicated its new church-building, its varied program of dedicatory services sounded a new, strong confessional note, such as has been heard but seldom during the last decade. The name Union Church is explained by the origin of the new congregation which had its inception in Sunday- school meetings of various fundamentalistic groups. The originally small band of confessional Christians, however, increased and expanded so rapidly that early in 1935 it decided to organize itself as a church and to erect its own church edifice. "The present new building is the result of vision, prayer, sacrifice, persistence, and indefatigable labor," writes the pastor of the church, the Rev. Roy L. Laurin. (Cf. Sunday-school Times, Feb. 13, 1937.) In the "responsive reading" of the "inaugural ceremony" the church-members pledged themselves as follows: "We dedicate ourselves to loyalty to the revealed Word of Holy Scripture, which is our only infallible rule of faith and practise, that it may be our sole guide in matters of faith and our instructor in matters of con- duct." But its main confessional declaration was set forth in its church bulletin, in a statement reading as follows: "This church has definite principles in regard to faith and practise. It desires itself to be known as a church that is upholding a standard and is not catering to favor [original italics]. This church is definitely fundamental and evangelical in its faith. It is l€d by an evangelistic, missionary, Bible-teaching min- istry. It is definitely committed to 'the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.' It believes in the Bible, in a day of varying shades of unbelief. It is not catering to public favor in order to secure a large membership. Its membership is secondary to its testimony and service. Its financial policy is the free-will offerings of its people, based upon 'proportionate' giving. It does not resort to questionable methods of church finance by church suppers and similar things. It has proved the wisdom of this policy through five years of depression without the need of reducing its budget and with the steady increase of its missionary giving. All these policies of faith and practise are to be carefully and jealously maintained when it moves into its new building." This cer- tainly is most refreshing contrasted with the distressing dust-storm plague of Modernism. J. T. M. 626 Theological Observer - .ITircf)ncf)~.8citgefC!)ic!)tncf)es Modernism Must Not Seek Finalities. - That is a fundamental mod- ernistic principle, laid down by Shirley Jackson Case, dean of the divinity school of the University of Chicago, in his recent book Highways of Christian Doctrine, according to a review by John Horsch in the Gospel Herald. Mr. Horsch writes: "Professor Case freely acknowledges the fact that the Liberals do not have positive doctrinal truth to offer. And not only does he make this admission, but he says it is a mistake even: to seek finalities. Seeking finalities, he thinks, will only lead to the final acknowledgment of error. He is aware that eventually it will be realized that Modernists, denying the authority of Scripture, have no valid ground for any doctrinal teaching. Professor Case contends that the remedy for the errors, the bankruptcy, of Modernism is more Mod- ernism. In other words, he thinks that the Modernists should cease giving their message the appearance of divinely revealed truth; they should freely and openly admit that they have no finalities to offer. Let us hope that this advice may be heeded. This book of Professor Case offers convincing proof that the radical religious Liberalism, as repre- sented by himself and many other professors in the theological semi- naries, is simply religious agnosticism, the denial of the knowableness of things divine. But is not the admission that the message of liberalism is one of religious agnosticism in itself a striking proof of bankruptcy? Or could any religious value be ascribed to a message of agnosticism? Robert G. Ingersoll, the eloquent agnostic, in passing, never made any claim of religious value of his message. On the contrary, he held that religious agnosticism means the bankruptcy of religion, including liberal religion. Pity the pretended Christian worker whose message is that of Robert Ingersoll! Pity the portion of the Church of America falling under the influence of religious Liberalism!" J. T. M. Dr. Klotsche Called Home. - It was with a pang of deep sorrow that we received the news of the death, at the age of sixty-one, of Prof. E. H. Klotsche, which occurred February 11 of this year. Having been educated in the Foreign Missions Seminary in Leipzig, he entered the Leipzig mis- sion-field in India and labored there till 1903. When he in that year came to America, it was his desire to join the Missouri Synod, with which he had become acquainted through reading Lehre und Wehre and through contact with our missionaries in India. His plan was frustrated,. and he took over a pastorate in the General Synod. Later on he served as professor of theology in the seminaries at Lincoln, Fremont, and, finally, at Maywood. He has become well known through several im- portant publications. A good musician himself, he wrote Luther's In- fluence in Song and Church Music. His chief work is Christian Sym- bolics, issued 1929, which excellently describes the various Christian church-bodies. In 1927 a valuable little work entitled Outline of History of Doctrine appeared from his pen, which he intended to supplement by another volume, The History of Christian Thought. The manuscript of this volume was almost finished when he was summoned hence, and his family hopes that it can be published. Those that knew him were aware of his love of the truth as taught in the Confessions of the Lutheran Church. Owing to his orthodoxy he was attacked now and then in his own church-body, the U. L. C., where he earnestly opposed doctrinal in- difference and Modernism. A. Theological Observer - .Ritd)lid)~2eit\1efd)id)md)es 627 Dr. C. C. Hein Deceased. - When Dr. Hein (1868-1937) on April 30 departed this life, conservative Lutheranism suffered a severe loss. Since the chief facts pertaining to his life and activity have been re- ported in Der Lutheraner and the Lutheran Witness, we shall here merely gratefully recall his soundness in the great fundamentals of our faith. Perhaps nowhere did this become more manifest than in the splendid testimony which he gave at the Lutheran World Convention in Copen- hagen in 1929. In his address he pointed out that whoever wants to be a faithful Lutheran must accept the Scriptures as inspired in their totality. Some of his words deserve being quoted again. "Warum diese Stellung zur Schrift? Weil dem Luthertum die Heilige Schrift in ihrem ganzen Umfang wie auch in allen ihren Teilen das vom Heiligen Geist inspirierte und darum lautere und untruegliche Gotteswort ist. Schrift und Gottes Wort sind ihm identisch. Der Heilige Geist ist ihm der Ur- heber der Schrift. Die Propheten, Evangelisten und Apostel sind ihm die Werkzeuge, deren der Heilige Geist sich bei der Abfassung der Schrift bediente. Nach Inhalt und Form hat der Heilige Geist den heiligen Schreibern eingegeben, was sie geschrieben haben. Und ist ihm auch der modus der Inspiration ein von der Schrift nicht geoffenbartes und darum fuer die Vernunft und die theologische Wissenschaft unloesbares Ge- heimnis, so glaubt es doch das in der Schrift bezeugte Wunder der In- .spiration, und alles, was die Schrift sagt, sowohl in Sachen des Heils wie in sogenannten Nebensachen, ist ihm untruegliches Gotteswort." With the same clarity he treated the doctrine known as sola gratia. "Das 'allein aus Gnaden' bezieht sich auf alles, was der Menschen Heil betrifft: die Erwerbung und Darbietung sowie die Annahme, Schenkung und Vollen- dung des Heils. Wie es clem Luthertum auf der einen Seite gewiss ist, dass Unglaube, Nichtbekehrung uncl endliche Verdammung in jedem Sinn einzig und allein des Menschen Schuld, so auf der andern, dass Bekehrung, Glaube und Seligkeit in jedem Sinn Gnadenwerk und Gnadengabe Gottes ist. Hier stehen wir VOl' einem Geheimnis. 'Der Selige,' sagt H. E. F. Guericke in seiner 'Symbolik' "(3. Aufi., S. 425), 'wird selig allein durch Gottes Gnade in Christo, ohne alles eigene Ver- dienst, der Unselige unselig durch eigene Schuld, weil er del' goettlichen Gnade fortwaehrend widersteht. Warum der Widerstand des ersteren gegen die goettliche Gnade endlich gebrochen wird, der des letzeren aber nicht, ist nicht des ersteren Verdienst, wohl aber des letzteren Schuld. Der Mensch jedoch' (auch der Theolog) 'mit seinem bloeden, durch die Suende getruebten Verstande vermag diese Tiefe der goettlichen Werk- statt nicht zu erforschen, und es ist groessere Weisheit, das goettliche Ge- heimnis anzuerkennen, als es gotteslaesterlich zu loesen.''' In reprinting and commenting on this address of Dr. Hein, Dr. Pieper said: "Auf dem Lutherischen Weltkonvent, der voriges Jahr in Kopenhagen versammelt war, ist das, was die Missourisynode von del' Heiligen Schrift und von der Bekehrung lehrt, vorgetragen worden, und zwar in rebus und zum Teil auch in phrasib1!s, wenn auch der Name 'Missouri' nicht erwaehnt wurde. Es geschah dies in einem V ortrage, der vom Praeses der Allgemeinen Synode von Ohio, Dr. C. C. Hein, VOl' dem Konvent in Kopenhagen ge- halten wurde. . .. Moechte dieser Vortrag in der amerikanisch-luthe- rischen Kirche und bei den Lutheranern der ganzen Welt volle Beach- 628 Theological Observer - .Rirc(jlic(j<,8eit\1efc(jic(jtlic(jell tung finden!" (Cf. CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL MONTHLY, I [1930], p.338.) Dr. Hein had a prominent part in the drawing up of the Chicago, or Intersynodical, Theses. The fact that he was taken from us at a time when again important intersynodical discussions are in progress and he was serving as a member of the committee of his Synod for such dis- cussions with other Lutherans, made us think of the words Dr. Walther wrote when the news of the death of Dr. Charles Porterfield Krauth reached him: "In Demut verehren wir Gottes unerforschliche Regierung bei diesem Todesfall. Meinten wir doch, dass der Herr unsere ameri- kanisch-Iutherische Kirche nun erst recht durch dieses hochbegabte Werkzeug segnen werde." (Lehre und Wehre, XXIX, p.32.) May the years to come show that Dr. Hein's arduous labors in behalf of conserva- tive Lutheranism were not in vain! A. Deaths. - In Leipzig, Prof. Hans Achelis, known as a church his- torian, died February 23, 71 years old. His chief work is said to be the book entitled Das Christentum in den erst en drei Jahrhunderten. - On March 6 Dr. Rudolf Otto of Marburg died. He had been the successor of the well-known scholar Wilhelm Herrmann. Otto is best known through his very popular work Das Heilige, which first appeared in 1917.-The director of the seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Altpreussen (Breslau), Pastor Lie. Friedrich Priegel, was taken out of this life March 1. - On March 17 Leipzig lost another well-known theologian, Dr. Franz Rendtorff, 76 years old. He had retired from active service at the university. His field was practical theology. He became well known as a leader in the Gustav-Adolf-Verein. - On March 9 the well-known philosopher and critic Paul Elmer More, pro- fessor in Princeton University, departed this life. He was classed as, a humanist. As editor of the Nation he became widely known in our country. A report says that he was a regular attendant at Protestant Episcopal services in Princeton and that, although he was not con- firmed, he died in the full communion of the Church. - From Germany comes the news of the death of Dr. Adolf Deissmann. He stood in the very first ranks of New Testament scholars and helped immensely toward a correct understanding of the Koine, the Greek of the time of Jesus and the apostles. His Licht vom Osten is just as authoritative as fascinating. - Mgr. Francis Kenninck, archbishop of Utrecht and primate of the Old Catholic communion in Holland, departed this life. He was much interested in World Conferences. - Dr. Caspar Wistar Hodge, Charles Hodge professor of systematic theology in Princeton Theological Seminary since 1921, died on February 26 in the Princeton hospital ot pneumonia. He was sixty-six years old. Dr. Hodge belonged to a famous family, which has been connected with Princeton Seminary more than one hundred years. His grandfather, Dr. Charles Hodge, his father, Dr. Caspar Wistar Hodge, his great-uncle, Dr. Archibald Alexander Hodge, like himself, were members of the seminary faculty. (The Pres- byterian.) Movie Supervision. - Representative Francis D. Culkin of New York has presented to Congress a bill to establish a commission with power to regulate phases of the motion-picture industry. The bill states:- Theological Observer - .Ritd)lid)~8eitllefd)id)md)e~ 629 "The selection and treatment of subject-material for motion-pictures, silent or talking, shall be in accord with public welfare, and no license shall be granted to motion-pictures- "First, which emphasize and exaggerate sex appeal or depict scenes therein exploiting interest in sex in an improper or suggestive form or manner." The bill goes on to forbid the issuance of license for pictures "based upon white slavery or commercialized vice"; those which thematically make "prominent an illicit love affair which tends to make virtue odious and vice attractive"; those "which exhibit nakedness or persons scantily dressed, particularly suggestive bedroom and bathroom scenes and scenes of inciting dances"; and those with scenes which "unnecessarily prolong expressions or demonstrations of passionate love." Stories with undue emphasis on the underworld, vice, gambling, or drunkenness, and those which might instruct the feeble-minded in the ways of crime are to come under the ban also. Furthermore, if the bill is enacted, no licenses will be issued for movies with stories or scenes ridiculing the army, navy, officers of the law, public officials, etc., or those which offend the religious beliefs of any recognized sect or are "disrespectful to objects or symbols used in connection with any religion." Finally, "salacious titles and subtitles ... and the use of salacious advertising matter, photographs, and lithographs" are basis enough for refusal to grant a license. (Living Church) Conditions in the Protestant Episcopal Church. - In a trenchant analysis Canon Bernard Iddings Bell, writing in the Living Church, portrays conditions as they exist at present in the Protestant Episcopal Church of our country, He tells his fellow-Episcopalians that church services are attended much less than used to be the case, that boys and girls from Episcopal homes often manifest lack of loyalty, that the intellect and dynamic quality of the clergy has deteriorated, that in spite of much talk about money, giving for the Church is decreasing, that the Low-churchmen, the so-called Evangelicals, have practically disappeared, that Broad-churchmen, formerly represented by leaders of the sort of Phillips Brooks, taken as a class, today do not possess religious power, that owing to a number of causes the prevailing mood in the Episcopal Church is one of respectable ostentation, and finally, that even the Anglo-Catholics are not exerting much influence. We have to quote a paragraph. "What the last quarter century's history of the Episcopal Church seems to show is, 1. that the Church has been on a worldly spree and is now very ill indeed; 2. that today, when the Church needs treatment tending toward spiritual recovery, it finds that old Doctor Evangelical seems to have died and that young Doctor Broad has hardly bothered to learn his trade. There is available only that funny chap whom people used to laugh at and finally permitted to settle in the neighbor- hood (provided he kept from bothering the neighbors), good Brother ,iI...nglo-Catholic; but he may have gotten so used to looking after his private practise as to have lost interest in the public health of the 630 Theological Observer - .reitd)1id)<.8eitgefd)id)md)e~ communion. If so, both he and the connnunion must share the blame. The Church's extremity, if only he sees it, is the Anglo-Catholic's opportunity. God knows we Anglo-Catholics are not alert to the im- portance of our job. We had better be. We can give the Episcopal Church that spiritual vitality necessary for its rejuvenation; but that only if we are truly Anglo-Catholics, willing to pay the price of self- oblation for the purchase of sufficiency." Continuing, he speaks of the danger of a schism. In an inter- esting way he describes how one hundred fifty years ago a schism rent the Anglican Church when Wesley and his followers, owing to "the incredible stupidity of the Anglican bishops and other clergy," became the founders of Methodism. The writer does not hold, however, that a schism will take place. Anglo-Catholics, he says, are not disposed to leave the old home. We quote once more:- "No, we Anglo-Catholics must and shall stay in, making ever more a bit of a nuisance of ourselves to all complacent people, everlastingly crying out for more religion; more sinners washed clean by the abso- lution of Christ; more people on their knees before a crucified King, present with them in the Sacrament; more devotion of beauty to His glistering loveliness; more adoration of Jesus Christ on His throne in heaven and in His most holy Sacrament; more reliance on the Holy Spirit and less on machinery; more fasting and discipline; more retreats and quiet days; more bishops who daily offer the Holy Sacrifice and say their offices and guard the faith; more priests who are poor men gladly; more spiritual comradeship and fellowship among the laity and less respect of persons; more of God and less of man's whimsies; more regard for the holy saints than for the leaders of contemporary 'society'; more chrism and less starch." This is a good portrayal of the ideals which the Anglo-Catholics cherish. How truth and error are here mingled the Lutheran theologian will readily see. We have quoted so extensively because in more than one respect what Canon Bell says contains lessons foI' us. A. Catholicism Bestirring Itself. - Most of us have read that Catholics in America are becoming alarmed about the future of their Church and have started what is called "Catholic Action" - a series of activities which are intended to check the tremendous losses which the Church is suffering. The first thing on the program of the people who are respon- sible for this movement is to teach the Roman Catholic Catechism more effectively. The Baltimore Catechism has been revised in its language and form so that now it is more usable. In the next place, Bible-study is to be sponsored among Catholics. To what extent they are playing with fire in contemplating to make their people more acquainted with Holy Scripture these protagonists do not seem to realize. Furthermore, there is to be more social study and activity in the various parishes; there are to be discussions and lectures, the youth are to be given recreation, and in this way greater interest in, and loyalty toward, the Church are to be fostered. Again, there are to be held "soap-box meetings" on the streets of New York, trained speakers addressing the passers-by on the merits of the Catholic religion. And, finally, the priests are to be trained Theological Observer - .Ritd)!id)<,8eit\1efd)id)tHd)es 631 more effectively and more in keeping with the many problems which the modern age presents. There is to be more insistence on independent thinking of the priests, and the suppression of initiative which is so characteristic of the education of the Roman Catholic clergy is to be warned against. That, however, superstition will still be permitted to reign freely is shown by a newspaper dispatch from a Franciscan monastery in Pater- son, N. J. We are told that there, with official Vatican seals, a repository for relics was discovered containing "the wood of the true cross of Jesus Christ, particles of wood from the table of the Last Supper, a particle from the tomb of the Virgin Mary, a particle from the cloak of St. Joseph, wood from the sign placed by the executioners over the head of Christ on the cross, wood from the pillar at which Christ was scourged, a frag- ment of the purple cloak thrown about Christ in mockery of His divine kingship, stone from the sacred sepulcher, a fragment of the tunic of Christ, wood from the crib of the nativity; first-class relics (particles of the body) of John the Baptist, Saints Joachim and Anne, the grand- parents of our Lord, of the apostles, St. Augustine, and many other saints and martyrs." The above information we obtained from an instructive article in the Christian Century on January 27, having the caption, "American Catholicism a la Mode." A. "Needed-a Disturbing Ministry."-In the Watchman-Examiner the Rev. Dr. R. K. Maiden of Kansas City, Mo., offers under this heading a most severe indictment of the present-day sectarian ministry of mod- ernistic hue. Beginning with the quotation "What damns the Church of our generation more than any other defect in its life is its inability 01' unwillingness to preach an adequate gospel [?] of repentance," he re- marks (we are quoting outstanding statements only): "A severe indict- ment, but who will dispute the justice of it? It is not in evidence that there is any serious purpose, any vigorous and sustained effort, on the part of the ministry to call the present generation to repentance and convict it of sin. While some - the wonder is that there are not more- are heavy-heartedly lamenting the fading 'sense of sin,' others are frankly expressing hope for the day to come when man will be fully and forever delivered from all sense of sin. One need not be cynical to discern the moral and religious down-grade drift wide over the world. No special gift of foresight or forethought is needed to make us aware of what confronts us. A subtle, sinister, paganistic philosophy is adroitly and in various disguises seeking to naturalize religion, seeking to detach it from its divine origin and empty it of its supernatural content. Succeeding in this, the next step proposed is the religionizing of Christianity, leaving us only a humanistic religion. Unless the signs of the times are misleading, we are living in a day of well-nigh universal moral apostasy. Never perhaps has moral delinquency among Christian people been so manifest and so general. We have religious organization and activity, but seem- ingly no connection with the current of divine power. We have 're- vivals' that do not revive. In the world's cold atmosphere churches are being chilled into impotency and 'frozen assets' by worldly-minded, world-serving members; waterlogged by sheer nonchalant worldliness 632 Theological Observer - .Rit~ti~',8eitgef~i~tli~e!l and complacent indifference. Church attendance by members is decreas- ing. Family and church discipline is disappearing. Family altars are the exception. Sabbath desecration is the rule. Suicides and divorces are multiplying. The crime wave rises higher and higher. Socialism and Communism eat their way into the very vitals of our national life. Atheism is organized and exerts a vigorous propaganda. The land is flooded with liquor. The nation is on a drunken debauch, with millions of church-members participes criminis. How far are the preachers re- sponsible for the spiritual impotence, the low moral and spiritual level to which so many churches haven fallen? Are they calling men to re- pentance? Are they crusaders and torch-bearers in the army of the Lord? Is there fire enough in the pulpit to create warmth in the pew? There is no proper place in the ministry for weaklings, doubters, strad- dlers, soft-pedalers, slackers. There is so much preaching that does not get below the surface. It will be both the purpose and the effect of a dis- turbing ministry to unmask sin, strip it of all disguises, and expose it in its naked reality. The disturbing preacher will smite hypocrisy. He will not fail to declare to lukewarm Christians Christ's estimate of them. He will not flinch from preaching eternal torment for the finally impenitent. It has been my honest endeavor to show that we are confronted by a moral and spiritual slump, tragic in its proportions, that the pale, despiritualized type of Christianity of our day is failing to arrest this paganistic drift, and that our spiritual leaders, the preachers, are failing in the task of turning the devastating tide." It will be well also for us to study this terrifying, but, alas! true picture of our present-day church conditions in order that we may do all we can that the Word of God, which alone is the panacea of the present atheistic pest, may exert its healing influences to the salvation of those who still care to listen to Christ's Gospel. J. T. M. The Enemy's Tribute. - Under this heading the Sunday-school Times (March 6) reports the following obituary tribute of Pearl S. Buck to the late Dr. Machen. We read: "Unrighteousness sometimes pays a high tribute to righteousness. Pearl S. Buck's remarkable tribute to the late Dr. Machen, in her article in the New Republic, was recently quoted here; but also another statement in her article is worthy of special note. This ex-missionary, while she was still a missionary of an evangelical board, publicly trampled under foot the most precious truths of Christ and the Gospel; yet she sees in Dr. Machen's uncompromising testimony some- thing of priceless value. She says: 'We have lost a man whom our times can ill spare, a man who had convictions which were real to him and who fought for those convictions and held to them through every change in time and human thought. He was worth a hundred of his fellows who, as princes of the Church, occupy easy places and play their church politics and trim their sails to every wind, who in their smug observance of the conventions of life and religion offend all honest and searching spirits. No forthright mind can live among them, neither the honest skeptic nor the honest dogmatist. I wish Dr. Machen had lived to go on fighting them.' It would be interesting to know what effect this dis- cerning evaluation of one of the great Christian leaders of our generation Theological Observer - .Ritcf)Hcl)~2eitgef cl)icl)tHcl)eii 633 will have upon the many Modernists and middle-of-the-road leaders who are blind to the evils which Dr. Machen so wholesomely exposed and who are truly characterized by the caustic words of a notorious foe of the Gospel." We regard Mrs. Buck's tribute to Dr. Machen as one of the finest that have been paid by friend and foe alike to the memory of the great Westminster leader. Certainly even unbelieving men and women despise the modernistic hypocrites, whose pragmatical sic-et-non position on religious questions must needs offend the common decency of all who still have left in themselves a modicum of ordinary honesty. It always pays to fight for the truth. J. T. M. Erie~ Hems. - The Presbyterian Church of America has been struck by another storm, owing to the unionism which has entered into the make-up of the organization. Prof. Allen A. McRae, teacher of the Old Testament, has resigned from the faculty, and three members of the board of trustees of the seminary have likewise handed in their resigna- tions. The trouble that Professor McRae complains of is that the other members of the faculty did not share, but opposed, his views on pre- millennialism, of which he is a sponsor. It seems the chiliasts will have to be eliminated before there will be peace. Another point of controversy pertained to the question whether Christians must altogether abstain from the use of intoxicating liquors. Professor McRae answered this question in the affirmative, and the other members of the faculty did not agree with him. This young denomination certainly is harassed by many storms. It has to learn that a compromising position will lead to disaster. The editor of the Christian Century complains of three red herrings drawn across the path of the unification of Christianity. They are the three slogans: "I believe in unity but not in union"; "I believe in unity but not in uniformity"; "I believe in cooperation but not in organic union." One justly asks whether these "red herrings" are perhaps not, after all, more real and important than that Fata Morgana unification which the Christian Century seeks to reach. It seems that the Federal Council Preaching Mission will have a second year. We read of a team in New York consisting of Dr. George A. Buttrick, Dr. George A. Truett, and Dr. Adolph Keller, whose efforts will be seconded by those of Mrs. E. Stanley Jones, Mrs. Harper Sibley, and Muriel Lester. Instead of growing in strength, the venture increases in weakness. The Presbyterian Church in the United States of America has a League of Faith, which recently met in Columbus, O. It was or- ganized to give "strong testimony to the doctrines and the polity of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. within the Church itself." One of its aims is "to work within the Church for the eradication of those ten- dencies which are destructive of her life and witness, such as anti- supernaturalism, destructive higher criticism, latitudinarian indifference to creedal standards, worldliness and materialism, bureaucracy and tyranny." The Presbyterian Church in the U. S. of America (Northern Presby- terians) carries on extensive mission-work among the Indians of our 41 634 Theological Observer - stitd)Hd)~.8eitgefd)ic9tIicges country. A recent report shows that this endeavor comprises 130 churches with 39 preaching-stations, with a total membership of ap- proximately 7,000 Indians, who represent more than forty different tribes. There are 83 full-time missionaries, of whom 53 are native min- isters and lay workers and 28 ordained white ministers. In his inaugural address the new president of Princeton Seminary, Dr. John A. Mackay, spoke of the attempts made by thinkers to find some basis for a satisfactory W eltanschammg. He thinks that since the war three prominent tendencies can be distinguished. "Albert Schweitzer proposes a metaphysical world view, inspired by the rationalism of the enlightenment, which shall have at the heart of it the ethical principle of reverence for life. Jacques Maritain and his friends, following in the steps of the great Cardinal Mercier and thinking from within the Roman Catholic tradition, propose a return to the Christian philosophy of Thomas Aquinas. The third representative figure is Karl Barth. Agonizing amid the silence of the Swiss mountains, not far from the thunder of the guns on three frontiers of his native land, and deeply concerned about the source of an authoritative word for his simple parishioners, Barth went back to the Reformation and to Holy Scripture, very especially to St. Paul." He should have added that Barth, in proclaiming the message of Paul, makes considerable subtractions and alterations. Dr.lVIackay finds the solution of the problems confronting society in theology, "great theology, theology that brings to a focus the rays of light that stream from above in Jesus Christ along the line of the vertical and continue to come to us through Him, and that transmits these rays, as undimmed as possible, to every sphere of life and thought across the wide plain of the horizontal," - a statement which cannot be ac- cused of suffering from too much clarity. The Watchman-Examiner reports: The campaign for a one-million- dollar memorial fund for the late Dr. J. Gresham Machen has been launched. Sponsored by the Presbyterian Church of America, the fund will be devoted to Westminster Theological Seminary, providing the chapel, dormitory, classrooms, a library, and the five-hundred-thousand- dollar endowment required by the State of Pennsylvania of an educa- tional institution before it can grant degrees. The Manchester Guardian Weekly, discussing Italy's course in Africa, says: "It is Mussolini's policy to proclaL1'll himself the Defender of Islam." He is quoted to have said: 'Italy wishes to show her sympathy to Islam and to the Moslems of the whole world.' The Moslems are said to have been promised special privileges, while the Coptic clergy has been told: 'If these embarrassments [lack of support] are not stopped by you at once, the Italian government will have to annihilate you alL'" To show that they are not trifling, the Italians are said to have executed Bishop Petrus early this year. The Allgemeine Missionsnach1·ichten state that in Abyssinia mission- aries will be permitted to return to their stations if in former years they did not carry on propaganda against Italy and did not prove through their attitude that they are "unfit for the work of Christian mission- aries." Weare told that this in principle permits the Hermannsburger Theological Observer - stitcl)lid)',{)eitgefd)id)tHd)es 635 Mission to continue its work. As to the correctness of this report we do not presume to judge. Palestine, according to one of our exchanges, now has 1,263,136 in- habitants, of whom 778,615 are Mohammedans, 336,176 Jews, 107,242 Christians, and about 11,000 adherents of other religions. Formerly the Christians were second in strength. Now, however, through the rapid increase of the Jewish population, Christians constitute a poor third. A. QlciYt ltnb SDenfnl't bct ~~iiringer SDcutjd)Clt ~fjtiften. linter bieier uocrfdjrif± oetidj±e± bie ,,~. @. 2. ,<;t." cine !Reil]e bon ~usf1Jriidjen, l1.Jomit fidj bie logenannten SDeutfdjen 0:ljrif±en, aumeif± l}Sfarter, in le~±et :8eit bor aUet jillelt liidjetHdj gemadj± ljaoen. :BUt S1ennacidjnung bet SDeu±fdjen,~ljtiften~ 'Eel1.Jegung aitieren l1.Jil: einige, bie fidj aUf {rtagen oeaiel]en, bie un~ lutlje~ rifdjen ~ljriften l]ietaulanbe bon oefonberem :;snteteffe finb. jillir fefen u. a.: ,,'Ig l1.Jitb nodj cinmal 15U einer gan15 fdjl1.Jeten ~weinanbetfe~ung lommen mit ber fatl]olifdjen Sf'irdje. 6ie ift ber gtiif3±e {reinb bes WationalfoaiaIis, mus. SDenn bie S1a±l]oIifen ljaoen cine gana anbere jilleltanfdjauung. ®ie nd)11lcn b(,ll ganaen IDeenfdjen toial in 'Eefdjlag, unb bas barf nur ber 6taat. 6teflen 6ic fidj bor, es giot l]eu±e, l] e ute, noel] cine fatljoHfdje Sfltr±Ur, fatljoHfdje IDeufH, failjoHfdje ®djulen I SD~ mUf3 faUen. Eu±ljet~ gtof3e reformatotifdje )ta± oeftanh barin, bat er un~ fteigemadjt ljat bon bet ratljoIifdjen jilleItanidjauung, bat er gefagt ljat: ,SDet IDeenfdj geljiirt iotal bem ®iaa±. Wnr e r ljat illier iljn au o eftimmen. , SDatum ljai audj Euiljet ba~ gefamte Sfirdjenl1.Jefen bem ®iaat iioergeoen. SDas ifi edjt Iutryerifdje .l3eryrc I 52utljer l1.Jiirbe fidj ljeute breimaI, nein, acljnmal im ®tao ljerum, brd)en, luenn et edeoen 1uiirbe, l1.Ja~ bie 'Eefenntnisfront au~ iljm gemadjt ljat." ~ier ltJ>irb aIIe~ CIl cf djidjUidje aUf ben Sfopf geftelli unb audj nidj± ber getingfie ffieltJeis aUt @;rljiiriung ber faft ltJaljnfinnigen ffieljauptungen georadjt. Widjt barlioct, ltJa~ bie mefenn±nisftont illiet .l3uiljer Ieljrl, fonbern barilliet, h:las foldje SDeu±fdjen ~ljtiften, ltJie lie ljier au jillor± tammen, in bie )!Rert ljineinIiigen, mUll fidj (ltJenn e~ l1.JidHdj fo ettD~ giioe) .l3utljer breitnaI obn audj ileljnmar im CIlrab ~erumbreljen. jillas ljier lioer .l3uiljcr aui3~ gelagt tnrrb, ift iljm natiirndj audj nie im 5trallm eingefallen. Wodj fdjIim, mer ift freiHdj, l1.J.a~ "l}Sfarrer" ®djiUing am 11. IDeiira 1937 in ber ®djroi.3fiJ;C~e in (3tutigart fagte, niimlidj: "SDer 6ieg tmtD unler, unb bie meformation 1nirb ber61eidj'en gegen bas jillerf ber SD.~~.~ffieltJegung. SDa~ ~(nnegen 2utljer~ ,@eredjtigfeit au~ bem ®rauoen' liegt un~ ljcute fern, ltJeiI IlJ·it nidjt burdj bie ~ngftfdjure Des Sfa±ljoIiai5mu~ gegangen finb. @;~ ift be~ljaro dne ~erfiiIf ctjung ber !Reformation, l1.Jenn bie Sfirdje ljeute fotberi, baf) man an ben ~erfii~nun(Jston ~ljrifti gIauoen milffc, um feHg au tuerben (ltnterftric~m am {runnort). 9'le6en ber ~utoritiit ber @5djrif± fteljt fel)on oei .l311±~er bie bon metnunft unD @eltJiffen. jillir inoUen feine Organifation, fonbern CIlemeinfdjaft bar CIlo±±. IDean f1Jiiri, baB @ot± fe16ft im bcutfdjen morf bie ®lauoensgemeinfdjafj: oaut." Wodj fdj1itnmer ift bas Wiidjfte: "l}Saurll~ ljat aUcrbing~ ben eltJigen ~~riftu~ burdj bie jiibifdje jilleItanfdjauung gefeljen. jillir fiinnen ~riftus ljeu±e nidj± m1.ber~ feljen aIs burdj bie natio~ naIfoaiaIiftifdje jilleIianfdjauung. :!lie ffiefenntni~ftont ljat audj ben eltJigen ~~riftus, aoer fie fielj± iljn burdj bie jiibiidj'lJauIinifdje romanilc~c unb 636 Theological Observer-~hdjHd)~8eitgefdjtdjmdjes f,pieBoiirgerIidjc ?mertanfdjauung unh mill i~n nidjt fe~en reruen burdj Die nationalfoataliftifdje ?meItanfdjaultng. ~a§ ift i~r {Ye~Ier." @erabeau got~ ±e§Iafterlidj ift enbIidj ba§ {yolgenbe: ,,~a§ groBe, ~eiIige beutfdje IDCa~r. ... ;sn ben nadjften IDConmen forI an beftimmten @5onntageu in jeber {yamiIie etn ~intopfgeridjt gerodjt merben, fdjIidjt um fdjIidjt burdj aUe @5tanbe ~in~ burdj. ?mare ein foldj ~emge§ IDCa~f nidjt bief munberbater af§ ha§, mM ltlir burdj @5djufh einer {Ye~len±micnung ber djriftridjen SWrdje ~eute af§ ein ~intet1nertridje§ IDCiraM ~aoen?" @emeint ift ~ier nmiirlidj ba§ ~emge Wlienbma~r, ]0 baB ~ier bie§ groBe m = ~unl> lleutfdiet miibel. 638 Theological Observer - ~itcf)ncf)~,3eitgefcf)id)mcfJe~ str~ptogramm fur un§ tuidjtig, treir e§ un§ lietreift, bat f djon um ba§ :;5aljr 225 p. C. n. fidj in bem entfernten 5Dura<~uropo§ eine griif3ere CEljriften~ gemeinbe liefanb. \!Cber nidjt nur in 5Dura<'~uropo§, fonbcrn audj feloft in ~ompcji, tro man lJcie§ lli~ptogramm an atrei berfdjiebenen @SteIIen gefun~ ben ljat, JJottJoljl ja Mefe @StaM fclj'on 79 n. CEt)I:. lmrdj bie Eabamalfen be§ mefub§ berfdjiittet trurbe, luar ba§ CEljriftentum oefannt. ~§ gao fdjon bor bem :;5aljre 79, ttJie bet itaHenifdje Wrdjiiolog moHi liereit§ im :;5.aljre 1862 urteiIte, in ~JJ111peji "CEljdf±enljiiufer". )lEa§ un§ bie§ SlrLjpiogrn111111 af§ etn fpeaififdj djriftHcljc§ au edennen gili±. ift bic 5tatfadje, ball e§ ttei§ bon ben mUdjftaben Alpha unb Omega umrrana± ift, unb biefe oeiben griedjiidjen mlldjftaoen befignieren ia ben etlJi[len CEljriftu§. noer ba§ llit)piogramm f cloft fdjreili± ,,5Da§ ~ban[leHfdje 5Delltfcljlanb": "LtoeraII in bee djrifHidjett )lEert, bon ~nglanb lii§ seleinafien unb sfrg\JlJ±en, linben luir iene§ ma[lif cljeQuabrat aus lateinifcljen )lEi:irtern. mrs jett fonnte man bie :;5nfdjrift allriicfberfofgen ois in ben ~tnfang bes britten djriftridjen :;5aljrljunberts. man fanb bie :;5n~ fdjrift namIic1) in einer artdjriftHcljen :itauffa)JeIIe in 5Dura~~1ltopOS am ~llprJrnt, am iJrorbranb bon @S~rien. 5Die Wlls[lrabun[len bon ~ompeii faflen je~t bie :;5nfdjrift lncfentridj roeiter auriicfberfofgen. 5Die :;snfdjrift oeaellgt, baf3 fdjon etn ljaroes menfdjenartcr nadj CEljrifti :itob CEljriften in ~ompeii geleM ljaben. 'Dcr Eeiter ber ~lus[lraoungen in ~ompeji, bcr lJeruljmte ~[rdjaorog 5Della CEorte, ljai au bem ~unh in 4.l0lripeji tie ~rfIatun[l aoge~ geoen: )lliir rooen mit [lutem (ljrunb ben cursus publicus ber miimer, aUf bem