Full Text for CTM 22-12 Homiletics (Text)

Concoll()ia Theological Montbly DECEMBER • 1951 '-----------~-~ ---ConcoJl(Ho Theological Monthly Published by The Lutheran Church -Missouri Synod EDITED BY THE FACULTY OF CONCORDIA SEMINARY ST. LOUIS, Mo. Address all communications to the Editorial Committee in care of the Managing Editor, F.E.Mayer, 801 De Mun Ave., St.Louis 5, Mo. EDITORIAL COMMITTEE PAUL M. BRETSCHER, RICHARD R. CAEMMERER, THEODORE HOYER, FREDERICK E. MAYER, LOUIS J. SIECK CONTENTS FOR DECEMBER 1951 PAGE TRIBUTE TO DR. WILLIAM ARNDT _. ______________ ,_. __ ...... 881 RESOLUTIONS OF APPRECIATION ____ __ __ . __ 882 GOD'S TRIUMPHANT CAPTIVE CHRIST'S' AROMA FOR GOD. (2 Cor. 2: 12-17.) Victor Bartling ________ .. __ 883 LUKE 17:20-21 IN RECENT INVESTIGATIONS. Paul M. Bretschef' ______ . 895 THE ApOSTOLIC PSHA! Martin H. Franzmann 908 GOD'S CONCURRENCE IN HUMAN ACTION. fohn Theodore Mueller ._ 912 CHALCEDON AFTER FIFTEEN CENTURIES. faroslav Pelikan _. _____ . __ 926 JOHN CHRYSOSTOM ON THE CHRISTIAN HOME AS A TEACHER. At·thur C. Repp . _______ 937 LITURGICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE, Walter F. BttSzin ________ . 949 HOMILETICS ______ .. __________________ . ___________ 00 __ 955 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL MONTHLY is published monthly by Concordia Publishing House, 3558 S. Jefferson Ave., St. Louis 18, Mo., ro which all business correspondence is to be addressed. $3.00 per annum, anywhere in rhe world, payable in advance. Entered at the Post Office at St. Louis, Mo., as second·class maner. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of posrage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 5, 1918. ,'INn]) Df n .•.•. HOMILETICS A ROYAL PRIEST-IN My WORLD OUTLOOK The Theme for January. -The Epiphany cycle is fruitful in ma­terials for this theme. Is. 60: 1-6 sounds the note of God's mercy for the Gentiles, and the Bethlehem star reminds that Christ was born for them too. As pointed out below, a number of lessons of the month underscore the concept also that Christians who have Christ's life in them are to be an epiphany of Christ to the world. In that accent lies the relation of the royal priesthood to the Epiphany. Sermon Study on Romans 1216-21 jor the Third Sunday After Epiphany The Third Sunday after Epiphany. The manifestation of Christ to the world. The Gospel: Christ's miracle of healing manifests Him as the Son of God. Introit: Believers rejoice in God; let all the earth join in. Gradual: The heathen shall fear the name of the lord. Collect: God's manifestation to be one of powerful defense. This text: The manifestation most easily seen by the world, Chris­tians as "living epistles" reflecting in attitude and conduct the very nature of Christ. Context. Appropriately the Standard Epistle texts for the first three Sundays after Epiphany come from Romans 12. The theme appears in v. 1, which with its "therefore" relates this chapter to all that precedes, namely, the record of the divine imputation of the "mercies of God." This supplies motivation for the appeal: "Present your bodies a living sacrifice . . . unto God," the bodies as instruments for God's use in revealing the divine nature to the world. Hence, "be not conformed to this world"; it supplies only the setting for Christian action. "Be transformed," God-wise. let this appear in your relations with one another as Christians; now ( text), with all men, "the world," even your enemies. The Priesthood. Sacrificing was formerly the work of the priest class; here all Christians are appealed to for a sacrifice. The object is to be our own bodies. Yes, as completely as the "slaughter-sacri-955 956 HOMILETICS fice" (Lenski) was offered, so wholeheartedly do we bring our sacrifice of ourselves. Yet, it is to be a "living sacrifice"; just as Christ wholly offered Himself and now lives for us, so our offering is fulfilled in our continued living unto God. The priesthood of all believers! This is applicable to all who have been redeemed by the "mercies of God." V. 16 c. This verse might well be omitted as fitting better with the preceding. Christians are "wise unto salvation," but not "wise in their own conceits," literally, alongside themselves (JtuQu), in their own estimation. This will violate "one-mindedness" (v.16a) and engender strife. The intrusion of an imperative (YLVW1'h::) in the midst of infinitives and participles, all strung together without so much as an EaTE, has the force of "Don't be that way"; present tense: "Do not have the habit of becoming" (Robertson). Self­conceit is unthinkable for the royal priest who has offered his whole self to God. V. 17. The worldly attitude divides acquaintances into friend and foe, and dispenses kindness or hatred accordingly. The royal priest is to "recompense to no man evil for evil"; "to no man" regardless of who he is, though an unbeliever, a Gentile, an "enemy," an outsider. Never "evil for evil," x(Y.xov aVTL xuxou, no tit for tat, no repaying of meanness with more meanness (xux6v, bad, base, mean), no "he hit me first, therefore I must hit him back," the ingrained carnal attitude so very prevalent in the world. The motto of Scotland: Nemo me impune lacessit. "The world calls it manhood; it is doghood rather!" (John Trapp, quoted in Newell's commentary.) Weare not to "recompense" (MoMbcoflL) payoff, pay back, literally, to put away a thing by giving or paying; does the vengeful man hope to rid himself of the mean thing by returning it? Experi­ence shows it makes matters only worse. The royal priest is to be like· his Lord, who, though "reviled, reviled not again," 1 Peter 2:23,2l. No evil is the believer to do, but things "honest" (XUAU) , better, "lovely, pleasing, noble, praiseworthy." Note the change to the plural: not one mean thing is he to do, but noble things a-plenty. These he is to "provide," to think of beforehand (JtQOVOECO, middle with the accusative of the thing thought, planned for). Noble HOMILETICS 957 deeds are to appear not by accident, but as the product of deliberate planning. After all, the priest's "living sacrifice" of himself has been a "reasonable service," full of thought and spirit. This is done for God's sake to be "acceptable" (v. 1) to Him, but the Christian is conscious of being observed. Regardless of who looks ("in the sight of all men"), things noble are to appear. Compare parallels, 1 Thess. 5: 15; 2 Cor. 8:21. This is our Christian calling, 1 Peter 3:9-18; Matt. 5:16. V. 18. Keep the punctuation of the A. V.: "If possible" -rust, the objective possibility. Implication: It may not always be pos­sible, in view of circumstances. The confessing of God's name, loyalty to Savior, Church, truth, faith, duty, may require boldness and may lead to "not peace, but a sword," Matt. 10:34. We're still in the Church Militant. However, as regards ourselves, the subjective possibility, let not the peace be disturbed. "As much as lieth in you," 'to, the accusative of general reference, literally, "the from-you part" (Robertson), or as for what arises (E~) out of you. Strife is not to originate with the believer. Rather he will "live peaceably with all men," 2 Cor. 13: 11; Mark 9:50; 1 Thess.5:13. EiQ11V£{jW, to make peace, then to cul­tivate, maintain, be at, live in peace. How often Paul practiced this "if possible" and "as much as Heth in you"! Grotius: Omnium amici este, si fieri potest; si non potest utrimque, certe ex vestra parte amici este. On the other hand, Neque enim fieri potest, ut Christi militibus aeterna sit pax cum mundo, cuius princeps est Satan (Calvin, quoted in Philippi). V.19. In order to strengthen his appeal in this difficult matter, the Apostle inserts the address "Dearly beloved," UyOJtll'tOL. Jesus was the Beloved One, 0 'Ayaml'tos;, Matt. 3: 17, etc. Christians gen­erally are the uyUJt'I'J'tOL 8£011, Rom. 1: 7, etc. But they are that in a community sense, all of them together. Paul loves his readers with a divinely wrought love; perhaps he intends to remind them that they are "fellow beloved, sc. of God." "Avenge not yourselves"; note the change to finite verbs with the stepped-up action. The stress is on the yourselves. Do not take the law into your own hands (even in civil law, no judge may sit on his own case). 'EXClLXEW, to vindicate one's own right, to do 958 HOMILETICS justice (what the poor widow wanted the judge to do for her, Luke 18:3); ()t%~, justice, penalty, E%, exacted from a person. This is the prerogative of a higher Judge. "Give place unto wrath, sc. of God." 'l'on:ov is indefinite, "a portion of space viewed in reference to its occupancy" (Thayer), implying "time and op­portunity to work" (Meyer), like our "elbow room," "make way for the doctor!" (cp. Eph.4:27: "place to the devil"). Let God occupy the place of dispensing justice, not you; you step aside, get out of the way. You are only a priest of God, not God Himself! Other suggestions as to the subject of the oQY~ must be rejected, such as "stand aside for the wrath of the offender, that is, let his anger burn itself out," though this might seem to fit the sense of Matt. 5 :39; nor, "give place to your own wrath, that is, let it exhaust its resentment before taking any action," though this usage could be defended by Latin parallels. Rather, the reference must be to God's wrath because of contrast with the preceding "avenge not yourselves" and because of the following quotation, which points to God. Nor is it unworthy of God to have anger toward the "enemy," this emotion "in which God is as opposed to man's wickedness." Paul's readers know all about this (article, the, that well-known, wrath of God), from a full description in chap. 2. The quotation is from Deut.32:35 (also quoted Heb.l0:30f.). "Vengeance" has the same root as before; is also used of gov­ernment in Rom. 13:4. "I will repay," same root as v.17a, with prefix &v'rl; God stands over against the evildoer and pays him off, accurately, personally. 'E[WL, to Me it belongs, it is My business, and Mine alone. How presumptuous of man to push God off the judgment seat and to take over His duties! How unthinkable for a royal priest who knows his place under the rule of God! Nor does the believer gloat over the prospect of doom overtaking his enemy (compare the following). When standing back and giving God room, "it is not thus implied that the falling of Divine vengeance on our enemy should be our desire and purpose, but only this, that, if punishment is due, we must leave it to the righteous God to inflict it; it is not for tIS to do so." (Pulpit Commentary.) V. 20. "Therefore" -if we are not to avenge ourselves, what then? Remain passive and idle? No, good may be done. Not vengeance, but its very opposite. HOMILETICS 959 Follows now a direct quotation from Provo 25 :21 £., quoted by the Apostle without quotation marks. "Enemy," the adjective used as substantive, here with the addition of a genitive pronoun, may mean either "hated" or "hating." In view of the context, it is best taken as objective, one who is hostile toward you. "If he hunger, feed him"; if he suffer want, here in its proper sense of "be hungry"; "feed him," literally, feed by putting a bit or crumb into his mouth, as one might feed a small child or a convalescent. We might almost translate: if he hungers, tenderly feed him. "If he thirst, give him drink," hold a cup to his mouth (a glass straw to his lips). Both samples, and that is what these are, indicate an absence of all bitterness, yes, even of mere indif­ference on the part of the believer. Indeed, his love is to be shown not in absentia! the help is not merely to be thrown in the "enemy's" direction; in every way the Christian acts as friend. "For in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire on his head." Rule out promptly any suggestion of injuring the enemy (Hengsten­berg: Do deeds of kindness, and so aggravate his case before God so he will all the more merit God's wrath!), else how could a Christian wholeheartedly proceed to "heap up" deeds of kindness? And how would that overcome evil (v. 21)? Stoeckhardt quotes Hofmann: Coals of fire have to be noticed. Better, they cause discomfort, even pain, the sense of shame, a com­punction about the shabby treatment shown the believer. The end result of not merely casual sparks of kindness, but "coals of fire," live, burning, heaped up, may well be penitence on his part, recon­ciliation with you, peace. How well such activity harmonizes with the priest's role in the world! True, many will dismiss this as "impossible." And, apart from "the mercies of God" it is! Yet priests of God, having offered them­selves wholly to God, are not carrying chips on their shoulders (v. 16c), have taken forethought to do always things noble (v. 17b), strive continually to keep peace (v.18). They follow the great High Priest, who prayed for His enemies, yea, died for them, etc. V.21. Summary: "Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good." The verb is vLxaw, to conquer, to carry off the victory. Well, this is what the vengeful person seeks for himself. How much better the method and the result for the royal priest! The 960 HOMILETICS hater is consumed by his own hatred; evil overcomes the evildoer. If a Christian yields to the spirit of vengeance, he has been defeated, perhaps a mortal blow has been inflicted on him as a Christian and priest of God! No, in the Christian's hand is the powerful weapon of "good," not X(lAri, as before, but ayaMv, admirable in the sense of useful, salutary, beneficial. This leads to tri~ph of the highest order. It may lead to reconciliation, perhaps even to repentance and faith, as the "enemy" comes with us to "glorify your Father which is in heaven" -yes, so that even the angels may celebrate the victory. This is the Christian's life program and calling (present im­peratives, continuing action). Not to be overcome, to let evil get us down (uno, be overcome under evil), but rise above it. So the chapter ends triumphantly: Subdue your enemy with kindness! SUGGESTED OUTLINES Life is full of irritations and injuries, also for the priest of God; some people are actually hostile. What of the priest of God in such a setting? God says: This means "Love -Even the Enemy" I. Leave the dispensing of justice in the hands of God II. Act as a channel of mercy in the stead of God Or: The Priest of God in a H ostiZe World I. Let God be God -I am only His priest A. Not wise in my own conceits, in relation to God and man, v.16c; B. No "evil for evil," or "vengeance," vv. 17a, 19; C. My purpose in life: "things honest," "live peaceably," vv.17b,18; D. My failure to keep my place emphasizes my need for God. II. Let my light shine -I am His priest A. His mercy fills my need ("mercies," v. 1; "beloved," v. 19); Review Phil. 2:5-8; Rom. 5:5-10; Luke 23:34; etc.; B. Now I love (1 John 4: 19) even my enemy, v. 20; C. And so fulfill my priesthood, vv. 20b, 21; Matt. 5:16; 1 Peter 2:9. Honolulu, Hawaii WINFRED A. SCHROEDER Concordia Theological Monthly Edited by The Faculty of Concordia Seminary Saint Louis, Missouri ST. LOUIS, Mo. CONCORDIA PUBLISHING HOUSE 1951 CONTENTS JANUARY Theodore Conrad Graebner, 1876-1950. Paul M. Bretscher ________ 1 The Pessimism of Ecclesiastes. Frederick W. Danker ____________________ 9 Rural Life and the Church. W. W. Stuenkel __________________________________ 33 Sermon Study on Jeremiah 26: 1-15. Alex Wm. C. Guebert __________ 46 Brief Studies. J. T. Mueller _________________ _________________________________________ 54 Theological Observer __________________ _ ---------____________ ----------------------57 Book Review __________________________________________________________________________________ _ 67 FEBRUARY The Public Ministry in the Apostolic Age. H. G. Brueggemann 81 A Short History of the Lutheran Church in Great Britain E. George Pearce ______________________________________________ ______________ 11 0 Sermon Study on Numbers 21:4-9 for Judica. Walter O. Speckhard 125 Brief Studies_ F. E. Mayer. J. T. Mueller _______________________________________ 126 Theola gi cal Observer ________________________________________________________________________ 134 Book Review ____________________________________________________________________________________ 150 MARCH Quick and Powerful. Martin H. Franzmann _________________________ 161 A Concordance Study of the Concept "Word of God" Richard R. Caemmerer ___________________________________________________________ 170 "Entmythologisierung." W. Arndt _________________________________________________ 186 Sermon Study on Isaiah 55:6-11. J. Henry Gienapp ______________________ 192 Brief Studies. J. T. Mueller ___________________________________________________________ 204 Theological Observe r ______________ ________ _______________________________ ___________________ 208 Book Review_ _____ __________ __________________________________________________________________ 220 APRIL The Authorship of St. John's Gospel. Hugo Odeberg ____________________ 225 The Temptation of the Church: A Study of Matt.4: 1-11 J. J. Pelikan, Jr. --------------------------------------------------------------------251 The Lotthers: Forgotten Printers of the Reformation W. G. T illmanns _____________________ ______________________ _ ____ _____ 260 Sermon Study on Isaiah 6: 1-8 _______________________________________________________ 265 Theola gical Observer _______________________________________________________________________ 2 7 5 Book Review ___________________________________________________________________________________ 294 MAY Church and Church History in the Confessions. Jaroslav Pelikan 305 The Principium Cognoscendi of Roman Catholic Theology F. E. Mayer ________________________________________________________________________________ 321 New Testament Fellowship: A Study in Semantics. R_ T. Du Brau 334 Sermon Study on Isaiah 12 for Third Sunday After Trinity Frederick A. Baepler __________________ ____________________________________________ 351 Theological 0 bserver ____________________________________________________________ 3 52 Book Review __________ _________________________________ ____ _ _______________________ ------377 JUNE Concerning the Ministry of the Church. Elmer J. Moeller ____________ 385 The Place of Prayer in the Sanctification of Christian Life James G. Manz __________________________________________________________________ 417 Sermon Study on Psalm One for Sixth Sunday after Trinity Theodore F . Nickel _______________________________________________________________ 430 Theological Observer ____________ _______________________________ 439 Book Review _____________________________________________________________ ______________________ 457 JULY Armageddon. Will. F. Arndt _____________________ ________________________________ __ 465 The Moral and Spiritual Qualifications of the Biblical Interpreter Raymond F. Surburg _________________________________________________________ 472 Homileti cs _______________ ____________________________________________________________ _____________ 500 Brief Studies ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ 511 Theological Observer _______________ _____________________________________ ______ _______ 513 Book Review ________ ------_____________________________ _____________________ ___ 532 AUGUST The Church's Opportunity on State College and University Campus Reuben W. Hahn _______________________________________________________________ 545 Missouri Synod Undertakes Foreign Missions Herman H. Koppelmann ________________________________________________ _ 552 The Essentials of Effective Pastoral Counseling. Otto E. Sohn ______ 567 Rome and the Lutheran Liturgy. Irvin Arkin _ ______________________________ 578 Sermon Study on 2 Chronicles 1: 7 -12 ________________________________ ._._________ 592 Brief Studies __________________________ .________________________________________________________ 600 Theological Observer _____________________ _________________________________________________ 608 Book Rev iew ____________________________________________________________________________________ 622 SEPTEMBER Brunner on Revelation. Robert Bertram ______________________________________ 625 Background for the Peasants' Revolt of 1524. W. Theophil Janzow 644 Sermon Study on Psalm 46 for Reformation __________________________________ 665 A Series of Sermon Studies for the Church Year ____________________________ 675 Brief Studies ___________________________________________________________ ____ ___________________ 676 Theological Observer _____________________ ________________________ __________________ 681 Book Review ___________________________________________________ _______________________________ 699 OCTOBER The Concept of Sin in the Old Testament. Alfred von Rohr Sauer 705 Human Will in Bondage and Freedom, A Study in Luther's Distinction of Law and Gospel. (Part I.) F.E.Mayer __________ 719 Homiletics ____________________ ._________________________________________________________________ 748 Brief Studies ___ _____________________________________________________ _.____ ________________ 756 Theological Observer ______________________________________________________________________ 763 Book Review ________________________________________________________________________________ 777 NOVEMBER Human Will in Bondage and Freedom. (Part II.) F. E. Mayer ____ 785 A Remedy for Modern Chaos -Luther's Concept of Our Calling O. C. Rupprecht ________________________________________________________________________ 820 Hom il eti cs _ _ ___________________ _ _ _ ___ ___________________ _ ______________________ ____ ___________ __ _ _ 848 Theological 0 bserver _____________________________________________________________________ 856 Book Review ___________________________________________________________________________________ 877 DECEMBER Tribute to Dr. William Arndt ________________________________________________________ 881 Resolutions of Appreciation __________________________________________________________ 882 God's Triumphant Captive Christ's Aroma for God. (2 Cor. 2: 12 -17 . ) Victor Barding _________________________________________________________ 883 Luke 17: 20-21 in Recent Investigations. Paul M. Bretscher __________ 895 The Apostolic Psha! Martin H. F ranzmann ____________________________________ 908 God's Concurrence in Human Action. John Theodore Mueller ____ 912 Chalcedon After Fifteen Centuries. Jaroslav Pelikan ____________________ 926 John Chrysostom on the Christian Home as a Teacher Arthur C. Repp ______________________________________________________________________ 937 Liturgical Developments in Europe. Walter F. Buszin _______________ 949 Homiletics _____ --____________________________________________________ --__________________________ 955