Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 7-5 (Text)

<1!uururbtu m4rulugtral ilnut41y CODtiDuiDi LEHRE UND WEHRE MAGAZIN FUER Ev.-LuTH. HOMILETIK THEOLOGICAL QUARTERL Y-THEOLOGICAL MONTHLY Vol. VII :May, 1936 No.5 CONTENTS Der Pietismus. Theo. Hoyer •...••.•.••.••..••••.•.•.... The Principles and Teachings of the Dialectical Theology. T h. E ngelder •....• Luther, Bucer, and the Wittenberg Concordia. Page 321 329 P. E. Kretzmann • • .• 340 Der Schriftgrund fuer die Lehre von der satisfactio vicaria. P. E. Kretzmann • • .• 348 Beichtrede. o. Kaiser. . . • • • • . . . • . • . • • • • • • • • . • • • . • • • • .• 350 Dispositionen ueber die erste von der Synodalkonferenz angenommene Evangelienreihe .................... 354 :Miscellanea ........................................ 368 Theological Observer. - Kirchlich-Zeitgeschichtliches .... 374 Book Review. - Literatur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 390 Ein P redlger mWlB nlcht alleln weid ... , alao daaa er die 8chafe unterwelse, wle lie rechte Ohrlaten IOllen eeln, sondem such daneben den Woe1fen wehren., da!;!! lie die 8chaf" nlcht angreUen und mit falacher Lehre verfuehren und Irrtum eln· fuebren. - Lulher. Es 1st keln Ding, du die Leute mmr bei der Kirche behaelt denn die JUte Predigt. - Apologi_, Arl. t~. It the t rumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare hlmeel1 to the battle? 1 Ctn'. ~, 8. Published for the Ev. Lut h. Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States CONCORDIA PUBLISHING HOUSE, St. Louis, Mo. A CHIVE 374 Theological Observer. - ~itd)liC!)~,3eitgefc!)ic!)tfid)es. Theological Observer. - ~irdjndj~3eitgefdjidjtHdje~. I. ,1(meriktt. The Infallibility of the Bible as Taught within the U. L. C. - The, review of a certa,in book (The Evidences for Immortality), printed in the Dldheran of March 5, contains this paragraph: "But two arguments [for immortality] an~ advanced. I) Reason demands, it. 2) The Bible tea.chos, it. The weight of the a,rgument thus hangs on what to many would be the slender thread of a· faith in the inerrancy o,f human reason- ing and the' brittle cords of a biased interpretation of an 'infallible' Book." [Italics our own.] Only a little maHer of punctua,tion, - quotation-marks affixed to the infallible, - but it reveals a, terrible condition. There are men in the United Lutheran Church who cannot pronounce, clearly and distinctly, the' sentence: The Holy Bible is infallible. They do, no,t believe in verbal inspira,tion. They do not believe, that an of the Bible' is God's IVord. (Dr. Paul E'. Scherer over the radio: "The' genealogies [of Jesus] a,re not to be regarded as ins,pired documents; they are included as 'honest attempts to ascertain the truth.''' - The Lutheran, Feb. 20.) And they a,re making incessant efforts to cast the' article of the' absolute infaUibility of the Bible out of the' Church. An article that appeared in the Luthemn of Octo,ber 2,9, 1931, stated: "Whatever the differences may be tha,t keep Luthe'rans a,part, that they are YlOt insuperable is apparent from the very fact that we are all Lu- therans. On essentials we arc agreed. Why, then, can we not agree on, o.r forget, non-essentials? . .. ~When Lutherans get rid of their infel'iority comple·x and de to say tha,t we Lutherans. ought to be loyal to the, WO(fd of God and should therefore in a.ccordance> with our Confessions, preserve the confessional ohuraoter of our preaching, our clmrch-pa,pors, our books and other literature, our church-work, and our a.ttitude towaJ:"d those who dO' not in all things, tea,ch the doctrines of Scripture'. Only in this way shall we for ourselves pre- serve th€' blessings which God graci0'usly Ims given us, and only sO' shall we' be' ahle to, let 0'thms share them with us. J. H. C. FRITZ. Freethinker's Protest Rejected. - "Justice Wm. T. Collins of the New York State Supreme Court rejected, October 30, an application by Joseph Lewis, president of the Freethinkers of America, to strike out the answers of the Board of Education upholding the use of the Bible in the public schools and defending both hymn-singing and the use of public- school buildings by religious and racial organiza,tions. For some yea,rs Mr, Lewis has beon engaged in litigation to enjoin [stop?] all these ac- tivities on the ground that they are not only a waste of public funds, but are in violation of Federal and State constitutions. He holds that a section of the city charter, drawn in 1851, permitting the use of Bibles in public schools is unconstitutional. .T ustice Collins asserted that the use of the Bible in no way affects the belief of Freethinkers." To this report of the Livin,r] Church we may add another news item from the same paper to the effect that in New York a society ha,s been formed for the purpose of combating "the rapidly growing menace of atheism." The group is but a little, one, consisting of a Baptist minister (Dr. T. Darley Allen), a non· denominational woman evangelist (Mrs. E. S. Aboud), and a Roman Catholic professor of Fordham University (Dr. Theological Observer. - ~itd)nd)~.8eitgefd)id)md)es. 379 George G. Sullivan). A number of Jews are said to be interested. This seems to be an attempt of fighting the fire of atheism with the fire of unionism. Dr. Allen is a strong believer in the power of propaganda. He is quoted as saying: "Many years ago I was connected with a BOstOIl re- ligious publishing house that sent out tons of literature on the subjects of atheism, Bible defense, etc., and as a result organized infidelity de- creased greatly in membership and influence. In Great Britain, where lectures upon the Bible and infidelity were delivered in several large cities and six hundred thousand copies of antiinfidel pamphlets were scattered within a year, a lllIDlber of infidel halls were closed, and ten years later the accessions to the leading 'freethought' organizations fell off from 1,883 to 433 members. A lecture entitled 'Will the mel Book Stand?' is known to have resulted in the conversion of four men who later became Christian ministers." That a movement, in spite of being afflicted with many rep- rehensible features, may in the wise economy of God accomplish some good objectives which it strives for, we do not wish to deny. A. Going Beyond Modernism. - On account of the publicity which a sermon of Dr. H. E. Fosdick has received we ought to place before our readers some of its salient statements so they may have the ipsissima 1:crba on their shelves:- "Fifty years ago the intellectual portion of ~Western civilization had turned one of the most significant mental corners in history and was looking out on a new view of the world. The Church, however, was utterly unfitted fOT the appreciation of that view. Protestant Christianity had been officially formulated in prescientific days. The Angsburg Con- fession was a notable sbtement, but the men who drew it up, including Lutller himself, did not even believe that tbe earth went round the sun. The IVestminster Confession, for the rigorous acceptance of which the Protestant rear guard still contends, was a memorable document, hut it was written forty years befoTe Newton published his work on tIle law of gravi- tation. Moreover, not only were the mental patterns of Protestant Chris- tianity officially formulated in pre scientific days, but, as is always true of religion, those patterns seemed sacred to their believers and the changes foreed by the new science seemed impious and sacrilegious. Youths like myself, therefore, a half century ago, facer] an appalling lag between our generation's intellect on one side and its religion on the other, with religion a.sking us to believe incredible things. . .. Modernism therefore came as a deeply needed way of thinking. It insisted that the deep and vital experiences of the Christian sonl, with itself, with its fellows, with its God, conld be carried over into this new world and nnderstood in the light of the new knowledge. We refused to live bifurcated lives, our intellect in the late nineteenth and our religion in the early sixteenth century. God, we said, is a living God, who Ims never uttered His final word on any subject; why, therefore, should prcscientific frameworks of thought he so sacred that forever through them ma.n must seek the Rternal and the Eternal seek men? . .. The Church thus had to go as far as Modernism. But now the Church must go beyond it; for even this brief rehearsal of its history reveals Modernism's essential note; it is primarily an adaptation, an adjustment, an accommodation of Christian faith to con- temporary scientific thinking. It started by taking the intellectual culture 380 Theological Observer. - .IHtd)Hd)'3eitgefd)id)md)e~. of a particular period as its criterion and then adjusted Christian teach- ing to that standard. Herein lies Modernism's shallowness and transiency: it rose out of a temporary intellectual crisis; it took a special type of scientific thinking as standard; it became an adaptation to, a harmoniza- tion with, the intellectual culture of a particular generation. That, how- ever, is no adequate religion to represent the Eternal and claim the allegiance of the soul. Let it be a Modernist who says that to you! Unless the Church can go deeper and reach higher than that it will fail indeed." Launching into the body of his sermon Dr. Fosdick divides his material into four parts. He first states that Modernism ''has been excessively pre- occupied with intellectualism, ... whereas the deepest experiences of man's soul, whether in religion or out of it, cannot be approached head first .... A man is vastly greater than his logic, and the sweep and ambit of his spiritual experience and need are incalculably wider than his rational pro- cesses. So Modernism as such governs only a segment of the spiritual field and does not nearly compass the range of religion's meaning. . . . Our modern world, as a whole, cries out not so much for souls intel- lectually adjusted to it as for souls morally maladjusted to it, not most of all for accommodators and adjusters, but for intellectual and ethical chall engers." Next the sermon states that Modernism has "been dangerously senti- mental." It is pointed out that in modernistic Christianity "lush optimism was a powerful factor," and people were led to believe "that all was right with the world." It is now evident that "sin is real." If a man is to have "real character, he must achieve it against the terrific down-drag of an antagonistic world; and if he is to have a real church, it must be not harmonized with the world, but standing out from the world and challenging it." In the third place, "the intellectual culture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to which Modernism adjusted itself, was pre- dominantly man-centered .. ,. You young people who were not here then can hardly imagine with what cheerful and confident trust we con- fided to man the saving of the world. So the temptation was to relegate God to an advisory capacity, a kind of chairman of the board of sponsors of our highly successful human enterprise." "We have at times gotten so low down that we talked as though the highest compliment we could pay to Almighty Gorl was that a few scientists believed in Him. . . . The Eternal really is the spiritual. The highest in us comes from the deepest in the universe. Goodness and truth and beauty are not accidents, but revelations of creative reality. God is! On that point come out from among them, and be ye separate." "Finally, Modernism has too commonly lost its ethical standing-ground and its power of moral attack. It is a dangerous tIling for a great religion to begin adjusting itself to the culture of :1 special generation. Harmonizing slips easily into compromlslllg. . .. It is not in Germany alone that the Church stands in danger of being enslaved by society. . .. We Modernists had better talk to ourselves like this. • .. Fundamentalism is still with us, but mostly in the backwaters. The future of the churches, if we will have it so, is in the hands of Modernism. Therefore let all Modernists lift a new battle-cry: vVe must go beyond Modernism! . .. We cannot harmonize Theological Observer. - .Rttcf)licf)'Seitgefcf)icf)tHci)es. 381 Christ Himself with modern culture. What Christ does to modern culture is to challenge it." It will be seen from this that Dr. Fosdick by no means intends to renounce Modernism, but merely declares that he feels the neeed of advanc- ing and that especially the reality of sin and the greatness and supremacy of God must be stressed. In addition he wishes to see more of the social gospel preached. Thus his stand is as unevangelical as ever. It is very evident that Modernism has no Gospel for sin-distressed souls. A. Mr. Rockefeller's Policy for Giving. -In discussing the widely disseminated statement of Mr. Rockefeller as to the policy which he will pursue in the future in making gifts in the interest of religion, the Watch- man-Examine1', a paper which, being Baptist, represents the same denomi- nation as Mr. Rockefeller, presents facts which should not be overlooked. As early as 1917, so we are informed, Mr. Rockefeller made the statement that "inarticulate Christianity" (that is, as the Watchman-Examiner ex- plains the term, a Christianity in no sense connected with organized churches) "had become a great force in the world." Speaking of his con- ception of the Church of the future, he said in effect (as quoted by our authority): "I fancy it will be called the Church of God. The sole door of entrance will be the love of God and the desire to serve God and humanity. It will be without creed or ritual and without emphasis on ordinances. Its object will be to promote applied religion. It will be democratic in its organization. Its ministers will be trained less in the seminary and more in the vocations of life. In it all denominational bar- riers wll be obliterated." When the Interchurch 'Vorld Movement was launched, Mr. Rockefeller was one of its prominent supporters. This venture, being founded on sand, of course soon collapsed. The Laymen's Foreign Mission Inquiry was an- other endeavor of this nature, and it was financed very largely by Mr. Rocke, feller. Most of our readers will readily recall the book Rethinking Mis- sions, in which the unionistic and modernistic views of the sponsors of the so-called Laymen's Inquiry were placed before the world. It represents the tendencies of the Modern Missions Movement, which has its head- quarters in Chicago and which proposes "to seek out, endorse, and en- courage cooperation with concrete enterprises on the field which, under whatever auspices, are undertaken and prosecuted in harmony with the principles and recommendations of the Report of the Laymen's' Inquiry." "Yhile Mr. Rockefeller is not a member of the executive committee of this movement, his friends, according t.o the Watchman-Examiner, hold such membership. It is true that as a Baptist Mr. Rockefeller held doctrines that are unscriptural, but as a :iVIodernist he rejects the Scriptures them- selves. A. Alarming Figures. - The Living Ohuroh, in an editorial giving statistics on the Protestant Episcopal Church, points out not only that there are fewer "postulants and candidates for holy orders, fewer lay readers, fewer parishes and missions," but also that the number of bap' tisms and confirmations has decreased very perceptibly. "The total num- ber of baptisms reported in 1935 was only 63,056, a decrease of 3,099 over 1934. There was an even greater decrease in the number of confirmations, 382 Theological Observer. - ~ircl)1icl)~,seitgefcl)icl)tlicl)e~. which was only 67,'096 in 1935, being 5,466 less than those reported in, 1934." The editor in reflecting on these figures says quite correctly: "These figures are a morc accurate index to the state of the Church than the numhers of baptized persons (which has decreased 1,425) and of com- municants (which has increased 26,178), because the figures for baptized persons and communicants are approximations at best and vary from year to year in proportion to the diligence of rectors in pruning their parish lists. The figures for baptisms and confirmations, however, should be ac- curate, as they are taken from the official records of the various bishops and so are based upon an actual count." - On the schools of his Church the editor has this to say: "The statistics of our church-schools also reveal a serious condition. In 1934 there were reported 51'0,3'09 scholars, and 61,5'02 teachers. In 1935 the number of scholars reported showed a decrease of nearly 4,'00'0, being 506,400, and there were 550 less teachers,. or a total of 6'0,952." A. The Need of Continued Christian Mission-Work. - Under the' heading "Results of One Hundred Yea,rs of Missions" thB Evangelical Mes- senger, quoted in Oh1'istianity To-dc&y (Feb., 1936), gives the following alinement of the membership of Christian churches: The estimated popu- lation o,f thB wo'rld is approximately 2,'000,0'00',000'. ThB estimated number' af Christians (nominal includecl) is ca,. 6'0'0',0'000,0'00', of whom 2000,'000-,00'0' a,re Protestants. the remainder being Greek and Raman CatllOlicsl. China, with 425,000,000 inhabitants, has 3,'0'00,000' Christians. Eighty-eight pel cent. o-f China's entire population live, in the' rural sections; yet fody per cent. of all its missionary force's reside in twenty cities. Japan, with 60','0'00,000', has 3000,'000' Christians-. Eighty pe-r cent. Oof Ja,pan's population a,re farmers, who are almo'st entirely une-vangelized. India" with 350',000,000 people, has 5,000',0000 Christians. Of 710,'0000 villages in India only 39,727 have Christians living in the-m. Africa, with a popnlation of 155,'000,0000 persons,. has 3,000',000 Christians. "This means," as the period- ica.! sa,ys, "that in the,se- four majo-r are-as o·f missiona,ry a,ctivity having a, tOotal po'pulation. of one billion. the Gospel-message, has gained approxi- ma,tely eleven million Christians, Protestant and Catholic, or a,bout one per cent." But how about conditionS' in our so-calleel Christian countries? The same periodical reports that out of 40.,'0000,0'00 inhabitants of France, only 9',5'00,'0'000 a,re- profe-ssed Christians, 8,'0'000,'0'00' Raman Catholics and 1,5'000,'0'00' Prote,stants. The majority of the popUlation is, either wholly indifferent or atheistic. Is the world becoming Christian or hea,then? J.T.M. MOount Airy Seminary Rece,ives Large' Gifts. - The Philadelphia Semin(wy Bulletin, the publication of the U. L. C. seminaTY located at Mount Airy, Philadelphia, announces tha,t in Decembm-, 19·35,. it received a, bequest from Mrs. Ada Martin Jamiesan to' the amount o,f forty thousand dona,rs. "This i5 the laTgesl single' gift tha,t the semina,ry has received in the past five years. Mrs. Jamieson was the' granddaughter of the founder of the ~ ortan Professorship, and her bequest is designated a s an addition to the originaI gift of thirty thausand doUars by which that prOofessorship was, endowed." Several other bequests we-re- received by this U. L,. C. seminary during 1935, the total be,ing quite impressive- $60,756.32. A. Theological Observer. - .reircl)licl)~Seitgefd)icl)Hicl)e~. 383 Present-Day Religious Thought. - Writing in the Ohristian Oen- tw'Y, Prof. H. N. Wieman, professor of the Philosophy of Religion in the University of Chicago, gives a survey of Protestant religious thought in our country to·da,y. He writes,: "The forms of Protestant religious thought in our country revea,l four divisions. They might be called the superna,turalists, the idealists, tIm intuitionists, and the na,turalists. The supernaturalists are of two kinds, the traditionalists, including the Fun- damentalists, and the neo-supernaturalists with such representatives as the Niebuhr brothers, G. IV. Richards,. vVilhelm Pauck, and others. The idealists include absolutists like W. E. Hocking and personalists like E. S. Brightman. TIH~ intuitionists have such men as W. A. Brown, D. C. Mac- intosh, H. P. Van Dusen, Walter Horton, and Eugene Lyman. The natural- ists arc of seve,ral sorts, ranging from A. N. vVhitehead and H. A. Overstreet to E. S. Ames and John Dewey." He correctly observes tlmt, strictly speaking, there a,re' merely two· tendencies, tha,t of the superna,turalists, and that of thel naturalists; the intuitionists and idealists hold mediating positions, which will become weaker and weaker. Christians may observe aU these movements and tendencies with equanimity; fm they know that whatever changes may take place, Verbum Dei manet in aeternum. A. Brief Items. - Episcopalians, and Russian Orthodox Church peQple held a joint sm'vice in New York, at which the Rt. Rev. Adam, Archbishop of Philadelphia, a. leader in the Russian OrthQdox Church, was the ccl- ebrant of the "mass." The gathering was under the auspices of the Orthodox and ~~nglican Fellowship. It seems that these, people con8ider themselves to' be in full fellowship with ea,ch 'Other. - In England, at a meeting of the Church Assembly wl1ich was presided over by the Arch· bishop 'Of Canterbury, the question of disesta,blishment was given a thor- ough airing. '1'he strong proponent of disestablishment is the Bishop of Durham, whO' holds tha,t freedom of the Church is impossible as long as the present union of Church and' 8tate continues. The Archbishop nf Canterbury had appointed a cnmmission which was instructed to' investi- gate, the questiQn, and its repO'rt fO'rmed the basis of the debate. Appar- ently no decision was reached, for the subject was put on the calendar for the' summer session. The Archbisho,p o·f YOI'k, a, member 'Of the cnm- mission, is said to, hold tha,t dise,stablishment would be a, lesser evil than the present situa,tion. It will be 'recalled that, when the Anglican Church, about seven yea,rs ago, tried to' revise the Boole of Gommon Pmye1', this undertaking was thwa.rted by the actiO'n of Parliament. - The Living Ghu1'(}h, from whicll we have taken the above matters, informs us, too, tha,t the Church Unity Octa,YC' of Prayer fOT Catholic Relmion this winter was given much prominence in England. "The central observance was a· High Mass a,t the Church of St. Magnus the Ma,rtyr. . .. The Russian Archbishop Seraphim had promised to' attend, bringing the venerated Ikon of Our Lady of Kurak, and to celebrate befOTe it a Molieben of intercession for unity." Owing to special circumstances, the Archbishop Seraphim could nO't attencl; in his absence "the Archpriest N. Behr and Archdeacon B. Theokritoff sang tho Molieben in honor of Our Lady after the High Mass." NO' wonder tha,t there a,re people in England who fear disesta,b- lishment, holding that the removal of wha,t remains of government control 384 Theological Observer. - .reircl)Jicl) • .2eitgefd)icl)tlicl)e~. would mean tlH~ introduction of Popery by the High Churel1 clergy.- How va,riously people a,re constituted! The, Living Churoh tells of a, great English scholar whO' aUends services in St. Paul's Ca,thedral just because there people will not speak to him. So here there is a man who is at- tracted by what most people bitterly criticize - an attitude, of aloo,fness on the part of one's, fellO'w-worshipers. Is he a, lone exception? - "The' Metropolitan Lutheran Student Council of ChicagQland, which includes more than twO' thousand Lutheran students in vaJ'ious institutions of this a,rea, held its annual conference a,t No,rthwestern University on Febru- ary 23. The problems of war and nationalism, the press and propaganda, and the ethics of ca,pitalism were discussed during the sessions." So reports the Ohristian Oentu1'Y. One really does not see why this was called a Luthe1'an meeting. - The Methodist Laymeu's Committee of Chicago, which wishes to uphold conservative Christianity, and has attacked Lib~ eraHsm s'ponsored by Methodist minist61's, is being opposed by a, newly formed organization called "The La,ymen's Religious MQvement," which likewise consists of Methodists. 'rhese latter put on their flag an expres- siQn of full confidence in the leadership of their libeTal pastors. It 8e'ems tha,t we here are viewing a, house that is divided aga.inst itself. - The Christian Ceni1l1'Y in an editorial voices the opiniGn that a, new Modernism is due to' anivc. In it, as the writer pictures it to< himself, the tyranny of science will be restrained, and it will be, tQld tha,t it must give aUen- tiGn not only to' the world of "facts," but likewise to' the world of "values"; otherwise it will have to' be sa,tisfied with a, subo'rdinate' role, The "blight of subjectivity" will be gotten rid O'f; we shall once more have objectivity in our wO'rld view; values like gOQdness, truth, beauty, will be rega,rded a,s being a, pa,rt of wha,t is called nature. It will stand for a, religion which is not metaphysical, but ethical. ~~ll Qf this is still sufficiently vague to render it almost innO'cuous, unless somebody shQuld actually mistake it fGr Christianity. - Secreta,ry of Schools A. C. SteHhGrn, in the bulletin which he edits in the, interest of our Christian day-schools, submits the following intere&ting items: "On December 31, 1935, a, jury found that Dr. Richa,rd Spencer, ChicagO' Heights, Ill., wa,s within his right to. with- hold his daughter, age sixteen, from the public school, for the purpose Qf educa,ting her at home. The verdict made plain, in fact, that the com, pulsory school law, in existence thirty-five years, could not supersede primary pa.rental rights. Dr. Spencer is alsO' keeping anQther daughter, age fourteen, Qut of schoQl. BefGre a, justice of the peace, he had been fined five dollars fO'r his appaTcnt infraction of the· law. One 0.£ our pastors in Texas who. could not induce his congregation to' open a, school kept his children out Qf the public schoQl and taught them at home, one of them at least up to' the sixth grade'. A NGrwegian Lutheran of Evans- ton, Ill., having no easy access to a, Lutheran 8chooten, oeboUmiidjtigten 11nD etfeudjteten mot en unb Shtedjte unb ljut fo feinet Sfitdje cinen reidjen Ci5cljaJ,l bon strabitionen, bon itoerHeferungen, llermtttelt. u &.;lier ficrrt fiel) I.j.loljlmann ruefentridj auf ben Ci5tanDpunft be~ l.j.lapi0muB, nur DaB cr bon b i e len oel10rhniidjtigten unD etfcudjtetcn moien unb ~nedj" ten tebet, hliiljrcnb ridj ber ffij)mani~mu~ Die Ci5adje leidjtet madjt unD aUe iura in scrinio pectoris papae fem Iiif3t. I.j.loljlmann gIauot geruiffermaBen an eine :0 n f p ira ± ion ber :itrahitionen unb liiBt bann bief e inf~lirierten :itrabHionen 3U Ci5l)moolen tDcrben, ruiiljtenD unferc iVl)moole bodj nie etrua~ anbercB ljaoen fein ruoUen alB Bcugen unb ::tlarIegungen het Ci5djriftrualjr" ljeit (man llctgleidje nur 3. m. bie @iinIcitung ilut SfofotbienformeI). :itra" bi±ionaH~mu~ ift hcm Wutor gIcidj "Ci5t)mhonBmu~u: in (1)mooIcn bOt" Iicgenhc :itrahition. @lel1:Jit, eine grunbfii~Hdj unoioHfdjc unh 11nIutljetifdje merruin11ngJ Woet ba~ fdjHmme @inbe lomm± nun erft nadj. Wut hie ZSrage u jffiie betljaIten fidj &.;leiIige Ci5djrift unh Ci5t)moole auemanDe!:?" ant" hYorict et: "Wudj bie Ci5djrift iriigt fl)mooIljaften @:ljarafter unb fann Darum mit ben iiorigen Ci5i)nWoIen bet S'Hrd)e ilufammengefterrt ru'etben." (Sic!) ?CUt cleft bie 6djtift in bet ffieilje ber 6l)moole "an bie etfie 6teUe 11nb ninunt ben ffiang 11nb bie jffiiirbe eineB UrflJmooI0 an". ::tlamit ift hie Ci5djrift abet 3um "matgeoenhen Ci5l)mool flir hie iiorigen Ci5l)mooIe ge" ruorbeu, baB fcljlecgtljin ranonifd)e Ci5t)mooI". ::tlaB ljori fid) ia ganB fd)on, ja ocinalje ortljobo!; anI I.j.loljlmann argumentiert nUn ruehcr: "gaB bie Ci5djrift Urf1)!llvol ift, giUt iljr eine gana ljerbonagenbe Ci5teUung, einm iioerragenbm I.j.lrimat." (Sic!) "Woer", fo faljrl et fott, "gUt nicljt audj bon bicfcm I.j.lrima± baB pdmus inter pares? @irftrangige~ Ci51)mool geilJit, aoet even aud) ®lJmvoI, ltub bamit erftet unier cinet ffieilje llon mleidJem, @irftgeoorner unter biden ober mandjen nadjgeoorncn mriibcrn I" ::tliefeB ,,@lIeidj" erHiirt er bann niiljer fo: ,,:0ft benn nidji bie Ci5djrift, fo geruit fie @lo±±eB jffior± in lidj ±riig± unb @lo±±cB @leift in iljr rueljt, eoen alB iSdjrift lmenfdjenruort unD lmenfdjenhYerf [!]; unb rebet ltnh ruaItet nidjt anberer" feit~ in ben Ci5t)m!iolen, fo geillit ficWCenfdjentDori unh lmenfdjenruerf finb, l1:Jieher11m audj @lo±te~ jffiort unb @loitcB @lcif±?" &.;lierau~ aoer foIgt nadj I.j.loljlmann, hat man oei ber meljanbIung heB ?BerljiiItniff e~ bon Ci5djrift 11nD Ci5l)m!ioI iioer ein hiaIeftifdje~ ?Berljiirtni§ nidjt ~inmt~fommt. WUf bet einen Ci5cite niimIidj ift ba~ Ci5t)nWoI ber Ci5djrift tuef en~gIeidj ('?) 11nD hann rule" her: bie Ci5djdft ift hYefen~betfCfjrieben bom Ci5t)mooI, iioerfi)mooIifdj, Ci5djtift bon ein3iger Wrt, scriptura sacra, ,,~emge" Ci5djrift. Un] rua~ l1:JiIT ba~ fdjIief3Iidj aUe~ ljeiten? ::tlie~, bat I.j.loljlmann bie ®tunbbifferena aiDtfdjen @5djrift lln1:J )Bcfenntni~ nidJt anetfenn±. ::tlie @5djrift ift iljm nidj± haB ruOt±riclj eingegevene, cinaigartige jffiort ®o±±e~, fonhern lmenfd)cntDori unb lmenfdjenilJcrf, ooruoI)1 fie @lotieB jffiort "in fidj tragt" unh ®ottcB mei]t "in iljr rueljt". I.j.ljjljlmanll bertl1irft hie Eeljre bon ber ?BervaIinfpiration; fo fanu er fd)Iief3Iidj audj feincn tedjten Unterfdjieh finben iliDifdjcn Ci5djtift unb mefenntniB unb mU13 fidj 1n bie WUBfludj± eine~ "biaIeftif djen ?Ber" ~iiItni1f cB" fliidjten. nUf bcr anbern Ci5eite aoer erljo~t er uadj romif djer jffieife bie Ci51)moole aUf ba~ 9Hbeau ber Ci5djrift; henn audj fie hagen iljm, iDie hie @5djtift, @loite~ jffiort in fidj unh in iljnen rueljt @lotte~ meift. @iine tJrnnaljerung an hie Eeljre ber !ll:cformaiion finbet fidj ha~er oei l.j.lij~Imann nidjt. Ci5ein mari~iani~mu~, fein rationaIiftifdjer lmoberni~mu~, Iiint e~ Theological Observer. - .Rird)Hd)~3eitgefd)id)tIid)e§. 387 niclj± AU, bat er our .2eljre ber Si:onforbienformef ourilcffeljrt. SDief e aoer feljrt iloer bas lBerljiiHnis \:Jon @5cljrift nnb [\efenn±nii3 gano anbers als liSoljfmann: iljt iff bas @5\Jmliof bet @5cljtift nie roef ensgleiclj; iljt ift bai3 @5\JmlioI nur fircljficlje SDatfegung bet aus bet @5cljrirr gefcljopften goU~ ficljen .2eljre; iljr ift bie @5cljrift alIein norma normans; fie roiU nut norma normata fein. \!rlier ba§ erniebtigt bas @5\Jmo.oI niclj±; bas maclj± bas @5\JmDoI nicljt nngeluif3. 9cein; elien roeiI es naclj ber .\JeiIigen @5cljrif± nor~ miert iff, iff es rin gemiffes :Beugnis ber go±tricljen )illaljrljeit, norma atque regula, n a clj, aoer boclj anclj micber m i ± nnb in het @5cljrtft. llmgefeljrt aoer ljat bas €l)moof iloemll ba feinen luirlHcljen )illert, mo man bie Iutlje~ rifclje .2eljre \:Jon ber :;jnfpimtion ber @5cljrift \:Jermirft nnb man bann bas lS~mool nicljt ali3 aus ber IScljrift gefcljojJft anerlennt, fonbern es als em burclj ba§ )illeljen bes .\JeiHgen @eiftes in \:Jon (£ljrifto etfeucljteten IDliinnern ouftanbegefommenes ;itrabitionsouclj oetracljtet (neoenoei oemedt, finb naclj bes IScljreioer§ SDarfteUung @5cljrift forooljI ais @5~mooI eigentriclj burclj ~Uu~ mination, bai3 moberne lSurrogat filr ~nfpiration, entf±anhen). SDenn feU ber \!rpof±eI :Beit (\:JgI. (fplj. 2, 20; ~olj. 17, 20; .\Jeor. 1, 1. 2 ufm.) ljat (£ljriftus auf3erljaTh ber IScljrift nun einmaI n i clj t meljr au unb hurclj nns gerebe±. [\eljauptet man, @oU rebe noclj jett au unb burclj uns autetljaTh ber @5.cljrift, fo ift bas nicljts anberes aIS ber \:Jon bem IScljreioer feThft als unoerecljtigt \:Jermotfene ISpirituaIismus, bas ljeitt, Die in ber Si:irclje uw oerecljtig±e IS clj III arm g e i f± ere i. 2tuclj in oeoug aUf hie SDof±rin \:Jon bem lBerljiiI±ni0 31l1iicljen €cljrif± unD [\efenntnis oring± hie biaIcftifclje :itljeologie Die SHtclje niclj± ilWU €tanbpunft bet meformation auriicf; benn roas hie DiaIeftifclje ::tljeoIogie einerfeits fn friifHg oejaljt, \:Jerneint fie j:lar~ tout anDererfeit§. Hub gcmbc barin Hegt iloerljauj:lt ber grnte @5cljabe biefer gnoftifclj~pljHofoj:l[)ifcljen micljtung, biefes ratinnaliftifcljen IDlobernismU0 im @emanb ber meforma±ion. ~. ;it. IDe. ~ie nntiirWfrc (ilottcBctfenntniB ltttter ben SJeib-en. (fin en intereffanten unb micljiigen [\eitrag au mom. 1, 19. 20 unb 2, 14. 15 Iiefert IDliHiol1ar ~. ~ttmann aus bem Si:amerun, )illef±afrifa, un±er ber ftoerfcljrift "llrtilm~ Hd)e [\inbungen unb lBoIfsorbnungen im \:Jorberen Si:amerun" in bem ,,(f\:Jang. IDliffions ~ IDlagaain" (.\Jeft 1, ~aljrg. 80). SDa auclj mir nns immer mieber mit ber tyrage oefcljiiftigen milffen: )illie benIt ficlj ber SJeibe @otH fo Wrften einige @5iite aus bem feljr Ieljrreicljen meferat filr llns \:Jon ~nteteffe fein. IDliHionar ~ttmann fcljreiht: ,,)illoljin man im )illalb~ ge6ie± Lommt, 1D iff e n bie .2eute \:J 0 n @ 0 t t. ltnb er ift niclj± gehacljt a10 i r g en b e i n @ii~e ober auclj fonft mit etma!3 SDingIicljem \:Jermifcljt, fonbern er ift ber il 0 e r mer ± r i clj e 6cljOj:lfer \:Jon (frbe unb .\Jimmel unb ber (frfcljaffer bes .IHnbe§ im lJ)cutterleiO. SDie SDuala ljaoen als [\ei~ namen @ottes bas ~ort Muwekipeki, ,@5cljiij:lfer', unb hie )illieberljolung bes )illortftammB brilcH lcljon aU0, baf3 Dai3 (frfcljaffen nicljt nur ein ein~ maIiger \!rft ift. SDie ffianfon nennen iljn Mfega-bod, ,IDlenfcljenerfcljaffer'. 2fnbere 6iIben anbere 91amen \:Jon bem arten Si:ameruner Seitm'ort peka, ,fcljoj:lfen', ,erfcljoj:lfen'. SDer .\Jeibe ber6inbe± mit feiner @oites\:JorftelIung nicljt aUes, ma§ mir im erften 2lrtifef iloer bas ljocljf±e )illefen auslagen, aoer ~amen unb ~orftelIungen finD burcljaus filr ben cljriftIicljen llnter~ riclj± oraucljoar. SDie grote \!rufga'be in liSrebig± unb llnterricljt ift bie, Me IDeenfcljen iJU feoenbigem @Iauoen an nnb ljeraIicljem lBertrauen au biefem 388 Theological Observer. - .reitdjIid)~8eitgefdjid)md)e!l. befann±en ®o±± au fii~ren. - ~af> biefer ®o±± auef) Wn±eU nimm± am menfef)Iief)en 05rge~en, bat er ben jJrommen BUberfief)t, i~r 5trof± in jiM, i~re Eeud)te im 5tobe if±- ... IlJirb nm bon einaernen &;)eiben gea~nt. jffienn man ~ort, llJefef)c )8einamen a. g). bie fSarllJiri am Sfamerunucrge i~rem ®o±te£lnamen Owase ~inaufiigen: Lowa, ,ber &;)immer£l~ett', Lowa l'eyoyo, ,ber unbefIedte &;)immer£l~ett', Monge ober Mongonge, ,bet WIl1)err', Ndando, ,Wugrenaung', ba£l ~eit±, ber bon feinen ®efef)oj:Jfen au un±etfef)eiben iff, ber auer auef) ben @)±iiml11en unb moIfern ®renaen unb llntetfef)eibungen gefeJ.?t ~at; llJenn man i~re ~[nrebe im ~eibnifef)en ®ebet ~ori: A Owas' a Loba la Monge lilO Ndando, ,bu groBer, alImiief)tiger &;)il11meI5go±± ber :Orbnung': fo mU13 man fief) nur llJunbern, bat fie, fta±± au feuenbigerer ®o±±e£ledenntni£l unb llJa~rem ®o±±e0gIauoen buref)ilubringen, ®o±± 3um @)pot± gemaef)± ~alJen: 05r ~a± fief) 3uri\C£gc30gen in unermeflene jJernen, unerreief)'uat; unb roeH er gut ift, mut man i~m nief)t bienen noef) i~n fiiref)ten. (~ie£l edriirt fief) au£l bem @)ef)urbuellJut±fein ber &;)eiben: man ffie~t ®o±±.) W1t5 bet jJinftemi5 t~re£l unberf±iinbigen &;)etaen£l llJiief)ft oei i~nen IlJ,ie uei anbern &;)eiben bie WfterreIigion: bie 5totengeifter ±reten an @)telIe be£l ~immnfef)en ma±er§, Wcad.jtgfauIJe, mrutfurt unb ~mufe±±en~ llJefen berbrangen ben WIImaef)tigen; Wo±± l1Jirb 3um @)ef)at±en (ii~nfief) l1Jie beim ?jSapi£lmu£l). 5troJ.? ®otte£la~nung finb fie augegHt±en ilU ®eifter~ bienft, au &;)Q;en~ unb 5totenfuref)±; BaulJer, :OraIer, ~[mure±±eni1Jefen fpielen fie in bie &;)iinbe be±rugerifef)er IDcenfef)en; 9Caturberuunb'en~eit llJirb 9Cahtr~ geuunben~eit. Woer buref) alI biefen jffiuft unb ;Dunft ~inburef) remen bie &;)eiben aUf ®runb i~rer ®oite£laljnung bod) immer ilJiebet, bie &;)iinbe au£l" auftrecfen naef) bem ellJigen ®ut, ~erau£l mt£l Sfneef)tung, metallJ'etfrung unb 9Cot. 05§ ift bie @Sef)urb ber &;)eiben, bon bem ~errfief)en @Sef)oj.Jfergo±t au llJiffen unb fief) boef) bem ®efef)opf ~inilugeuen in ljeitem )8emii~cn. ~arum ift biefe WnInuj.Jfung auef) beruunbcn mit ber ?jSrebigt aur g)ute. ~ie fSafa am @)anaga ~a:fJen cine @)unbcnfalI~illietIiefetung, hie fief) llJie eine in£l WfrHanifef)e iiberiragene ?jSaralIefe be£l bibIifef)cn fSerief)t5 an~ort. ~er Grote ®egenfaJ.? ~t in bet jJorifeJ.?ung Mefe§ merief)t£l. ~n ber @)ef)rift ~i:iren llJir bom Moten, ljauenben @)ef)llJeri be£l (I~eruu. Bugfeief) auer laB± bie lange Sfe±te ber ()ffenuarung bam ?jSrotebangefium fii£l 3um eingeuomen @)o~n, bet in be£l mater§ @)ef)ot iff, bie gegcnfeitigen meaie~ungcn in @)uef)en unb @)ief)finbenlaffen nimmel: aureifJen. mon alI bem ~aoen bie )8afa nief)t5. ~a£l einaige, ilJa£l i~nen uIiefi, ift bie futnbe bon einem groten @)±ein am jJlut mit eigentumIid)er mertiefung, ,bie IeJ.?±e jJutfpur ®otte£l auf (2;rben'. - meffer ag ber aufteef)±e ®ang untetfd)eibe± ba£l ®ellJiffen ben IDCenfef)en bom ~ier. WuClj bie &;)eiben unterfef)eiben illlJifef)en gut unb )jofe fiei fief) unb anbem. Unfere Eeu±e ~a)jen feinen uefanberen 9Camen fut ba£l ®e~ llJiffen. jffiir neurauef)en bafiir }![ulema, ,&;)era', ober Doi La Mulema, ,@)timme be£l ,\)erilCll£l'; benn ba§ WeilJiffen iiuted fief) uei i~nen ilJie in ciner @)±imme. ~a0 ®ellJiffen f±erIt ben lJRenfef)en in bie meran±roodung bot ben &;)oef)ften, ilcrbinbet aUer auef) ilugIcief) mit ben IDCcnfef)cn, iluniief)lt ben 9Ciief)f±en bem 9Ciief)f±en, auer auef) ben lJRenfef)en bem IDCi±menfef)en. ;Denn ®o±t f±e~t ~inter bem ®ellJifien; ®o±t unb @ehJiffen ge~oten ilufam~ men, anef) roo ueibe§ berbunfer± ift. ,®ott ift gut un]) ~af3t ba£l mOf e; Wo±t ~att ungereef)±c£l ®crief)t. ", Theological Observer. ~ .Rird)nd)~8eitgefd)icljt1id)eiJ. 389 iriittoaljt, eine feine ,;-Slluftratton unb QJef±iitigung beff en, toa~ un~ ~aulu~ im stomerorief ~a!J. 1 unb 2 fag±. 3ugleidj ift bies aoet audj bodj tDiebet eine ernfte IDcaljnung an un~ Gl:ljuften, baf3 roit audj mefeu atmen, in QJIinDljeit baljingeljenben IDCenfdjen Die feligmadjenbe ®otteserfenn±ni~ boll unh gana oringen foruen. ~. :it. IDC. A Confession. ~ America (Roman Catholic) of Ma;rch 7 contains a sketch of the present political situa,tion in Spa.in under the title "The Spanish. Elections," by Owen B. McGuire. After describing the seven par- ties, five Catholic and two anti-Catholic, he cites with approval the Bishop of Ba.rcclona., who says: (In the present e,lections) "we ha,ve reached a crisis in our history whose outcome will dedde the very existence of Catholic Spain." Then he makes a. confe,ssion, rather surprising in a Catholic journa.l: "We have haci hI this country nO' adequate idea O'f the extent to which Spa,in has been dechristianized within the' last 150 years. . .. The masses of the' working class ha,ve been lOEt to' the Church. . .. It is due to two causes, both equally deplorable': the neglect, material and spiritual, of the tO'iling masses. Spain was politically the worst-gove,rneel and most bO'ss-ridden country in Europe'. . .. The' neglect of the working class by their spiritual guides was no less deplorable and is incompre,hensible when one, considers the many warnings, they had in the insurrections of the past hundred years. The' poor people were neither inst.ructed in their religion nor kept tOo its pra,ctise." A simila.r confession regarding Mexico would be good fOol' the Gatholic soul. Fo'r centuries the "Church" has neglected, enslaved, and mulcted the people' of MecKico. No Christian will attempt to justify the antireligious activity Oof government officials; but Rome', iII; Me,xico and in Spain, is reaping thel harvest of its own sBeding. T. H. The Catholic youth Movement in the Church of England. ~ In the Anglican Church, at the centenary of the Oxford Movement in 1933, an Anglo-Catholic youth movement was begun, which calls itself "The Seven Years' Association" because the movement as first conceived is a tem- porary one intended to last till 1940, when an international congress is to be held. One of the chief spokesmen of the movement is a young man of twenty-six years, Peter Winkworth by name, who, when the Dean of St. Paul's in London advocated Pan-Protestant services "to att.ract youth," made the famous reply, "You do not understand youth, sir. Youth is won not by stunts, but by discipline." Writing in the Living Ohurch, this young lawyer reports as the rule of life of his association the following six points: "1) To be present at Mass on Sundays and the greater holy- days and to keep Sunday as a day of worship, rest, and recreation. 2) To receive Holy Communion at least three times a year, of which Ea.stertide shall be one. 3) '1'0 go to confession at least once a year. 4) To fast in Lent and to eat no meat on Fridays. 5) To uphold the Church's marriage law. 6) To give regularly to the support of the Church and ministry." While one admires the stamina which these young people manifest, endeavoring to stem the tide of unionistic indifference, one has to feel sorry for them, beholding the salad which they have prepared for them- selves, mixing into it in such large proportion popish and legalistic in- gredients. A.