Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 7-7 (Text)

tt speed and by what route. But they need not be agreed upon all the topics of which they lllay talk by the way!' (Is the editor talking to the point?) "We should be glad to walk with Professor Sasse and with all the others who hold the creeds that he holds and to talk with them as we go of these high lllatters about which we do not agree. It might be, if they did not too soon cast us from their company for that lack of agreement, we might together make some progress toward the goal which we naively seek and which they also must at least desire .as a station on their pilgrimage-the making of the world a better 542 Theological Observer. - .!titC!)licf).{jeitgelcf)iC!)tlid)es. place for those WI10 live in it." - There it is: the chief thing, the first and last thing, on the program of the liberal churches is this-worldliness- the very thing against which Professor Sasse has been holding out from the beginning. E. Men, Masters, and Messiahs. - Under this striking heading Time (April 20, 1936) presents a variegated, if not formidable, array of cultists and fanatics that recalls to one's mind the somewhat severe, but neverthe- less trne line of the old German Reformation hymn: "Viel Sekten und viel Schwaermerei auf einen Haufen kommt herbei." - In Calumet, Mich., during the week of Easter, Father Joseph Alderic Paquet of St. Ann's Homan Catholic Church, having unlocked the tabernacle of his altar and uncovered a ciborium to distribute the consecrated host, discovered to his amazement three fresh roses, all "moistly spotted with what appeared to be blood." Father Paquet called the occurence mysterious, if not miraculous. - At Ohio State University a Jewish Rabbi, a Catholic priest, and a Methodist minister jointly conducted Holy ~Week services designed to allay the wide-spread Christian conviction that Jews alone were re- sponsible for crucifying Jesus Christ. Certainly all three were crucifying Christ anew during the Holy Week of 1936. - On Good Friday, near Albuquerque, N. Mex., Los Hermanos Penitentes reenacted their bloody version of Christ's Passion with increased attention from sightseers and the Press. - In Quebec, Can., Good Friday was celebrated as a national holy-day, Mayor J. E. Gregoire ordering all theaters, public buildings, shops, etc., to be closed for the day. The citizens were directed to observe at four o'clock in the afternoon a minute of holy silence, whilc the city fire alarm pealed nineteen times. - In Rome, where Pope Pius XI re- mained in ailing privacy, Easter was the quietest in years. - In Moscow sixty thousand staunch Christians, mostly old men and women, packed the city's twenty-eight surviving churches to celebrate the feast of Christ's resurrection in spite of the fury and mockery of atheistic propagandists_ - ~I\.t the same time, on the morning of Easter Day, in Ollerup, Denmark, the Rev. Dr. Frank Nathan Daniel Buchman lay abed for an hour in the Hotel Gymnastik "to receive the orders of the day from God." Afterwards, in the private stadium of Physical Culturist Kiels Bukh, he held what he expected would turn out to be the Oxford Group's "greatest house party." Bad weather, however, cut the attendance to about fifteen thousand persons. In the spaciou8 stadium the United Lutheran Church pastor, inventor and promoter of what is commonly known as Buchmanism, preached to his large audience: "I challenge Denmark to be a miracle among the nations, her national policy dictated by God. . .. Denmark can demonstrate to the nations that spiritual power is the first force in the world. The true patriot gives his life to bring about his country's resurrection. All those who oppose God's control are public enemies." To his "first-century Christian fellowship" Buchman found the Danes very receptive. Among his converts he could count Dr. Hans Fuglsang Damgaard, primate of the state church (Lutheran); Dean Brodersen of the Cathedral of Copenhagen; Director Gunnar Gregersen of the National Technological Institute, the world-famous physical culturist Niels Bukh, etc. Buchmanism's prime idea is that the world needs a "moral and spiritual awakening," on the basis of absolute honesty, absolute purity, absolute Theological Observer. - .Ritd)lidJ<3ettgefd)id)tfid)es. 543 unselfishness, absolute love. Frank Buchman was born fifty· eight years ago in Pennsburg, Pa., of a Pennsylvania Dutch distilling family. He studied at Muhlenberg College, at Mount Airy Theological Seminary, became a Lutheran pastor, did welfare work for Lutheran boys at Over- brook, Pa., quarreled with the trustees of his hospice, went to England with a bitter heart, had a "stirring, heart-warming religious experience" in 1908, in a rural English church, received new spiritual powers, which enable him to "probe" souls and "cleanse" them by extracting confessions, invaded British and United States colleges, became famous for his "house parties," persuaded people publicly to "share" their sins, - mostly, as 'l'ime remarks, misdeeds of a sexual nature. Buchmanism "radiates .good fellowship." The founder laughs a great deal, often signs his letters "Yours merrily, Frank," declares the letters P-R-A-Y to stand for "Power- ful Radiograms Always Yours." Buchmanism, now about twenty years ·old, still rallies around one man. Rom Landau in his book, just off the press, God Is My Adventu1-e (Doubleday, Doran) calls Frank Buchman "the most successful and shrewdest revivalist of our time," hut condemns the Buchman movement as "theologically frivolous." - Besides Buchman, Author Landau, a thirty-seven-year-old Pole, lists in his new book also Bhri Sadgaru Meher Baba, a "long-haired, silky-mustached Parsee," who four years ago came to the United States. He is addressed by his fol- lowers as the "God-man," the "Messiah," the "Perfect Master." Fanatic Meher Baba ,never speaks, has been silent since 1925, professes himself to be in an "infinite state," into which he fell when he kissed an ancient holy woman named Hazrat Babajan, an act which threw him into a coma that lasted nine months. - Every Easter Monday large posters in front of the Albert Hall in London announce Easter services of the Elim Four- square Revivalists (not connected with Sister Aimee Semple McPherson's Four-square Gospel Church in Los Angeles), led by Welshman George Jeffreys, who knows how to whip up to hot fervor his praying, swaying, singing, shouting audience. Jeffreys professes to be a literal Bible-believer, practises baptism by immersion, has healed his own facial paralysis by prayer, and now heals patients who suffer from paralysis, blindness, tumors, cancers, etc. In the past nine months more than one hundred and fifty persons have solemnly sworn that Jeffreys has cured them by prayer from ailments such as those just mentioned. - Twenty seven years ago Mrs. Annie Besant and. Rev. Chas. Leadbeater, famed theosophists, declared Jiddu Krishnamurti, Brahman Hindu, to be the "Vehicle of the new World Teacher," the Lord Maitreya, whose last incarnation on earth was Jesus Christ. Krishnamurti, at that time a twelve-year-old moppet, calmly accepted Annie Besant's announcement; but in 1929 he renounced the enforced godship, though he is still a practising theosophist seer, living near OJ ai, Cal. Lecture tours in Mexico, South America, Holland, and elsewhere have during the last years occupied much of his time. - An unaccountable modern mystic is the "Harmonious Developer," George Ivan- ovitch Gurdjieff, a "Levantine with a huge, shaved head, piercing eyes, walrus mustache, and a bull-muscled frame." He is the strange head of an odd cult, which such people as the late novelist Katharine Mansfield, the late editor Alfred Richard Orage of the New English Weekly, and others have at one time 01' another espoused. At Fontainebleau, France, 544 Theological Observer. - .!l:itd)lid)~8ettgefd)id)md)es. Gurdjieff used to conduct t.he Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man, where he taught his followers intricate dances, for which he composed more than five thousand pieces of music. Six years ago Har- monious Developer Gurdjieff came to Manhattan, where he wrote a monu· mental work, Tales Told by Beelzebub to His Grandson. - In Los Angeles the local ministerial association discovered a huge swindle concern which for a small sum (ca. $10) conferred on applicants such titles as Doctor of Divinity, Bishop, etc. Among those who received an ordination certifi- cate, together with the Doctor title, was also the Rev. Drake Googoo, who upon investigation turned out to be none other than Funnyman Joe Penner's famous duck. - Indeed "viel Sekten und viel Sohwaermerei," together with much mockery and blasphemy, which Time has most skil- fully presented in its interesting and instructive article "Men, :J{asters, and Messiahs"! And what about our dear Lutheran Church in thi" dreadful inundation of spiritual delusions? The old command "Preach the Gospel" still stands and still must be followed. J. T. M. Attitude of the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant Churches toward the Bible. - In a review of Dr. Machen's recent book The Ohristian Faith in the Modern World the Amerioan, a Roman Catholic weekly, says: "In popular language Dr. Machen develops the Scriptural proofs for the fundamental Christian doctrines of the nature and existence of God, the blessed Trinity, and the divinity of Christ. Painfully aware of the doctrinal chaos in the various Protestant churches, he meets and refutes from the Bible the chief forms of error or skepticism that for years have been sapping the vitality of Protestantism and have brought it to its present state of helplessness and indifference. As a modern, courageous, and able defense of the essentials of faith, his book deserves sympathetic reading. Its great fault is due to the original sin of Protestantism in rejecting the authority of Christ's Church and proclaiming the Bible as the only rule of faith and conduct. . .. 'i'he most potent fact in the modern world and in religious history since the days of Luther is that the attempt to get along without the infallible guidance of the true Church leads only to heresy and disunion. In true Protestant style Dr. Machen cheerfully claims to solvc every spiritual problem by the Bible." From the words just quoted it is evident that the Roman Catholic Church does not accept the Bible as the only rule of faith and conduct,. but subjects it to the interpretation of the Church, meaning thereby the Roman Catholic Church (the traditions and the Pope speaking "infallibly" eilJ oathedra). This wrong attitude of the Roman Catholic Church toward the Bible is of course well known. But the Roman Catholic reviewer of Dr. Machen's book is not so well acquainted with the attitude which many Protestants take toward the Bible as he thinks he is. He attributes the "doctrinal chaos in the various cllUrches" to the acceptance of the Bible on the part of the Protestant churches as the only rule of faith and life. But this is exactly what many Protestant churches, all those in the Reformed group and some others, are not doing; they are making essentially the same mistake that the Roman Catholic Church makes. While the Roman Catholic Church subjects the Bible to the interpre- tation of the Church, always meaning thereby the Roman Catholic Church, Theological Observer. - .!Hrd)ndj~3eitgefdjidjmdjes. 545 the Reformed group of churches among the Protestants subject the Bible to an interpretation of their own human reason. In the final analysis both the Roman Catholic Church and the Reformed churches are doing essentially the same thing: they are sU]ljecting the Bible to the judgment of human reason. In theory the Reformed churches accept the Bible as the only rule of faith and life, but not in practise. We should rather say that they did this years ago; many are not even doing that much now. Over against the Roman Catholic Church and the Reformed group of Protestants the Lutheran Church, wherever she has remained true to her Confessions, is the only Church which ~1Ccepts the Bible both in theo,-y and praotise as the only rule of faith and life. .And we do most emphatic- ally insist that the Bible needs no interpretation, but that its statements are clear and can have but one meaning. ~When Paul wrote his epistles to the Cln'istian congregations of his day, he expected the members of those churches to whom his letters were addressed to read and understand them. The psalmist says: "Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path," Ps. 119,105. J. H. C. FRITZ. New Ten Commandments. -.At a recent meeting the Philadelphia Methodist Conference accepted a report of its social service commission which embodied ten social commandments. On account of the frequency with which sociological topics axe diseussed nowadays, we submit tbese commandments to ou,. rC8cclcrs. "We can rememher the words of Christ: 1) 'Give ye them to eat.' 2) We can cultivate a soci al conscience, so that any social injustice done to a bn;'ther man may instantly he recognized as a sin against the heavenly Father. 3) liVe can refuse to recognize anyone as converted to Christ until he has been cOllverted to a passion for righteousness and to a willing- ness to suffer for the emancipation of the oppressed, among whom are the Negro, the unemployed, sweat-shop slaves, and dwellers in the slUJlls. 4) vVe can more carefully measure all human relationships by the teach- ings of One who said: 'I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life.' With those much-disturbed Methodist laymen of Chicago we believe that there should be a Scriptural basis for the Church's position on economic questions. But we also contend that the social gospel is au inevitable development of the message of Jesus. Unless we proclaim it, we are disloyal to the Christ and are expediting the ruin of civilization. 5) Believing with Kagawa that 'the love of Christ must be expressed through economics,' we can engage in a sympathetic study of the coopera- tive movements, especially the Rochdale system, as a method of rebuilding the social order hy democratic processes rather than through methuds of force. 6) Proud of that select group of Methodist young people who think it nobler to go to prison as a Christian pacifist than to go to the battle-field as a national hero, we can teach that 'the moral equivalent for war' is fonnd in heing 'continuously and dangerously' engaged in rebuilding the social order in accord with the Sermon on the :Mount. 7) liVe can actively promote constructive social legislation. 8) We hold that war is not only a sin, hut 'the most colossal and ruinous social sin that afflicts mankind to-day,' since it involves not only the slaughter of human beings, but fosters lying instead of truth, breeds hatred instead 35 546 Theological Observer. - oRird}lid}'8eitgefd)id)tnd)e!5. of love, substitutes military necessity for the Moral Law, and nullifies in a few months that which has taken the Ohurch a generation to develop in human character. 9) International wars must be forestalled by the readjustment of national laws, tariffs, and resources, so that congested populations may have the necessities of life through the Ohristian method of international sharing. Oivil wars must be forestalled also by a process of sharing the fruits of toil with the toiler as well as with the investor. 10) The labor question is more than a problem of economic organization, because it deals with the coronation of the common man and the con- struction of a social order which includes 'bread, brotherhood, and freedom.' Of these three, OOIlllnunism offers only the bread, but 'man cannot live by bread alone.' Fascism repUdiates brotherhood. Socialism in practise may evolve into a denial of freedom. Our hope is in democracy in every area of human life. This civilization cannot endure permanently balf autocratic and half democratic." A. Brief Items. - How much the race question is still a live issue became evident in a declaration of John J. Oornwell, former governor of 'Vest Virginia, with respect to the resolutions of the Episcopal Ohurch League for Industrial Democracy, advocating not only rejection of the antisedition bills which have been introduced in Oongress, but likewise equality between whites and Negroes in the official positions of the Ohurch. As the Liv'ing Ohurah reports, he said: "If that is going to be the doctrine of the Protestant Episcopal Ohurch, I am going to do what AI. Smith said he'd do - I shall take a walk." - From the East comes the unusual news that Dr. Archey D. Ball, minister of J:<'irst Methodist Ohurch, Engle- wood, N. J., has been requested not to return when his present year of service is ended. The conservative members of his congregation, so we are told, are dissatisfied with the liberal preaching and the social gospel of tlJeir pastor. The papers describe him as a strong crusader against war and Fascism and other matters which advocates of the social gospel have put on the black list. - Dr. Kraeling of Yale Divinity School has published the text of a little parchment fragment found in Dura-Europos, on the Euphrates, in 1933. According to the editor this fragment belongs to Tatian's Diatessaron and gives a part of the account of the burial of our Lord. It seoms the fragment belongs to the first half of the third century, and we have evidence now that the Diatessaron was originally written in Greek, not in Syriac, as was held by many experts in former years. Recent discoveries in the field of manuscripts having to do with the New Testament almost lead a person to hold his breath and ask, What's next? - Quoting from a pamphlet which has the title The Mob 8till Rides, the OhTistian Oentuiry informs its readers that of the eighty-four persons lynched from 1931 to the close of 1935, forty-one per cent. "were either not even accused of crime or were charged with only minor offenses; that of the other fifty-nine per cent. many were certainly innocent of the crimes with which they were charged; that only a fourth of the victims were so much as accused of actual or attempted assaults on women, - the usual cause alleged to justify mob killings; and that in a number of these cases the commission's investigators could find no convincing evi- dence of guilt." The commission in question is the Oommission on Inter- Theological Observer. - StitdJlidJ-,seitgefdJid;Hid;es 547 racial Cooperation. - The Allgemeine E1!. -Luth. Kirohenzeitung reports a notice which appeared in a Russian paper, that recently again ten priests were exiled or shot. In Siberia the authorities have prohibited Christian burial or the reading of masses for the dead. People who accord a Christian burial to their deceased are disfranchised. - In the Lutheran of April 9 Dr. J. L. Neve of Hamma Divinity School sounds a very clear note on the meaning of the death of Christ, setting forth the teaching of the vicarious atonement. "He, the Holy One, tasted death in our place. His death has a vicarious significance; it has the significance of the One dying for all men." We hope that this is the teaching on the meaning of the Cross which obtains in the U. L. C. in general. - A campaign against atheism and Communism in the United States was decided upon at a con- ference held recently at Richmond, Va., attended by religious and lay leaders. Significantly the place of meeting was old St. John's Church, where Patrick Henry uttered the famous sentence "Give me liberty or give me death." The movement is to be called America for God. Several bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church and one of the Methodist Church are among the clergymen sponsoring this endeavor. - Svenskyr- kotidnig reports the following: "The Roman Catholic Church again lifts its proud head in Bohemia. The World vVar brought on a revolt against the Catholic Church, and some two million Catholics became Evangelicals. The Catholic Church, nothing daunted, began in a quiet way to regain its lost territory. Able priests were appointed; a Catholic party was organ- ized in politics; Catholic diplomats found their way into the adminstra- tion and in every position of vantage. Last year there was held at Prague a general Catholic Day, in which the Roman Catholic Church celebrated its come-back. A Catholic laymen's movement has been organized. A bitter and merciless fight against the Evangelicals is on. :Marriages, for example, are broken up by Catholic interference. Christian toleration is daily receiving a blow in the face. Bohemia is getting a whiff from the Middle Ages." N.L. O. N.B.-"The second precept of the Church-to receive the blessed Sacrament three times a year at the least, of which Easter is to be one - is embodied in the English and Canadian prayer-books in the rubrics of the Communion office. The Roman Church demands once only. The first part of the precept (the reception) is a divine law, and wilful disregard is a mortal sin; the rest of it (the number of times) is ecclesiastical law, disregard of which is a grave sin." So writes an Episcopalian rector in the Li1,"ing OhU1·ch. A passage which is apropos is Matt. 15, 9: "In vain do they worship Me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men." - Liverpool Cathedral in England became some- what of a storm center when on a certain Sunday in March one of the canons drew the attention of the audience to the omission in the prayers of the invocation of blessings on what the ministers of the state were proposing to do. According to the canon the government officials were not pursuing a course dedicated to truth and peace, and therefore the Church would only stultify itself if it offered prayer for the success of the government in its undertakings. What strikes us is that' the church dignitaries were not satisfied with suppressing the customary prayer, but felt they ought to comment on it before the assembled con- gregation, which made the whole affair take on a theatrical aspect. - 'IVhile 548 Theological Observer. - .Ritd)nd)"~eitgefd)id)t1id)e!l. Harvard University is celehrating its tercentenary, Union Seminary in New York is observing its centenary. The latter occasion is to be made memorable by the raising of a fund of $403,000 for the maintenance of faculty members who retire. A friend of the school has promised $150,000 if the remaining amount will be raised by others by June 3. It is sur- prising to sec what funds people will provide to assist in the preaching of a gospel which refers mainly to the present life. - The Episcopalians lost a famous missionary bishop, the Right Reverend John McKim, who gave fifty-four years to the work of his Church in Japan. He died iIt Honolulu at the age of eighty-three. - The Presbytery of New York has refused to obey the Presbyterian General Assembly, which in 1934 and 1935 ordered that ecclesiastical proceedings be instituted against members of the Independent Board of Foreign Missions, onc of whose members belongs to this presbytery. The motive does not seem to be endorsement of the stand of the Independent Board, which opposes Modernism, but a desire to avoid controversy. Will the Assembly now include the powerful :New York Presbytery among the rebels of whose disloyalty it complains?- Sherwood Eddy, while maintaining that the Soviet government is "seeking to give equal justice to all the poor, to all the masses, to end unemploy- ment, poverty, and injustice," nevertheless says that for him acceptance of the position of this government is morally impossible bcc8use l. its denial of political and civil liberties; 2. the violence of its continuing revolution; 3. its harsh dogmatic atheism. (Abridged from N.l~. C. B.) - From August 30 to September 4, under the auspices of the National Conference of Jews and Christians, the National Seminar will be held for Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish leaders at Hartford, Conn. Dis- cussing general subjects, such as "The Religious Issues Presentcd by Science," "The Issues Prescnted by the Totalitarian States of the 'Yorld," "Methods of Training the Clergy," selected at random from a formidable list, the debaters undoubtedly will valiantly endeavor to avoid stepping on each other's toes. - In 1928 the contributions received in Protestant churches of the United States amounted to $532,368,714. In 1935 the total was $304,672,999, which means there was a decrease of forty-three per cent. If all of the work done by the Federal Council of Churches, whose secretaries and clerks are responsible for this information, were of such an enlightening type, we could regard its activities with more complacency. - At the convention of the National Education Association held recently in St. Louis, the statement was made that of the twelve million Kegroes in our country eighty per cent. are literate and that Negro colleges last year had an enrolment of twenty-five thousand. A. IT. 2lu!ihmb. $ii~hnantt§ "l8efcnutui§, l8efenuini{litanb, l8efennen" nodi etnmaI. Unter ber ii6erfcljrift "merfe~rte UneUe noer ®cljrift unD f8efennini?;" ~aoen ruir 6ereit!3 in ben ®1Jalten De?; "Theological Observer" (d. Vol. VII, No.5, l))(ainummer 1936, ®. 385 ff.) auf hie falfclje ®tellung aUfmerffam gemacljt, bie hie mobern~rationanftifclje 5tljeologie, toie immer fie ficlj ie~ l1.leiIig nennen mag, ber ®cljl:ift unh bem fBefennini§ gegennoer einnimmt. 9Coclj narex aHl in bem lJorigen ~rtifeI fommt biefe falfcfje ®tellung in Theological Observer. - .rehcfjlicfj'.8eitgefdJidjtHdjes. 549 U'otifetung III he§ \j3iifjlmannfcfjen WUffate§ aum Wu§btud. OUg!. "W. ~. 53. sr." Wt.5, 69. ~aljrg., 31. :;'Sanuar 1936, 0. @"i. 98.) ' fcljieb BllJifcljen S3ut~er unb l1Si:i~rmann befte~t barin, baB S3ut~er hie &)eHige @lcljrifj: filr ®oues eingegebenes m50t± ~ien, unb allJar bon ~ bis 3. llSi:i~r,,­ mann aoer glanb±, baf3 bie &)eHige @lcljrif± ,,[id} auf bem m5eg bon IDeen'" fcljenmunh unb IDcenfcljen~anh ~usbtUct berfcljafft ~at" uub baB fie "in ben reIatiben @l±rom menfcljHcljen @)raeugniffes ~ineingeaogen" llJorben ift. IDCit anbern m5or±en, bie @lcljrifj: ift naclj llSi:i~rmann ein ~alli gouIicljes, ~aro, menfcljIicljes IDeacljtoerf, 10 bat es bes 5t~eorogen business inirb, fie banad}' au fritifieren, intoicfern fie (2:~riftum trei6±. Waclj ~o~rmann foIT bie~ aUerbing§ mit ber noiigen ~emut unb @)~rfurcljt ge1cljc~en. llSi:i~rmann iiberfie~t aber, baB es 10 e±llJas llJie eine bemiitige unb e~rfurcljgtJoUe Sfritif bes m5.ortes ®ottes gar nicljt gibt. &)ier ift i e b e Si'ritif ein crimen laesae maiestatis, ein IDeajeftiigber6recljen gegen ben gi:i±tricljen ~u±or ber @lcljtift. ftbrigens ~at es auclj, llJie bie Sl)ogmengefcljicljte beaeugt, noclj nie dnm rationaIiftifcljen SfriHfer gegeben, ber bei feiner mitif ber @lcljrifj: aud} nut einigermaf3en bemiitig unb e~rfurcljgtJoU berfu~r. ~m @egenteH, fie ~aben aUe ben IDeunh fe~r boU genommen unb bie @lcljrifj: aUf llngenauigfeit, llntna~r~eit unb )lJetrug ~in angeNag±. @lo ift e§ benn auclj fiar, baf3 bei bet Si'ritif ber &)eiHgen @lcljtift nicljt ber ®eift (2:~rifti ben ungIiiu6igen :it~eorogen treibt, fonbern ber ®eift @latans, ~o~. 8, 44, bes ~ater§ ber S3iige. llSi:i~rmann ftem fomit an biefem llSunft aITes aUf ben SBopf. ffiiet ancg bei bem, llJa§ et iioer Me @l~mbole fd}reibt. '@)t fagt, bei ber Shitif ber @ll)ntliole etmaljne ben 5tljeologen Bur reclj±en mHif "bas ;itljeoIogen", gefcljleclj± bet gtof3en Si'ampfsei±en ber Si'itcljengefcl}icljte". IDean ronnie bie§ QUenfaUS fteljen Iaffen. ~oet bet @ebanfe, ber ficlj in biefen m5ot±en aus", fptid}±, ift bUtcljaus nicljt unfcljuThig. m5as bem 5tljeologen Me unfcgidHclje mitir an ~em !8efenn±nis betllJe~rl, ift nid}t ein aItes ;itljeologengefcljfecljt,. fonbern bie @lcljrifj: aUein. m5as naclj bet @lclj:t:if am !8denntni§ recljt ift, bas oIeibt bef±e~cn; l:l1as aoer naclj ber @lcljrifj: am !8efenntnis bede~rl ift (llJit neljmen natiitIiclj bei unferm Iutljerifcljen !8efenntnis fein quatenus an, fonbern untetfcljrei6en nut quia), bas fiiut baljin, unb l:l1enn es aud} ein S3ut~er, ein ~uguftinus ufro. gefagt ~aben fome. IDe en f clj r i clj roiII llSiiljlmann bie @lcljrifj: hitifieren, menfclj,ficlj llJiII er aber aucljoei ber !8e~ ut±eifung bes @ll)moog in @lcljranfen geljaIten 1JJetben. llnb gerabe audj an biefem llSunft aeigt ficlj bei iljm nicljt dina eine bemii±ige uub eljrfutcljg~ boUe llntetfteITung unter @ottes m50tt, foubern ein ljocljmiitiges ~em",m5orl", stto~oie±en, ein IDeeiftern bes m50tg, bas mit bem bet @lcljIange im l1SataMe~ blub unb fnodjenb erllJanbt ift. llSiiljlmann§ ~t±ifer bient nid}t aur ~Iar", ljeit, bci.ent auclj nicljt baau, baf3 Me @lcljrifj: llJietlet naclj i~ter boUen mer", tuertung au @)~ren fommt. !8ei iljm finbet ficlj fein ,,:Buriie! aur ffiefor", mation", fonbetn nut eine ffiillJenbung bon bet ffieformation, unb aroar naclj ~rt lJes :ittibentinums. ~. st. IDe. ~obeBfiilIe.:BllJei oefann±e ;itljeologen finb fiiraIiclj gcftotoen. ~n !8edin'" @rune1JJaTh ftaro ber bort im ffiu~eftanb Ieoenbe llSrof. D. @)rid} @lcljiiber im ~net bon filnfunbfieoaig ~aljren. @)r roar llSrofeffor in sneI, @teif§llJalh Theological Observer. - ~ircf)ncf)'8eitgefd)icf)tIicf)e~. 551 unb ~te£lIau. ,;'5n ~onn ftaro ber &Ittef±ament!et D. (fb. S'Wnig im &rtet bon fafi neunaig ,;'5a~ren. (St ~at feine J2e~rliitigfeit in J2eipaig, mOltod: unb ~onn (fett 1900) au£lgeiibt unb ift burd) bide @?d)riften 'oefannt getlJotben. ((fb.~2ut~. g:reifird)e.) Anglican Tendencies in Scandinavian Countries. -Dr. John A. Morehead, the former president of the Lutheran World Convention, feels he must say a word in defense of the Lutheran churches of Northern Europe, concerning which the statement was recently made that they seem to be favoring rather strongly union with the Church of England. He says in an article appearing in the National Lutheran Oouncil News Bulletin: ''In the first place, it is quite true that there is in Sweden and in other Scandinavian countries a small coterie of leaders who are in- terested in the possibility of affiliations with the Church of England be- cause of their common possession of the so-called Apostolic Succession. But, using Sweden as an example, thel powerful Pastors' Association of the Church of Sweden, including its bishops and clergy, as well as the congregations of the Church in that country, while they value, sentimen- tally, their historic church organization, are overwhelmingly one with their fellow-Lutherans in other lands in the conviction that external organization and ceremonies are not essential to Christian church unity, but solely agreement in the essential doctrines of the Christian religion according to the Scriptural teachings of Article VII of the Augsburg Confession. In the second place, it should be rememhered that the approach to the Scandinavian Lutheran churches was made by the Church of England through official commissions appointed to these churches by the last Lambeth Conference. In the third place, I take pleasure in testifying to the fact that my own visits in recent years to Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland have estahlished me firmly in the conviction that the churches of these Scandinavian countries are inwardly and truly Evangelical Lu- theran in their faith; that they are anchored in this faith; that they are devoted to it; and that they are giving distinguished service to the esablishment of this faith of the Gospel on the earth. . .. In the fourth place, the Lutheran churches of the Scandinavian countries reveal their inner faith, spiritual affinities, and purposed relationships by their records. The pastoral associations of these countries have officially invited the executive committee of the Lutheran World Convention to send represen- tatives to their meetings in former years. Such invitations have been accepted with pleasure, and happy visitations and contacts have resnlted." After recounting the interest which the Lutherans of Scandinavian countries have manifested in the Lutheran World Convention and in Lu- theran work in general, Dr. Morehead concludes this part of his essay thus: "In short, while the German professor through some apparent exercise of his creative imagination (disturbed, unfortunately, by his own ecclesias- tical affairs and anxiety) has produced the generalization of some in- tellectual interest, it does seem perfectly clear that his conclusions are entirely out of harmony with the existing inner facts of the situation. Per- sonally I am utterly convinced of the inner unity of the Lutheran churches of the Scandinavian countries with the historic body of world Lutheranism as well as with the agency of the Lutheran World Convention, which from 552 Theological Observer. - .Ritd)lid)~{3eitgefd)id)md)es. the beginning the Lutheran churches of Scandinavia have a noble part, under God's blessing, in creating and developing." While it may be a far cry from Canterbury and Oxford to Upsala and Oslo, Dr. Sasse, the German professor referred to by Dr. Morehead, very properly pointed a warning finger to negotiations between the Anglicans and Scandinavian Lutherans which, even if not resulting in, or intended to result in, actual union or absorption, must help to promote the doc- trinal indifference from which Christianity is suffering. A. Religious Conditions in England Startling. - In the Presbyterian of April 2 parts of a letter written by an Englishman are published who paints a very gloomy picture of the religious situation in England. He writes: "Christian work becomes increasingly difficnlt. 'The Sabbath social habits of the masses have completely changed, and when the older generation has passed, the problem of the churches will be more difficult still. The Church is losing its hold, especially in the suburbs. Think of Beacontree, Essex! Population, 125,000. Total church accommodation, 10,000. It is said that there are 90,000 children on the Dagenham Estate, and 80,000 of them are outside Sabbath-schools. There is no room for them, even if there were the desire to attend. Viewing the present situ- ation, I see things as follows: 1. Sabbath social hahits are changed and fixed, and this is llllTealizer1 by the churches. 2. Churches and missions are content to go on ill the same old grooves. 3. Open-air work is practi- cally futile, for street lluises have increased to such an e:h.-tenL that voices are drowned. T saw a fine band of open-air workers in London, and not a soul listening. The noise of the traffic was terrible. 4. I believe thc Church, as presently organized, will have to change its methods. Smaller churches, with unpaid pastors, as in the early days, will need to be substituted for the present order of things. 5. The Church ofb:ngland, and also of Scotland, have unbounded wealth in tithes and can therefore keep the old order going though no one attends. The vicar of the village here where I live complains that at Communion the sexton and himself are often the only communicants. (The vicar's salary is $1,850 and Iimnse.) 6. Non-conformist churches are going to have a struggle to exist because self-supporting, and worshipers are on the decrease. 7. Although the habits of the people are fixed, they were even worse before the evan- gelical revival of the nineteenth century and can be changed again as then. But I am convin{)ed that education and scientific progress make the situa- tion more difficult. If the vast masses outside are to be touched, then the Christian Church must outlive the world. All the preaching in the world will not move this present generation until there is that in the lives of ministers and members which will break through the thick crust of indifference and cause men to stop and think and wonder, as was the case with the pagans in the early days of Christianity. 8. The Gospel stilI has its ancient power, but Christians must prove it if the world is to be convinced and saved. 9. Possibly we are nearer the return of our Lord than we realize. Yet this is no reason why we should shirk the problem." Very much of what is said here applies to conditions in the United States also and should be read and pondered by us with a prayerful b~ ~