Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 4-2 (Text)

Qtnurnr~tu m4t~1ngiral jinut~ly Continuing LEHRE UND WEHRE MAGAZIN FUER E v.-LuTH. H OMILETIK T HEOLOGICAL Q UARTERLY-THEOLOGICAL MONTHLY Vol. I V February, 1933 No.2 CONTENTS P age GRAEBNER, THEO. : The Modernistic Christ 81 KROEGER. A. C.: Die Stellung der Frau in der christlichen Kirche . . ... . , 85 MAIER. W. A.: Archeology - the Nemesis ... 95 SIHLER, E. G.: Studies in Eusebius 102 KRETZMANN. P. E.: Luther und Zuelsdorf . 112 KRETZMANN. P. E.: Our Formula for Infant Baptism . 120 LAETSCH. THEO.: Divorce and Malicious De~rtion . ..... 127 KRETZMANN. P. E.: Die Hauptschriften Luthers in chro- nologischer Reihenfolge . ... . . 133 Dispositionen ueber die altkirchliche Epistelreihe . 135 Miscellanea .. ... .. .. . .... . . . .. .. . 141 Theological Observer. - Kirchlich-Zeitgeschichtliches 145 Book Review. - Literatur.. .... ... 153 Ein Predlger mUM nleht allein Vlri IDeiffionaJ: ausliilben au laffen. - ~ie ~naaljl ber @lemeinben, bie i~r gol~ benes ;;subifiium feiem biirfen, meljri fidj bon ;;saljr au ;;saljr; alier auclj bie Baljl fofdjer, bie fecljaig unb aclj±aig ;;saljre lieftanben lj ali en, ift nicljt meljr gering. ~er ~@5n ljat bie treue ~rlieit unferer ~ii±er reidjIidj ge~ fegnet. IDeogen tlJir liereit fein, ba£l uns anber±raute ~fanb au ljii±en unb- au geliraudjenl ~. 05. Sl:. The First Biennial Convention of the American Lutheran Con- ference was held in Milwaukee, November 16-18, 1932. The American Lutheran Conference, organized at Minneapolis in 1930, is a federation of the following general bodies: the American Lutheran Church, the N 01'- wegian Lutheran Church, the Augustana Synod, the Lutheran Free Church, and the United Ev. Danish Lutheran Church. Its officers are: President, Dr. Otto Mees; First Vice-President, Dr. T. F. Gullixson; Second Vice- President, Rev. J. P. Nielson; Third Vice-President, Dr. O. H. Sletten; Sec- retary, Dr. O. P. Bersell; Treasurer, Mr. Otto Leonardson. The officers represent the following synods: the American Lutheran Church, the N 01'- 10 146 Theological Observer. - Sl'ircf)licf)"8eitgefcf)icf)t1icf)e~. wegian Lutheran Church, the United Danish Church, the Luthemn Free Church, and the Augustana Synod. The convention sermon was preached by Dr. O. :Nlecs on Phil. 3, 12-14, his theme being "The Glory of the Incom- plete," a rather queer twist of the text. Wllat the preacher really preached on was "The Glory of Striving after the Complete." "The sermon was an earnest call to action, to strive, to work, to achieve, with all the energy we have, rcrwhing out for those things which are before us," says the report. vVhen the American Lutheran Conference was organized two years ago, the executive committee appointed special committecs on Adjudication, Home :J1:issions, Inner 1Iissions, Foreign Missions, Elementary Christian Educa- tion, Higher Christian Education, Student Service, Hospitals, Young People's Work, Canadian Affairs, and Comity. The report says: "Efforts have been made to survey thc whole field and find out what are the facts and conditions under which the fedemted bodies are working and in what respects there are opportunities for cooperation." Papers were read on the following sUbjects: "1'he Fellowship Question" (Dr. T. F. Gullixson) ; "The Secular Idea of Progress versus the Christian Doctrine of Sanctifica- tion" (Dr. C. Rergendorf); "An Open Declaration of Aim and Purpose" (Dr. L. W. Roe). From the report in the Lutheran Herald we quote: "Of great interest was tIle survey of the Home Mission field by Dr. Martin Anderson of ~,nicago showing by extensive statistICs the unoccupied fields in America, which is yet more than one half pagan. The great need of Inner Mission work was emphasized by Rev. S. G. Michelfelder of Toledo. One evening was given to the commemoration of Gustavus Adolphus, Dr. C. M. Weswig, professor of history at Luther Seminary, delivering a classic ad- dress." - "The convention was one of education, orientation, and inspira- tion. The conference has no plan to bring about organic union or in any manner to interfere with the affairs of the different synods. Already a united effort has come about to support the only school west of the Rockies, Pacific Lutheran College. The main work to begin with will possibly be on the Home Mission field, not so much to readjust existing conditions as to agree on new fields to avoid duplications," - "At the close of the meet- ing Dr. Knubel of the U. L. C. was invited to address the conference, and the same resolution invited the Synodical Conference and other Lutherans to send 'friendly representations,''' - "Rev. C. V. Sheatsley, reporting for the Foreign Mission Commission, submitted the following resolution, which was adopted: 'Taking cognizance of the findings of the appraisal commis- sion of the Laymen's Foreign :NIissions Inquiry, the American Lutheran Conference would encourage evangelical Christendom everywhere by affirm- ing that the Lutheran Church, in obedience to its Lord, unalterably con- tinues to preach to all the world the Gospel of salvation through faith in Jesus Christ alone.' " J. T. M. Is a Change Concerning College Athletics ImminentI' - On account of tbe qnestion of sports at our own colleges and seminaries this topic is not entirely tabu for our theological paper. One of our exchanges reports that Yale University, according to an announcement of its presi- dent, .Tames R. Angell, is contemplating a change in the handling of ath- letics at this institution. Of the various residential colleges each will choose and organize its sports, and "intercollegiate contests will be empha- sized and varsity football schedules reduced to only five games with tradi- Theological Observer. - SHrcf)1icf,h(3eitgefcf)icf)tlicf)es. 147 tional rivals." "Equipment and money are to be used more for large groups and less for the development of a small number." Our authority cites a prominent newspaper to the effect that "the general tendency in society to·day is to get away from 'stars' and to turn the spotlight upon individual welfare." A report submitted on the gate receipts at the stadium in Yale is amazing, to put it mildly. In 1912-13 the total receipts from all sports were $132,705, with expenses of $116,316. In 1930-31 gate receipts from football alone were $1,140,568, netting $600,000. A weekly is quoted as saying: "This astonishing increase without doubt helped largely to pro- duce the demand to spend in proportion to income, games ballyhood by the daily press, and the temptation to put on at high ticket prices the best shows purchasable from high-paid professional coaching of a few picked athletes." Many educational authorities are agreed that here we are touching a very sore spot in the present·day life of our large American colleges, which loudly calls for remedial action. A. Buchmanism Asserting Itself. - The newspapers of our country, especially those appearing in Detroit, have been giving a good deal of attention to the new Oxford movement, which is called after its chief promoter, Dr. Frank N. D. Buchman. A writer in the Clwistian Oentury, referring to a special article in the Detroit F',-ee Press, says: "Here are the various opinions of the Oxford group gathered by the ]i',-ee P,-ess writer and published in the issue referred to above: 'Country-club religion.' 'Sal- vation Army technique, two-dollared up with a silk hat and dress shirt.' 'A powerful spiritual influence in our generation. Perhaps the most power- ful.' 'An adaptation to modern uses of old, valid, spiritual technique, em- ploying the candid vocabulary of our time. A blend of Quaker quiet and evangelical fervor.' 'A form of evangelism which combines the advantages of mysticism, mesmerism, spiritualism, eroticism, psychoanalysis, and high- powered salesmanship.' 'A mixture of primitive Wesleyanism and Freudian sex psychology. It is hard to tell where Wesley's phraseology ends and Freud's jargon begins.' 'A revolt against arid negative intellectualism- a return to the primitive faith.' 'Georgia camp-meeting stuff - intellectual tone with a tinge of sense.''' The Detroit meetings of Dr. Buchman, who was accompanied by Rev. Samual M. Shoemaker and thirty-five associates, were held first in the Dearborn Inn and after that in the Book-Cadillac Hotel. Years ago we were amused by the spectacle of millionaire Socialists, who, adorned with silk hats and dressed in the finest of clothes, were hold- ing forth on the advantages of a social order in which millionaires would be impossible. It seems in Buchmanism we are witnessing a parallel phenomenon in the field of religion. We are awaiting further information J~l ,-' on this movement. A. A Remarkable Analysis of the Impotence of Unionism. ~Once :..--~. in ;, while, like a lonely ';;'oice on a~- is~lated mountaintop, a member of . ---' v ' one of the historic Reformed churches courageously points out the falla- cies on which unionism is built. The Lutheran Oompanion of August 13, 1932, has taken over the following report of a Presbyterian sermon printed in the Mmneapolis Journal of June 18, and we reproduce it here without any comment of our own: - "Organic church union is a delusion, Rev. H. Warren Allen told his congregation in a sermon recently at the First Presbyterian Church. 148 Theological Observer. - SHtdJlid)~8eitgefd)id)md)es. Mr . .Allen told of his experiences in Canada, where union of the churches has been accomplished, and said: - " 'Six years as a first-hand witness proved to me by its practise that my theory was correct. The United Church of Canada, from the point of promoting church union, is a colossal failure. It is simply a glorified Meth- odist Church. "'Seven years have passed, and Canada has not yet recovered from the tragic conflict that ensued. Homes were broken, lifelong friendships were severed, people were left without pastors, churches were burned and padlocked, lawsuits were instituted by the score, one case even going to the Privy Council of England. " 'To-day, instead of union, theirs is disunion, a torn and bleeding body of Christ, wounded in the house of friends, who tried by ecclesiastical and civil law to force organic union upon an unwilling people. There are more church-buildings in Canada than at any time in history. It will take the United Church of Canada fifty years to live down the stain upon her record in the methods she used in coming into existence. Union cannot be forced. It must grow of the spirit. You cannot create an organization which takes for its platform peace, love, brotherhood, and unity and uses war, hate, enmity, and division as its methods of promotion and expect it to succeed. " 'If the Roman Catholic Church, with a Pope as sovereign, with uni- formity of worship, and religion as the dominant force in the life of men, was not able to succeed in compelling unity and uniformity, there is little chance to-day of our returning to the medieval ideal when education and democracy tend to produce a variety of thinking instead of uniformity of thought. Church union is an exploded theory. It is the habit of mind of the Middle .Ages, and the verdict of history is against it. " 'In the second place, human nature is against it. Church-union fad- dists need a course in psychology. The theory of Karl Marx's absolute state, socialism in economics, and organic unity in ecclesiasticism, all are of the same breed. One might as well argue that there should be one po- litical party, one standard of living, as to say that all should worship under one organization. Distinction represented by such terms as Pres- byterian, Methodist, Congregational, Baptist, are not simply the results of human 'cussedness,' but they correspond, in part at least, to deep under- lying differences in human nature, differences of which organized religion is bound to take cognizance. " 'Finally, the theory of organic unity is a delusion because the Bible does not teach it. It does teach a spiritual unity, which is a far different thing. Paul says there are diversities of gifts, but the same spirit; dif- ferences of administration, but the same Lord; diversities of operation, but the same God. "'Not organic union, but federation is the only feasible and practical method of church cooperation. .And even this method will have to be much improved upon in its actual working, as represented by the Federal Council of Churches in .America, whose action and declarations have been so radi- cally opposed to the beliefs and convictions of the great majority of its constituency which it claims to represent. Theological Observer. - ~itd)!id)'3e\tgeld)id)t!tcf)es. 149 "'The' greatest obstacle to church union to-day is the apostasy of the Church. There can be no real union at the expense of truth. When de- nominations are divided over the great cardinal doctrines of the Chris- tian faith, how can we expect denominations to unite with each other? The only union possible would be a union of all fundamentalists of the various denominations and a union of all Modernists of the various de- nominations. And human nature prevents this.''' A. Paper Communion Cups. - Perhaps our readers can understand the ~ irony in the following much better than those of the Watohman-Examiner, from which we quote; the lesson nevertheless is important for all of us. vVe read: "iVhen the individual Communion glasses appeared, we were not opposed to the innovation, for it seemed to us that they were more cleanly and more healthful than the common cup. On the other hand, as we looked back over history, we felt just a little ashamed that our age was so fastidious and overparticular. Now, however, the limit has been reached; for we are now informed that even the individual glass is con- sidered dangerous by some people and that paper containers, which are to be used but once, have been substituted in places. This to us is ridiculous, and we sincerely hope that it will not become common. We are not certain, however, that the innovation will not become popular; for are not rh';nks served ill paper containers at our soda·water fountains? We have heard of some churches that have even proposed to permit smoking on the back seats! There is nothing like being up to date!" J. T. M. Death of Dr. Patton. - Dr. Francis L. Patton, president of Princeton University from 1888 to 1902, preceding Woodrow Wilson there, and dur- ing the next eleven years president of Princeton Theological Seminary, died in Hmnilton, Bermuda, November 25, at the age of eighty-nine. Dr. Patton went to Bermuda in 1913, upon his retirement from active life. In 1871 he came to Chicago as professor of theology at the McCormick (now Pres· byterian) Seminary. During his service there he was prominent in the David Swing heresy trial. It was he who drew up the complaint of thirty specifications against Dr. Swing, who was minister at Central Church, preceding the ministry there of Dr. Gunsaulus. The trial resulted in Dr. Swing's acquittal. Dr. Patton was the oldest moderator of the Pres- byterian General L6cssembly and was frequently honored by his Church; he was invited to preach at the golden jubilee of Presbyterianism in Edin- burgh in 1927. A. II, ,2(u5lttn~+ ,,~ijffig umgearlieitete Illuffngcu." ~er ~erfag ~iirffring & u:ranfe ieiIt in ber ,,~L (if. E. ~." mit, baf3 "D. (illjr. (ifrnft Butljarb±s ,~ompenbium ber SDogmatif' in breiaeljnter, biilIig umgearbeiteier WufIage, ljerausgegeben bon I.jSrof. D. Dr. mobed ~ene in .\)eibefberg, Wnfang SDcaemoer 1932 er~ fcljeint". m3ir fcljreioen bies nicljt, um ljier bas 58uclj aur ~rnaeige au bringen, fonbern um aUf cine (ifrfcljeinung aUfmerffam au macljen, bie einem in ber ±ljeologifcljen 58iicljerroeli bes iiftern begegnet. m3as roir meinen, fann ber Befer ferber ben m30rten ber Wnaeige, bie roir ljier fofgen laffen, entneljmen. m3ir lefen: ,,~ieI fcljroieriger roar bie Wufgabe, bas ?futclj fo au geftarten, bat es in ber 9.neiljobe ben mobernen roiffenfcljaftTicljen Wnfpriidjen geniigt. ~n biefer .\)infidjt nutf3te aus bem 58udje, bas in Wnroenbung ber arten 150 Theological Observer. - Sfird)lid)"3eitgefd)id)md)e~. met~o.be, bie bie einile1nen loci einfaclj nebeneinanberfterrt unb bem @5tu~ bicrenben fertige 1l1cfurtate barfett ein ~uclj merben, ba§ cin @an3C§ nicljt blot barfterrt, fonbern ficlj organifclj enimicfeIn rati. ~aau mUf3ien nicljt brat ein3eInc q5aragralJIJen, ionbern auclj ganae q5artien nmgefterrt, meljrcre q5aragralJ~en boUig neU g efcljrieb en, unb bor alIent mutie ein fortraufenber, alIe§ einijelnc uerbillbenber 5tC1;t gegeben merben. SDabei gaH e§ naturHclj, bon ber I2hbei± Eu±~arbg milglicljft bieI au er~arten; ba§ TJd13i, nUt ba§ burfte falIengeIaffcn merben, lIJa§ mit bem mobernen miifenfcljatUicljen @:mlJ~ finben unmogHclj in @:inUang au bringen mar." imie D. ~ene bie§ alIe§ fertiggeoraclji TJat, miffen mix nicljt, benn mir TJaDen bie neue l2[u§gaoe nod) nicljt gefeTJen. imir gebraud)en nod) immer (unb merben aud) in ,8ufunfi mofJI noclj ge6raucljen) bie elf ± e U u f rag e, bie nad) bc§ ~etfaflcr§ 5tobe bear6eitet worben ift bon Lic. is. ~. iminter. :Ilie "arte i1Aet~obe" (bie mit ba nodj borfinben), bie "bie dn3cInen loci einfacfJ nebeneinanberi±errt unb bem ®±ubierenben fertige 1l1efurtate borfett", gefaIft un§ gana au§ge3eid)~ net; ben .\;)ang HaeIJ einer nellen me±~obe in ber :Ilogmatil', bie "cin @anac§ nid)t blot bariteIft, fonllern ficlj orgm1ifd) cnttricfeIn ratt", ~aben trir nie in un§ bcrfpurl. E1tt~arbt fJa± ja fein ".~ompenbi1tm" bor arrem fur "lunge 5tfJeologen" gefd)rielJen, bie fid) ein "lJonitbes imi\fen" aneignen troUen; fiir biefen ,Bmea eignet fidj fein EeIJtbud) fe~r gut. imtr ~aoen fe~r, fe~r bid :Ilogmatif au§ EuH)arb±§ :Ilogmatif ge1emt unb anbere "junge ~eorogen" mo~r auclj. lffiir ronn±en aUetbing§ 52u±~arb± nid)t tn allen feinen ~ru§fu~tungen ilufttmmcn ?menu er J.~. fdjrcil.i±: ,,:Ilie ®cljtift beaeid)net bie ~efeTJrung teiI§ al£i ein imed ber @nabe, teil£i af§ cine .2ei~ ftuug be§ menfcljen" (@S. 283) ober: ,,~m lneuen 5teftament ift eine, na±itr~ liclj burd) ben @Iauoen an Gr~riftum oebingte .\;)eif§aufunfi ~§raeI£; in I2Tu§~ fid)t gefterrt" (®. 407) ober: ,,2ut~er ber6tnbet mit ber ftiirfften ~C±onung ber ®d)rift al£i @otte£; imart aug1eid) eine Iebenbige ~rnfd)auung bon i~ret menfd)Hd)en Q;ntftcIJung. . .. :Ilarin fiegt bie Untetfcljeibung be§ imefenb licljen unb be£; me~r ~eifiiufigen" (®. 344), fo TJaben toir ba Eut~arb± nnd). bel1eren iEotoHbern rorrigiert. ~oet 6ei allebem bIie6en luir un§ be§ ~o~en imerte£; beB Eut~arb±fd)en "Si'omlJenbium§" immer bemuf3t; nid)t nur flir ba§ reiclje bogmengefd)id)tHd)e )JAa±eriaI, fonbern oefonber§ aud) fur bie furae, frare, iibetiid)±rid)e :IlarIegung ber :Ilogmen maren trir i~m ftd£; fe~r banfoar, mie tIJir aud) ~aeoM, q5ielJer, ®±umlJ unb anbern gerabe wegen i~rer ?Sei6e~ar±llng ber arten me±TJobe banfoar gemel en finb. lnUll fOl1nnt aoet ettua§ lneuc§ unter bem aHen lnamen: ,,211±~arbt£; Sl'omlJenbillm bet :IlogmatU"; barin merben ganse q5artien umgef±elIt, me~~ rere q5atagrap~en finb bollig neu gefd)rieoen, unb bOr aUem ift cin fot±~ raufenber, alIe§ einaelne berbinllenber 5te!t gegebell. IDciigficljf± bier bon ber ~rbeit Eut~arbt§ ift aIlcrbing§ er~ar±en morben, aoer ba§, ma£; mit bem mobernen triffenfd)afiIicljen @:mpfinben unmilgIid) in @:infral1g au 6ringen mar, ift farrengeIaffen morben. )JJlit einer fold) "neuen, bilIlig umgearbei~ tetcn 2'(ufrage" filnnen mir un§ nid)t befrellnben. imenn fo griinbIiclj mit bern arten Sl'omlJenbium aufgeraumt merben muf3te, marum nicljt eTJer etn gana neue£; ~llclj fd)reiben? imarum ein Sl'omlJenbium bon Eut~arbt neU auflegen, ba£; gar fein Ell±~arb±fd)e§ Si'ompenbium me~r ifH iStu~er ift e§· mc~er§ oefanntem SPommen±ar fo etgangen, unb bariioer finb Wir nod) TJeute nicljt ~intreggefommen. imHfon fcljrieb einmal bierile~n q5unfte; nad)~er ~at man bamit ®d)inMuber getrieoen. @eTJt fo etma£; audj in bet ~eo~ Theological Observer. - rtitd)1id),{3dtgcfc!)id;t1id)es. 151 IogentIJert bOt? ~ie "jffiiffenfdjaft bom metbct6en bet .lmenfdjenaunge" nennt man 6efanntndj "Sfafologie". tsiit bai3 metbet6en, bat man betbienten 5l:1jeologen nac~t~re111 ::tobe fo e±tlJai3 antu± tlJie ~iet J:l1tt~arb±, ~a6cn tlJir feinen 9camcn; a6er bieITcidj± biitfte bet %Iui3brucf n Sl'afologic" audj fjier %TntIJenbung finben. :;So ::t. We. jffiie ftel)cn mobcrm j)JHHion~mitnner 5ur &.;1eiHgcn @5d)rift? ))Sfancr D. Sjeinridj @?±aITmann ai±ied in bet "tsteifitdje" bie folgenben jffiorte D. :;SnIiUi3 ffiidjteti3, bie .bicfC1' tlJeit nnb 6tei± 6efann±e WciHioni3fiifjrer in ber ,,%TITgemcinm WctHioni3ocitfdjtif±" fcinen .l3efem borgcIeg± fjat: "jffienn 180Itaire 1101: anbertfjalli :;Sa~r~unberten jJtopfjeilct±c, in cinem :;Sa~t~unbcrt lDcrbe bie '-Bi6er ein bergeffenei3 ~uclj fein, fa f)at if)n bie @e~ fcljidjte in fer±famer jffieife .l3iigen gef±raft; bte ~i6eI iff ~eute bai3 roeitaui3 bet6reite±f±e ~udj ber .lmenfcljfjei±0Wera±ur; dlDa 13 .lmiITionen @1;emj.1Iare bet ganoen ~i6ef ober bon ~ilielteifen tlJetben iafjraui3, ia~tein a6gefet±. %T6er geral:le bai3 ftelli uni3 bor bai3 f cljtIJierige ))Sr06Iem, aUf bai3 iclj :;Sfjre %Tufmerffamfeit ricljten miiclj±e: :;Sn tlJeIcljem @?inne fiinnen tlJir fjeute ber niclj±cljtiftricljen jffier± bie ~i6eI a10 bai3 jffiod @o±±ei3 j.1ri:i:f entimn? jffiir etinnem an bie berufjmte %Tui3fUfjrung im 2. staj.1iteI bei3 etften 5l:1jeffalonirfjer~ 6riefei3, bie im 13. meri3 gij.1fert: ,jffiir banrm @o±± o~ne lln±erIat bafut, baB ifjr bai3 @o±±ei3tlJort, bai3 ifjr bon nni3 au fjiiren befamet, aufgenommen ~a:D± nic'fjt u.~; :::~I..-H~~}I.-Hi:uort, Junbetn a15 .hCt~, h1a~ cz b'i SlEb::rn(~fc-t± ift @o±±ci3 jffiort tuie ci3 fidj ami) ll1irffam mueif± an cuclj, bie ifjr gIau6t' ~ai3 tlJar eine einfadje, Hare, burC£)fcljlagenbe '@infteIIung, bie burclj reinerlei fritifclje ~ebenfen gefjemm± ober gebrodjen tlJar. ~ie eiJangeIifclje 9J1tHion roar unb il± in ber 53.age, mit j.1etfiinIicljem gutem @ctIJtffcn cine ii~nIiclje @3±eITung ein8unc~111cn, folDeit fie noclj unge6tocljen bet ~cr6aItnf\Jtration an~i:ing±' jffienn bte 'Z1i6eI bom etf±en 5l'aj.1itel het @ene.fti3 bi?' oUln Ie~ten ber Offenbarung Gt . . \5o~annii3 bai3 unttiigIiclje unh unfefjI6ar:e jffior± @o±±ei3 ift, fo ~at ftc Dteclj± unb ))sffidjt, bie?, jffiort @o±±ei3 llnocdiirat au iJerfiin~ higen llnb au bertre±en. %TUein bief e ))Sofition iff fUr ben tlJeitaui3 grotten ::teU ber ebangeIifcljen jffieHmiHion unmiigIiclj getIJorben burclj bie una6Ii:i:Hige, burclj atIJei :;Sa~rfjunberte fottgefe~±e %Tr6eit ber ~if±orifclj~ftitifdjen 5tfjeoIogie unb ber roiffenfcljaftIicljen ~ilielfotfcljung. ~ie @rge6niffe unb .lmetfjoben biefer tlJiflenfcljaftIicljen %Trbeit finb auclj in bie %Tui3bUbungi3fti:i:±ten ber an~ gefjenben .lmiHionat:e eingebrllngen." - @ine ±rautige @?acljrage, tlJenn bie 9RiHionate nicljt mefjt auf bai3 ,,@i3 f±e~t gefcljriebenJ" fjintIJeifen fiinne.n. ~ai3 feIigmacljenl:le @bangeHum ftccft im unfe~16aren @ottei3tlJort. jffiitf± man bai3 eine fort, fo tlJir)) man auclj bai3 anbere niclj± range be~aHen. %T. Independence of the Anglican Church in Australia. - Our ex- changes inform us that in October of last year the leaders of the Anglican Church in Australia were assembled in Sydney and that one of tho main topics of discussioll was the establishment of independence for those churches which hitherto have been a part of the Church of England. We are told that the idea of inuependence was not born from any friction existing between tho mother church in Great Britain and its daughter in Australia, but that it is prompted entirely by the geographical situation. At the meeting in Sydney a resolution of independence was adopted, and then a constitution was drafted for the new body, which now awaits rati- fication by the various synods of the Australian Anglican Church. A. / ~ 152 Theological Observer. - stitdjHd),,()eitgefdjidjmdje~. The Situation in Turkey is Changing. - Some startling news has come from Turkey during the last years. Is it true? Prof. Walter S. Davison of Auburn Theological Seminary, who formerly was professor of Biblical Literature in Robert College, Turkey, contributes an important article to the Ohristian OentU1'Y of November 16, 1932, in which he, drawing on his acquaintance with conditions in Turkey, gives an interesting survey of changes that have been going on in that country of late and of their meaning. W'e are presenting a brief summary of his remarks. Turkey, unlike Russia, so he points out, has no quarrel with religion in its proper place. There are signs, however, that the Turks are no longer satisfied with the Mohammedan religion. A few years ago a writer in one of the political papers of Constantinople boldly voiced the opinion that Islam is foreign to the native genius of the Turkish people and was foisted on them after they had conquered the Arabs in Asia Minor. Be- fore this time the Turks had their own simple and sufficient religion. In a Life of Mohammed the writer admits that the founder of Islam took over many things from Christianity and maintains that the two religions are not inimical to each other. The successors of Mohammed were re- sponsible for the enmity against Christianity manifested by the Moslems. The ghazi is not a devout Moslem. He is eager to encourage the spirit of religious liberty. Islam he looks upon >LS a hindrance to progress. A brief statement of recent changes is as follows: - "1) The deposition of the Sultan, the Caliph of the Islamic world, and the abolition of the caliphate itself. 2) The exile of the Sheik UI Islam, the supreme judge of Islamic law, and the discontinuance of his office. 3) The abrogation outright of the Islamic religious law, the only law of the theocratic state, and the adoption of European codes - the Swiss civil code, the Italian penal code, and the German commercial code. 4) The closing, throughout the whole country, of the mosque schools for children (where the hodjas had taught little except the memorizing of long sections of the Koran in Arabic) and the launching of a wholly new educational program along modern lines. 5) The suppression of the ancient dervish orders, those strongholds of Moslem conservatism, and the closing of their numerous monasteries. 6) The closing of all medressehs, the theological schools, in which the clergy were trained for the mosques. 7) Finally the deleting from the constitution of the clause declaring Islam the established religion of the state." On the other hand, one must not draw the conclusion that Turkey will soon adopt Christianity. Liberty of worship does not here mean liberty of religious propaganda. Christian proselytizing is bitterly resented by the population. "Nevertheless there are individuals here and there among the more earnest and spiritual minded Turks to whom Christianity has made its appeal and who are interested in it as a way of personal religious living. They are comparatively few, without doubt, but they may be the real hope of Turkey's religious future." Let us hope that, when the Christian flag will be unfurled in full freedom in Turkey, it will not be the symbol of Modernism, but of the old Gospel which St. Paul proclaimed. A.