Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 5-10 (Text)

(ttnurnr~iu aJqtnlngirul ilnutlJly Continuing LEHRE UND WEHRE MAGAZIN FUER Ev.-LuTH. HOMILETIK THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY-THEOLOGICAL MONTHLY Vol. V October, ,1.934 No. 10 CONTENTS Page Rede zur Eroe:lfnung der Synodalkonferenz. L. Fuerbringer • 737 The Primitive Christians, E. G. Sihler •••••••••••••••••••• 741 Die Gnadenwahl nach Zeit und Ewigkeit. J. T. Mueller •••• 748 Externalism and Sacramentalism. P. E. Kretzmann. • • • • • • • •• 757 Von dem Beruf der Lehrerinnen an christlichen Gemeinde- schulen. G. Stoeckhardt t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 764 Sermon Study on 1 Tim. 4, 4-11. T. Laetsch ••••••••••••• 774 Sepnons and Outlines ............................... 782 Miscellanea ......................................... 789 Theological Observer. - Kirchlich-Zeitgeschichtliches ..•.. 791 Book Review. - Literatur ............................ 807 Em Prediger muss nicbt a11em weiden, also dass er die Schafe unterwelse, wle sie recbte Ohrtsten BOllen &em, BOndern aucb daneben den Woelfen tDehr.m, dass sle die Schafe nl~ht lIJ\grel1en und mit fol!:ch~r Lehre verfuehren und Irrtum e1n. fuehren. - LuIAef'. Es 1st kem Ding, daa die Leute mehr bel der Kircbe bebaelt denn die lUte Predlgt. - Apologie, An.~. If the trumpet give an uncertain BOund, who shall prepare himself to the hattie f 1 Cor.~, B. Published for the Ev. Luth. Synod of l!rtissouri, Ohio, and Other States CONCORDIA PUBLISHING HOUSE, St. Louis, Mo. Theological Observer. - .reitc9nc9.3eit(!efc9ic9tli~~. 791 Theological Observer. - ~ifdjlidj".seitgefdjidjtlidje~. I. ).meriktt. Did the Lutheran Church Ever Teach This? - The Luthe1'an Standard of late has been publishing various articles on the question whether it is right for Christians to take part in warfare. In the issue of August 18 the Rev. H. Boening, writing under the caption "Conscience and War," upholds two views: 1. If a foreign army invades the conti- nental United States, one ought to sanction a war of 'defense and par- ticipate as an armed combatant if possible. 2. Participation in any other kind of war is wrong. In enlarging on this position, he says: "If these statements reflected only my personal opinions, there would be no reason for publishing them here. I would live by them and hope that my sons will some day live by them, but I would not attempt to propagandize for them. They are opinions, however, which to me seem inevitably, unes- capably, implied in all Christian thinking. I am willing to go so far as to say that I cannot see how anyone can refuse to share them and still call himself a. follower of the Prince of Peace. To my way of thinking our Church remains woefully remiss in an essential duty till it begins to embody them in its teachings. Consider what is involved in any other position: blind obedience to a government which may err, nothing less,- and till recently our Church taught just that. It is not four years since a young pastor asked one of our Districts, in convention assembled, to discuss the moral issues raised by pacifism. The District decided that it had no time for such a discussion, Mention of the subject was dis- missed when the ranking official simply laid down the dictum: 'When war comes, we Christians obey and ask no questions. The responsibility is not ours.' " We cannot help asking, When did the Lutheran Church ever teach blind obedience to a government which may err? That certa.in officials have blundered now and then in discussions of the questions involved we do not doubt; but to say that the Lutheran Church as such in past years placed in its ethical code a principle calling for blind obedience to the government is certainly an egregious misstatement. What our Church has always insisted on is that "we ought to obey God rather than men," Acts 5, 29. In the Augsbu1'g Oonfession our fathers draw attention to this very passage, saying in Art. XVI: "Therefore Christia.ns are necessarily bound to obey their own magistrates and laws, save only when commanded to sin; for then they ought to obey God rather than men, Acts 5, 29," This position certainly implies that, if any citizen is able to prove that a certain war in which his goverment engages is one of sheer aggression and hence sinful, he is in duty bound to refrain from participation in it. The difficulty lies in obtaining sufficient information to decide whether a certain war is just or unjust. When a citizen is in doubt as to the jus- tice of a war which his government is carrying on, he ought to give his government the benefit of the doubt. This is putting into a few brief words just about everything that can be said on this subject. While searching discussions of all angles of the question of war and peace in 792 Theological Observer. - aitd)Iid)~.8tit\lefd)id)tlt.!. their relation to us Christians are perfectly legitimate, why must the Lu- theran Church be misrepresented by her own sons while these discussions are in progress? A. An Ominous Questionnaire of the "Lutheran 'Standard." - As we see from the number of July 1. the Lt~theran StaMm'd submitted five questions to its readers. They ran thus: "1. Do you favor substantial reductions in armaments even if the United States is compelled to take the ini tia,tive and make a, proportiona,tely greater reduction than other nations are yet willing to do? 2,. Do you believe that the churches of America should now go on record as refusing to sanction or support any future wa,r? 3. Are you prepared personally to state tha,t it is your present purpose not to sanction any future wa,r or participa,te as an armed comba,tant? 4. Do you fa,vor a drastic limitation through the income tax and the removal of tax-exempt sources of the annual income that may be legally retained by an individual? 5. Which economic system a,ppears to you to be the less antagonistic and more consistent with the ideals and methods of Jesus. capitalism or a coopera,tive commonwealth?" Giving the history of this questionnaire" the editor of the Standa1-d, Dr. Edwa,rd W. Schramm, writes: "I selected five of the fifteen questions used by Kirby Page, editor of the World To-m01Tow, in a questionnaire that was sent to the American clergy and to which about twenty-one thousand clergymen, including no small number of Lutherans, responded. The answers show tha,t of all denominations the Lutheran clergy was the most conservative. When I studied the report of the Page qnestionnaire, I thought it would be worth while to try to ascertain the convictions of our Lutheran laymen on some of these issues. I was the more inclined to do so beDause I am deeply convinced of the need of our Lutheran Church studying the vital economic, social, and political issues of the day and offering its constituency sane, Scriptural guidance in the face of all the 'words without wisdom' tha,t are being bandied a,bout. Hence the questionna,ire." What a,re we to think of the course on which the Standard has la.unched? If the editor were propounding the a,bove questions to a friend with whom he happens to be chatting in the shade of some spreading oak- or chestnut-tree, we should not object to it; since,. however, in this matter he is not acting in the capacity of a, private individual, but as the editor of a church-pa,per and the repl'esenta,tive of a large Lutheran church-body, we cannot trea,t his questionna,ire, as a, private ma,tter in which he merely exercises his prerogative a,s an American citizen of the Lutheran Church. These questions very sharply bring before us the old issue whether the Church is to concern itself with political and social matters or not, whether it is to preach the present-day social gospel, whether it is to become the advocate of special "politico-social" tendencies, or whether it is simply to continue the old, time-honored work of preaching the Gospel of Jesus Christ. The Standard evidently feels that in the past the Lutheran Church has kept too much aloof from the discnssion of social, economic, and political problems. In support of his courBe Dr. SchrallllIl says: "I admit that it is most painful to lose sight of the distinction between Church and Sta,te or for one to lord it over the other. But I submit that Church and Sta,te cannot be kept in air-tight compartments Theological Observer. - .Rtrd}lid} • .geitgefd}td}md}d. 793 and completely isolated. Rendering unto God the things tha,t are God's has something to do with rendering unto Gaesar the things that a·re Caesar's, and unless we study some of the things that Caesar is doing and tha,t our newspapers ma,y be advocating and appraise these things in. the light of God's ''lord and put to them the test question, '\'That would Jesus ha,ve me do?' we may inadvertently be guilty of obeying men rather than God. Now the question: In the late World War we followed the principle of rendering unto Caesar the things tha,t are Caesa,r) and sanc- tioned and espoused that war as a, just war. Since our Government had declared wa,r, and since our Confessions teach tha,t Christians may engage in a just war, we gave the war our blessing. In the light of what we know a,bout the justice of that war, did we do the will of God in taking pa,rt in that carnage, or was it only those we fought against who sinned? You know in every war, a,s in every divorce, there is sin on at least oue side-usually both. In the last war, which was the just side and which the unjust? If we could repea,t the experiences of recent years and were to-day to pass judgment on entering the World Wa,r, what would your decision be? Are munitions-makers, selfish, materialistic interests of one kind and another, to furnish aU the information a,bout war to our .Amer- ican people - and a,bout the kind of economic system we should ha,ve? Are we Lutherans to leave the spiritua.I aspect of these things to the Modernists? Is it our God-given duty to keep so strictly to our last tha,t we discuss, the socia.! order of Jesus' day, possibly of the time of the Refonrut,tion, but leave the discussion of the injustices and sins of our own day to our posterity two thousand years hence? Ha,s the Gospel a message for the individual and absolutely nothing beyond that sphere? I know we must staTt with the individual, but does Jesus authorize us to stop there?" There is much to say in reply. We are confident tha,t Dr. Schramm is absolutely wrong when he intimates that the Lutheran Church gave the war tha,t was waged in 19'17-18 its blessing. It ma,y be that some Lutheran synod at the time decla,red that our entrance into. the war was right and God-pleasing, but we know that the Missouri Synod did not make any such decl:ua.tion, and we are persuaded the Ohio Synod did not do it either. The last-named synods, it is true, did no.t brand the war as wicked and urge their members not to participate as co.mbatants or in any other role, but neither did they espouse it as a worthy undertaking. There were ever so. lllany individua.Is in these church-bodies who endorsed Presi- dent Wilso.n's declara.tio.n of war; but let us be ca,reful not to charge our church-bodies with having made such an endo.rsement. In the second place, the editor entirely overlooks what the Church is able to do in the econo.mic and political sphere. It has one source of wisdo.m on which it may and must draw - the Holy Scriptures. ''There they speak, it also speaks; where they are silent, it must be silent, too.. The Scriptures nowhere declare that it is wrong fo.r Christians to engage in warfare. If we wish to continue as the Bible Church, such opposition to. war as the modernistic pulpit and press are now manifesting cannot be participated in by our church-bodies. Does the Bible sa,y that capitalism is an evil and must be supplanted by SOllle brand o.f Socialism? Does it say which is the most equitable way of raising the mo.ney which 794 Theological Observer. - Ritd)l~~{leit\1efd)id)md)el!. the Government requires for its work? Doe!> it pronounce in favor of long or short working-hours? It lays down general principles which the Church is to teach and which, if followed, will ameliorate harassing con- ditions in this vale, of tears; but the individual questions mentioned it does not decide. Could the Church conscientiously go on record as being opposed to the participa,tion of its members in war? The Mennonites do because they say the Bible teaches such an attitude; but the Lutheran Church has always declared that such Bible-proof as the Mennonites advance for their position is a figment of their own manufadure. The' Modernists. can well say that a.s church-bodies they are opposed to aU wars because they do not a,t all pretend to follow the Scriptures strictly and loyally. The Reformed church-bodies may with a show of right enter the political a,rena and decla,re aga,inst participation in wa,r because, while they a,vow allegiance to the Scriptures, they definitely state that in their religious pronouncements they a,re also guided by reason. But how the Lutheran Church, with its profession of being a, Bible Church, can con- sistently and conscientiously declare in favor of the attitude mentioned and thus authoritatiYcly decide a, moot politico-social question we are unable, to gra.sp. In the third place, the questionnaire of the Standard is a step in the direction of thisworlilliness. W1lat Jesus would ha,ve replied if a person had asked Him whether He might become a, soldier we can easily see. He would have told him and his a.ssociates: "Seek ye first the kingdom of God and His righteousness. W1lether you take part in a war or not is a comparatively small matter. W1lat really counts is that you should be a, child of the Fa,ther in heaycn." W1lat Paul would ha.ve replied to such a, question we may sec from 1 Cor. 7,29 ff. : "But this I say" brethren, the time is, short. It remaineth tha,t both they that have wives be as though they had none; they that weep as though they wept not; and they that rejoice as though they rejoicecl not; ana they that buy as though they possessed not; and they that use this world as not a,busing it ,: for the fashion of this world paswth away." Finally, wIlen the editor of the Standard asks, "Are we Lutherans to leave the spiritual aspect of these things to the Modcrnists?" we shaH of course reply that wha,t the Bihle has. to say on the questions under discussion must be taught by us, hut that a.s churches we should not hesita,te to lea;ve to the Modernists the propaganda, for the extra,-Scriptural and (when pa,rticipation in war is branded as sinful pm" se) a.nti-Scriptural politico-social theories. "Let the dea,d bury their dead; but go thou and prea.ch the kingdom of God." Burying the dead is an important temporal service. It is one thing the spiritually dead are fit for; let them attend to- it. Since the Modernists do not lead people to Christ and to eternal salvation, let us not grudge them such little service as they can render here on eaa:th. At any rate, if we see that they as a, quasi-political organiza,tion are apparently doing some good, let us not think tha.t our churches also must become politico-social bodies. The Lutheran Standard in the pa.st adhered to the great historic principles of the Lutheran Church in this realm. Let us hope tha,t the present defection will prove to be momentary only. A. Theological Observer. - .reird)1id)~8eitgefd)id)tlid)e~. 795 The Evangelical-Reformed Union Hailed by the "Luthell.'"an." So spoke the Lutheran in an editorial published July 5, 1934: "The Lutheran extends, the good wishes of the United Lutheran Church to tIle newly formed Evangelical and Reformed C1mrch. The union bet,,'een these two Christian bodies has followed sincere prayer and pa,tient study of conditions,. The objective is more effective service to our Lord and the firmer esta.blishment of His kingdom on earth. The advantages of union in economy and thoroughness of combined administration justify coalition where agreements have been reached. The fact of merging indicates that agreements have been reached. Good results should, and no doubt will, follow. We cordially greet Ollr new neJighbors." Are comments needed? A. The Character of the Evangelical Synod and the "Lutheran's" Greetings. - In the Lutheran of August 9 a valuable letter is published, which not only embodies important information on the character of the Evangelical Synod, but likewise is evidence that there are people left in the U. L. C. who are not willing to board the ship of unionism. The letter is sufficiently self-explanatory to be reprinted by us without further comments. "In the issue of July 5, 1934, the Lutheran extends the good wishes of the United Lutheran Church in America to the newly formed Evan- gelical and Reformed Church. It is pointed out that this union has fol- lowed sincere prayer. "Also in the Lutheran of July 12, 1934, there is an article, 'A Sister's Marriage,' emphasizing the fad that there are three hundred congrega- tions which worship in the same church with the Reformed whose theology, admitted in this a,rticle, is liberal and modemistic. "As a pastor of the United Lutheran Church in America", I cannot understand the attitude of the Lutheran regarding this merger. If it is true of the Reformed Church, 'Ihr habt einen andern Geist l' then this expression of Dr. Luther is even more fitting for the Evangelical and Re- formed Church. "Considering the fact that the Evangelical Synod in itsl majority consists of pastors and members formerly Lutherans, whO' often were enticed to leave the Lutheran Church, cla,iming that the Evangelical Synod is just as Lutheran, I am at a, loss to understand how any Lu- theran Church can extend good wishes to a body which consistently drew her membership from Lutheran bodies. "A member whom we took into our congrega,tion recently told me that the Evangelical minister made the following statement to him when he tried to get this family into his congregation: 'I am just as Lutheran as the Lutheran pastor,' and this is not an exception. By this policy the Evangelical Synod and her congregations grew, hurting always Lutheran congrega,tions and depriving Lutheran people of the pure doctrine. "In the IJ"rticle 'A Sister's Marriage' wrong statements are made re- garding the Evangelical Synod. She does not represent the old State Church of Prussia, though the Evangelical Synod always made this claim. "In the State Church of Prussia a Lutheran pastor or congregation retained the Lutheran doctrine only; in the Evangelical Synod both the Lutheran and the Reformed have to be accepted. 796 Theological Observer. - RitdJlid):,8eUgefdJidJt1idJeil. "In the State Church of Prussia the Reformed congregation could be served only by a Reformed pastor and used the Heidelberg Catechism, while the Lutheran congregation could be served only by a Lutheran pastor and used Luther's Catechism, partaking in the Sacraments accordingly. In the Evangelical Synod the pastor is compelled to use the makeshift of the Evangelical Catechism. The Lutheran Catechism is forbidden! "The Prus"ian State Church is a confederate union. "The Evangelica,l Synod is an absorptive union. "When this article claims that in the State Church of Prussia the two confessions existed side by side, it is correct for the State Church of Prussia, but absolutely wrong when applied to the Evangelical Synod. "A hint is made that in the new Church a pastor may teach Luther's Small Catechism. That will be impossible, as this Catechism is used only in the creedal statement as a catch for Lutherans, but the Church is for- bidden to teach it. "The doctrinal basis of the Evangelical Synod as given in this article is correct as far as the old constitution goes. In 1927 this unchangeable creedal basis, in spite of constitutional fixation, was amended in order to join a merger with the United Brethren and the Reformed. "Not to get too lengthy, let me just make a few statements which show why a Lutheran cannot extend good wishes to this new Church: - "It is not sincere prayer that did it, but the Calvinistic-modernistic elements, with the sentiment: 'It does not matter what you believe.' An article in our daily newspaper, very likely inspired by Evangelical min- isters, makes this statement: 'Without creed or constitution, except a simple plan of union, the new Church was formed. "A Lutheran should have nothing to do with churches which are in- fested and ruled by Modernists, because they are enemies of the Triune God. "If we believe that the Lutheran Church is the true Church, we can- not extend good wishes to any so-called Church which works against us and tears down what we build up. "The attitude of the Lltthrwan- hurts the prevailing sentiment of Lu- therans for a united Lutheran Church. "The Lutheran should discourage the prevailing tendency among some of the pastors of the United Lutheran Ohurch in America to make common cause and express their sympathy with Oalvinistic and modernistic groups. Either we are with our Lord, or we are against Him. "The" Luthe1'isoher Herold brought a very short and a very fitting re- mark about this union: 'A strange name and a strange doctrinal basis for a union' (Ein seltsamC1' Name un-d ein seltsames Beken.ntnis fuer eine Vereinigung) . "The writer knows what he is talking about. For more than twenty years he was pastor of the Evangelical Synod. Insisting on Luther's Catechism, he was persecuted, and finally, when he and his congregation of more than 750 souls unanimously did not accept the plan of union of four years ago (which did not contain any of the Lutheran or Reformed creeds, not even the Apostolic Creed), the congregation was split by Evangelical ministers. They deceived some of the members, induced them to go to court, and (by very questionable means) succeeded in taking Theological Observer. - Ritd)1id)'.8eitaefd)~tlid)e!. 797 ~ beautiful church property away from a two-thirds majority which stuck to the Lutheran creeds as guaranteed by the constitution of the con- gregation. "In spite of adverse times, hatred and slander, we succeeded by the .grace of God in building a Lutheran church." A. A Compliment, Though Hardly Meant As Such. - Among recent books which are discussed widely the work by H. Paul Douglass of the In- iltitute of Social and Religious Research entitled The Ohurch Umty Move- 11tents in the United States occupies a conspicuous place. The Literary Digest informs us that, according to this book, no one is so much opposed to unionism as Missouri Synod Lutherans. The book is based on informa- tion solicited from twenty thousand persons. Reviewing it, W. E. Garrison, literary editor of the Ohristian Oentury, writes: "Two hindrances to im- portant and radical steps toward union are statistically demonstrable. One is that most denominations have so wide a spread between their pro- and antiunionists that precipitate action would simply pull them in two. Again, the 'sense of distance' between two denominations is often widely -different, dependent on which way the measurement is taken. For example, Disciples feel very little sense of distance from Baptists, while Baptists feel .a considerable sense of distance from Disciples; Quakers feel closer to ], boycott at the polls against all who have been educated in parochial schools. The last phrase of the pledge, "particularly during their early years," makes it clear that graduates of denominational colleges need not fear any discrimination if they are otherwise unobjectionable. It is the parochial schools that the organizers are after. There are a gao(l many things, not all complimentary, that may be said about parochial schools as seen from the Protestant point of view, but whatever defects they may have, this is not the way to cure them. Happily, it is as certain as anything can well be that no great number of voters will join ill any such boycott. - Oh1'is{;an OenltlTY. II. ,2{u511ln". :ttllnriger ltnglanlie. ;1)ie nl5reircIigii:ife (j)eutfcfj~fat1)onfdjel @emeinllc ;1)reBben" 1)attc fUr ~almfonntag 1934 allr ",§ionfirmation" in ben groBen €laaI ber ;1)resbner S'raufmannfdjaft dngeTaben. ffieredjtigt gum I@:intritt 11laren nur bie ~nfja6er bon @:inlallungBfaLien. ~as fidj bod unter ben ~afenfreui3~ unb fdjruar31uci:\3roten l5(1)nen ling unb recfjtB bom ~ollium bor einent naItgermanifcfjen l5Iammenbecfen" unter ben 500 Xeilne1)mem boU~ 30£1, ftanb ben frii1)eren mar6iftifdjen n~ugenbruei1)en" an BIadjaffung firdj~ ficfjer 8eremonien unb @ebriilrcfje in nicfjtB nacfj: braul1gctamtes l5reibenfer~ mml @:B fe1)I±c nidjt bie bct unB @:banneIifcfjen ii6Iicfje "S{;onjirmationBrebe", bic aH; bie brei €lauIen eines freireligii:if en Eeoens l5rei1)eit, jffi(1)r1)eit unb Shaft VrieB. ;1)er EeUcr biefeB im ffiunbe mit bet ,,~rroeit§gemeinfcfjaft ber ;1)cu±fcfjen @Iauoen§oellleglmg" ftefjcl1Den ShcifcB ricfjteic an Dic crfcfjienenen 46 ",\(onjirmanDen" aud) Die brei ,\1onjirmati.on§fragcn bcr S'i'irrlJe, beren ~n1)aIt natiirHcfj mit Gr1)riftentum nicfjtB au tun 1)atte. ;1)iefe l5ragen ruurDen, luieller un±er 9I:adjaljnutng be§ ebangeIifcfjen ffiraucfje§, mit ".';Sa, bas ruoUen ruir" 6can±roorte±. ;1)arauf 11l'llrDen Die .l'Hnbcr nucfj burcfj ~anbfdjrag ber~ VfIid)tC±, unb Der Eeiter gab iIjnen i111 ®egenfa~ 3um reIini:jj§~firdjfi:cfjen einen l1.JeImcfjen €lVrucfj mit aUf ben Eebensrueg. ;1)ie BIacfj(1)mung Dcr feierIicfjen S'ronjirmation erreidjte aoer iljren ~i:i1)e\Junft in ber WUfnaljme Der nSfon~ firmanben" in bie nl5reireIigiOfe @emeinDe" mit ber jcbe0 cfjriftIic~e @:mp~ finllen berIe~enllen l5ormeI: n€lo n(1)me idj eucfj mIf in Die ,ti'reireIigii:ife @emeinbe' im 9I:amen Des morftanlles unD ber @emeinne." - 21:rme, irre~ geIettete @:Itcrn! 9I:ocfj nrmere S'rinber J (@:b. ~Elt±~. l5reHircfje auB ,\)eimaigfocfen.) Dr. Gustav Adolf Warneck Centenary. - Protestant ChJ:istianB the world over may well pause for a few minutes in their regular ac- tivities to recall that 011e of the greatest missionary leaders the Church has produced was born OIlC hundred years ago. The outward life of vVarneck, who was a Lutheran of the mediating type, offers no aspects that are startling. Coming from a humble home and having been trained Theological Observer. - .Rir~lidj'3eit\lefd)idjtlidje~. 803 for the ministry in Halle, where he largely procured his daily bread by his own labor, he first served as pastor for nine years and then spent a triennium in the employ of the Rhenish Mission Society of Barmen, '1 work which was cut short by ill health. Next there followed twenty- two years of pastoral labors near Eisleben, where he began a marvelous literary activity in behalf of missions, which soon placed him in the front ranks of authorities in this field. When in 1891 he retired from the active ministry and removed to Halle, he was made honorary pro- fessor of the Department of Missions, a position which he occupied for twelve years. For thirty-seven years he was the editor of the important journal Allgemeine jji'iss'ionszeitschrift, which he had founded. His wTit- ings, which deal with the various phases of mission endeavor, are very numerous. Among the best-known are Missions in the Light of the Bible; Mi~sion~ in the Schools j The Doctrine of Missions, a work comprising three volumes; Outline Histor.y of Protestant Missions, f1'om the Time of the Refo1'mation to the Present. He died in 1910. We are not asserting too much when we say that in the last century there have been few, if any, men who have had such a stimulating influence on all aspects of mission endeavors as this devout minister. A. The Theosophical Society Has a New Head. - The Hindll, printed in Madras, India, a copy of which was kindly sent us by Missionary E. H. Meinzen, enables us to submit some information pertaining to the Thea, sophical Society. Last June an election was held in Madras for president of the society, at which Dr. George Sydney Arundale received 15,604 votes as against 4,825 cast for the other candidate, Mr. Ernest Wood. Dr. Arun- dale thus becomes the successor of the late Mrs. Besant. In his first mes- sage the new president says among other things: ''What have you the right to expect, perhaps the duty to expect, from your president? First, that he will keep wide open the doors of the Theosophical Society to all who accept the principle of brotherhood in the terms of the First Object and who are prepared to do their best to live it. The society is in no way concerned with the beliefs or opinions of those who seek membership, any more than it is concerned with the beliefs and opinions of those who are already members. These, whether private or public, are their own affair ex- clusively. But the society is surely concerned that each member shall be a source of good will, understanding, and solidarity and not a source of constant discord. In the interests of its own self-preservation the society has the duty to expect that members will so live that all outer differences of belief and opinion and mode of living which naturally and rightly separate them shall tend to strengthen, and not to weaken, the inner and indissoluble tie of the One Life which all share and which is the very heart itself both of theosophy and of the Theosophical Society. May I in this conneetion venture to suggest that in The Golden Stai1'S of H. P. Blavatsky we llRve a perfect description of that soli(larity amidst difference which members of the society should ever seek to maintain." Continuing, he promises that he will "encourage in all possible ways the youth of the world to perceive in theosophy a highroad to truth, to freedom, and to happiness." That the teachings of the Theosophical Society are just as anti- christian as they are vague has often been pointed out and is confirmed 804 Theological Observer. - .!Hrd)lid)~8eit\lefd)id)md)e~. by the above quotations. Our readers may be interested in knowing that the new president of the Theosophical Society was born in Surrey, England, in 1878, and was educated largely in Wiesbaden, Germany. He likewise studied in Cambridge and Paris. In 1895 he joined the Theosophical Society and by and by gave himself over to educational endeavors in India. In 1913 he accompanied }.IIr. Krislmamurti (once hailed as the Messiah) and his brother to Europe to help them in their education. In 1925, strange to say, he became a priest and bishop in the Liberal Catholic Church. Thus the basis on which he stands is wide enough to accept everybody without change of belief and, we add with a sad heart, to save nobody. A. An Interesting Archeological Find in Rome. - Under the caption "The First Church?" the Oommonweal reports as follows on some re- markable work done by archeologists in Rome: "Another archeological romance was brought to a successful conclusion when a workman's pick, digging at one of the supporting crypts now under construction at St. John Lateran, struck an adjoining fourth-century wall. Scholarly persons then identified this masonry as part of what is termed 'the first church.' This remark does not mean that edifices had not been used earlier for ecclesias- tical services. Indeed, it is more than likely that in certain eastern regions the Christian community had actually built and decorated 'churches' of its own. But owing to the Roman persecutions religious worship was largely driven undergroundj and it was not until 319 that building, abetted by the Emperor Constantine and the Empress Helena, was possible on a larger scale. Seven churches were erected under Constantine, one for each of the Roman hills. Of these only St. John Lateran can be identified as belonging to the period. Originally the basilica was known as San Salvatore, the present name dating back to the ninth century. Sacked by Genseric the Vandal, the church was later ruined also by an earthquake and several fires. Little that is visible remains of the era of Constantine, far less than can be seen from the same period at Trier [Treves] for example. It is reported that the newly discovered masonry will be care- fully disinterred and preserved." A. Anglican Bishops Decide, against the Admissio,n of Unitarians to Anglican Pulpits. - When Dr. L. P. Jacks, the well-known editor of the Hibbert Journal, a, Unitarian, was permitted to speak in an Anglican church in Birmingham, England, a storm was caused, many of the Anglican clergy and laity expressing their dissatisfaction with the ultraliberal attitude exhibited in Birmingham. Since this city belongs to the territory which is under the jurisdiction of the convoca,tion of York, the matter was discussed by the bishops who are under the supervision of the Arch- bishop of York (Dr. Temple). The bishops declared the admission of Unitarian preachers into Anglican pulpits a, step which weakens the testi- mony of their Church to the deity of Christ, and hence they refused to give it their sanction. - While we rejoice to hea,r that these Anglican leaders wish to adhere to the fundamental doctrine of the deity of Jesus Christ, the question aJ'ises in our mind why they tolera,te in their own midst many a teacher who in his theology hardly differs from Dr. Jacks. The report does not say that they paid any attention to this aspect of the situation. A. Theological Observer. - ,!1;itcl)1id)=8ettllefcl)icl),md)e~. 805 $rimitil1e ;!)enfiueife. Dr. phil. et jur. 6utan ®. imulia, ein djtiftIidjex ffiataf, gefJiit:tig aus 6umatm, imitglieb be§ \lSat:Iament§ bon 9liebexliinbifdj= 0nbien unb bex llnterridj±§aliteHung in \Sa±abia, l)at in einet umfangreidjen SDoftorbiffedation (1933, llniberiitiit 2eiben) fidj ilU bex l)eute l)eif3 um= f±rittenen ~mge, oli ber menfdjIidje @eift liei ben \lSrimitiben grunbfii~ndj berfdjieben bon bem SDenfbexmogen fjofjerftefjenbex lEoIfer f ei (2ebtJ=\Sxul)f), fofgenbel:maf3en geiiuf3ed: "SDa§ SDenfen bon weniger entroicrerten lEiiIfern aeigt im allgemeinen biefellien imerfmale 1:tlie bas moberne SDenfen; es untex= fdjeibe± fidj nur grabuell bon il)m. SDie ~usfJiIbung be§ SDenfbermiigens ift oei ben 9la±uxboIfern infofge geroiffet 2elien.tiumftiinbe aurfrcfgelifielien. SDer \Segriff \lSt:imitibitiit fjat affo einen xefatiben GDjarafiet." SDie 6cljfun= folgerung feinet auf ben neueften roiffenfdjaftlidjen 6tanb geflll)rtcn llnter= fudjung, bie aUf 179 ::SeHen bie gefamte ucuere, in bier 6pmdjen etfdjienene europiiifdje 2itemmr lietfrcffidjtigt, fllfjrt aur ~nedennung "bet abefigen .\)edunfi be§ primitiben SDenfens, weir e§ bYie bas roiffenfdjafiIidje SDenfen ~U§btucr§form eines unb be§feflien gottfidjen @eifte§ ift. 1mix miiffen alio bas pximitibe SDenfen sub specie aeternitatis (im 2idjt bet: @:roigfeit) an= fefj en " . - SDiefe§ 3eugnis ift um fo liebeu±iamer, af§ Dr. imulia fidj au§= brildllcfj au bem lEoll ber ffia±ar redjnet, "baSi fidj nodj bor roentgen ,;sal)t:= jel)nten im 9la±uri3uftanb liefanb unb in getniffem 6inne bie \lSrimitillitiit Ijeutc nodj nidjt frliertmtnben fjat", gfeidjaeHig aliet: mefjt:ere europiiifdje 6pradjen fpridj± unb eingefjenbe piibagogifdj=pftJdjofogifdje 6±ubien ge= madjt fjat. (~lIg. imifiion§nadjricljten.) Are Anglicans Pre'paring to, Yield I' - According to Dr. S'hillito, the correspondent of the Ohristian Oentury, who writes from London, there is it strong movement on foot in Anglican circlesl to recognize the Sacra,- ments, of Dissenters as valid and to admit that the episcopacy is not ('ssential for the existence of the Church. A decla;ration in which views of this na,ture were set forth was g,igned by five bishops and by other representa,tive men, such a,s· Deans Inge, Hewlett, J ohn80n,. and W. R. Matthews. We quote the sentences of the document which Dr. Shill ito's account supplies: "We acknowledge that divine grace is imparted not only through the Sacraments of the, Church of England, but also through those of the free churches. vVe do not recogl1ize the distinction sometimes drawn in this connection between 'cocvenanted' and 'free' grace. We accept episcopa,cy as of the bene esse, and not as of the esse, of the Church, and we clo not regard a.cceptance of this method of church order as implying any particular theory or interpreta,tion of it or any view of its dominical authority. vVe make no exclusive cla,im for it as rega,rdS' the grace of God. We hope that it may commend itself to the free churches as a method of church order of ancient tradition and historic value" and we believe that with the device of constitutional safeguards and the organiza,tion of synodical institutions, in which the clergy and laity would play their due pa.rt, the system of episcopacy is, still the wisest and most efficient form of church order." ·Whether these views will be generaUy accepted, or whether they will remain mere priva,te gestures, will hacve to be seen. A. The Church of Christ in Siam. - Church mergers such as we have been reading about these last months a,re not confined to the United States. The religious, press informs us that in. ia,r·a,wa,y Siam Presbyterians and 806 Theological Observer. - .Ritd)nd)~8eitgefd)ic9mcge.s. Baptists and prob~,bly other Protestants have joined hands anr. have established a, united Ohurch, whose basis naturally is, very broad. vVllilt is prescribed for membership is merely acceptance, of the constitution. "The original standa.nls of faith and practise" of any individual church- body may be reta,ined,. provided they cl0 not militate againS't the consti- tution. While the church policy a,dopted is' Presbyterian, owing to the preponderance of Presbyte'rians among the Pro,testants of Siam, Ba,ptists are expressly welcomed, as is shown by the official interpretation of the constitution to the effect that the a,rticle of membership is, understood "to gua.rantee to such churches a,s, pra.ctise the ba,ptism of believers only a continuance of that practise." The majority of Protestants in Siam have joined the' new body; the Anglicans and Ohristian and Missionary Alliance people, however, are said to remain aloof. A. Baptist World Convention Met in Berlin. - From the daily papers most of our readers undoubtedly obtained the iuformation that the world meeting of Baptists was held in Berlin, Germany, this summer. What Imppened at that convention is well summarized in an editorial of the GhriBti