Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 4-1 (Text)

(!tnurnr~tu m~tnln!ltrul ilnut41y Continuing LEHaE UND WEHRE MAGAZIN FUER Ev.-LuTH. HOMILETlK THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLy-THEOLOGICAL MONTHLY VoL IV January, 1933 No.1 CONTENTS XRETZKAllN, P. E.: Foreword .......................... . FtlERBRDlGER, L.: Praesidialrede ... . ............ . .... . SIHLER, E. G.: Studies in E usebius ....... . .............. . XRETZMANN, P. E.: Luther und das Sub Utraque ...... . . XRETZMAliN, P. E.: Die Hauptschriften Luthers in chro- nolog~er Reihenfolge ................ . ...... . ....... . LAETSCH, THEO.: Divorce and Kalicious Desertion ..... . Dispositionen ueber die altkirchliche Epistelreibe ..... .. . l'Itiscellanea ........................ , ...... . .......... . ..... . Theological Observer. - Xirchlich-Zeitgeschichtliches .. ... . Book Review. - Llteratur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ...... ...... . . . Page 1 11 15 26 33 35 38 46 50 73 Ein P redlger mWII nicht allein 1DeWen, also das1 er die Schafe unterweise, wie sis rechte CbriBten IOllen llein, IOIldero BUch daneben den WoeHen wehr ... , daas sie die Schafe nicht angreifen und mit falscher Lehre verfuehren und Irrtum ein- fuehren. - Luther. Es ist kein Ding, dll8 die Leute meh. bel der Klrche behaelt denn dt. rute Predlgt. - .4pow"u., Arl. ,... If the t rumpet give an uncertain aound, who shall prepare hlmseH to the hattle1 J 00r. 4. 8. Published for the Ev. Luth. Synod of lIIissonri, Ohio, and Other States CONCORDIA PUBLISHING HOUSE, St. Louis, 50 Theological Observer.- .\'1:hd)ndh3eitgeicljid)mctc~. Theological Observer. - Stitdjndj~3eitgefdjidJtridJe~. I. 2lmeriktt. The Difference between Lutherans and Fundamentalists. - In L_ i,u.Leran of October 27, 1932, Dr. John A. VV. Haas, president of Muh- lenberg College, contributes an editorial which is important enough to be reproducccl here and to receive a few comments. Dr. Haas speaks of the position of the Lutheran Church with respect to Modernism and Funda- mentalism as these terms are commonly used to-day. "In a group of people the question was raised as to where the Lu- theran Church stood as over against the two prevalent tendencies of Mod- ernism and Fundamentalism in present American Christianity. All were agreed that almost without exception there was no Modernism in Lu- theran pulpits and theological seminaries. But mallY thOllght that Amer- ican Lutheranism was fundamentalistic. The latter idea is as wrong as the conception of the attitude of the Lutheran Church toward Modernism is correct. Perhaps it will be of value to some readers of the LuthCTan to have the relation of sound Lutheranism toward these two tendencies a!!Q posit,irms briefly stated. "The God of the Modernists is conceived from the angle of the scien- tists' infinite universe. Lutherans find God as the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. "Modernists have no real faith in God's direct providence; but Lu- theranism still accepts the words of Christ that not a sparrow falleth to the ground without the Father's will and that the hairs of our heads are numbered. "Modernism has no real divine Christ, but only a great human teacher, while the Lutheran Church holds to the faith in the Son of God and in the Son of Man, Savior and Redeemer. "The Modernists do not believe in a real incarnation and therefore deny thc Virgin Birth. Lutheranism accepts both as revealed truth. "Modernism sidesteps the fact of sin and its inheritance in the human race; but the Lutheran Church takes the fact and doctrine about sin as an undeniable reality. "The Modernists reject all belief in the actual, visible return of Christ, while Lutheranism accepts it as a great hope. "In short, Modernism is rationalistic and corrects the emaciated Bible which it uses by modern scientific hypotheses and modern philosophic specu- lations. In part it revamps old rationalism. The Lutheran Church rests its faith simply and solely on the Word and then uses what is usable of modern thought in its theology. "In many doctrines the Lutheran Chnrch agrees with present-day Fundamentalism, but it detects constantly that the orthodoxy of Funda- mentalism has a Reformed Church tendency and character. Therefore,- "Fundamentalism stresses the Bible too much as a written and printed book, and it is very book-conscious. The Lutheran Church values the Bible as the purveyor of the Word. For her the living Word makes the Bible,. and the Bible is the revelation of the Word. Theological Observer. - ~itd)lid)~,{leitgefd)id)tlid)d. 51 "The Fundamentn,lists have a mechanical, literalistic theory of inspira- tion, after the manner of the early Reformed confessions. Lutheranism believes in the inspiration of the Word and that holy men of God were guided by the Spirit, so that the inspiration reaches the words of the Bible, but not in a mechanical manner. "]'undamcntalism not only accepts the infallibility of the Bible, but it implies the infallibility of the Fundamentalist interpretation. Lutheran- ism only claims that it has the pure doctrine, but it ascribes infallibility to the Word alone. "Like all group Christianity in the Church, Fundamentalism carries with it the expressed or implied idea that its adherents are the really elect of God. It possesses a tinge of old Calvinism. Lutheranism is opposed to all kinds of conventicular Christianity of whatever form, and it glorifies the living and invisible Church of Christ. "]'nndamentalism, with all its claim of having the whole Bible, neg- lects the clear confession of Baptism as bestowing forgiveness of sins and of the real presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Communion. It is Reformed in these articles of faith, which are so precious to the Lutheran Church. "Finally, the Fundamentalists believe that Christ will reign a thou- sand years on earth before the end of time, and they have many pp~ulio.r ih~0rl'!etaL.ions and wagrams to explain the revelation of St. John. From the beginning of its history the Lutheran Church has rejected all such doctrines as fantastic. 'While it accepts all prophecy, it conceives of the kingdom of God in a spiritual manner. The Fundamentalists, who make the people believe that they know all about the future, do not really strengthen hope, and they do not leave to God's wisdom and counsel the great hereafter." Most of what Dr. Haas says receives our ready approval. In speaking of the Modernists, he has not been inaccurate or uncharitable. What they teach destroys the very foundations of Christianity. When we come to his description of the Fundamentalists, however, we are constr~jned to ask whether he has stated correctly the difference between Lutherans and Fundamentalists as to the Bible. We are not sure that we understand what he means when he states: "Fundamentalism stresses the Bible too much as a written anci printed book, and it is very book-conscious." If he has in mind that Fundamentalists coming from, or belonging to, the Re- formed camp look upon the Scriptures as a legal codex, consisting of a given number of paragraphs, which can be quoted and used in a mechanical man- ner, we agree. Again, if he has in mind the Reformed tendency to over- look the difference between Biblical books universally accepted in the an- cient Church and such as were not universally accepted, we agree. Furthermore, if be wishes to say that Fundamentalists ignore the dis- tinction between the Old Testament and the New Testament and in this respect differ from the Lutheran Church, he again has our endorsement. But if his words are to imply that Lutherans teach not every part of the Scriptures is divine, we have to disagree. We have to state as our con- viction that, when Lutherans say certain sections of the Bible are not so important as others, that is not the same as saying certain sections of the Bible are not inspired in the same degree as others. i I, 52 Theological Observer. - ~itd)ncf)"8eitgefcf)icf)tlicf)e~. In his criticism of the mechanical, literalistic theory of inspiration held probably by some Fundamentalists we join Dr. Haas. When he says: "Fundamentalism not only accepts the infallibility of the Bible, but it implies the infallibility of the Fundamentalist interpretation," he is rais- ing a charge which, we believe, it will be difficult for him to prove. We are at a loss to see what Dr. Haas means when he says: "Like all group Christianity in the Church, Fundamentalism carries with it the expressed or implied idea that its adherents are the really elect of God." What does the expression "group Christianity in the Church" refer to? Does Dr. Ha3"s wish to deny that Christians of the same faith should join each other in carrying on the work which Christ has given His believers to do? Group Christianity certainly has the sanction of the New Testament. Cf. Matt. 18, 15-20. When Dr. Haas is objecting to conventicular Chris- tianity, we, of course, agree with him; but we holi! that not every form of group Christianity belongs to the class of conventicular Christianity. We wish that the editorial quoted above - good as it is - would have been more explicit in the points alluded to. A. Frightful Misrepresentation. - In discussing the question why Protestant churches with Modernistic leanings are a failure, a writer in the Oong1'eg(it'ion(ilist and Hemld of Gospel Liberty has tilis to say: "A b'lS!rr8SS m'UJ oncp B'Dv" me his expla,nation of the loyalty of Roman Catholics to their Church. He said: 'If our local physician should an- nounce that on Monday morning at a given hour he would be in an ap- pointed place to dispense a remedy that he would guarantee would put us in perfect physical trim for the rest of the week, we would all be there to get our little pilL' The application is obvious. In the Protestant wing of Christianity there is still a group which draws a large following both in city and country, and many of their preachers are men of no more than average ability. These men preach a Gospel that promises to those who subscribe to a form of words an eternal happiness in a fnture world .... Our modern liberal Protestant churches preach a gospel of brotherhood, a gospel of self-sacriflce and service for the uplift and welfare of the human race. As a result our churches are deserted for the golf-course on Sunday mornings." Evidently the writer is aiming a shaft at the churches which still adhere to the Bible in all its teachings. But where will you find a church which preaches a message promising to those who subscribe to a form of words an eternal happiness in the future world? Such churches are a figment of his own imagination. The writer seems to proceed on the old, but iniquitous adage that everything is fair in love and war. As to conditions in Modernistic churches, it is pathetic to hear the writer's confession of bankruptcy. A. The Race Problem in the Episcopal Church. - The Protestant. Episcopal Church of the United States has a race problem on its hands. In May, 1932, at a regular convention, Rev. Williamson of Little Rock was elected Bishop of Arkansas. The ratification by the standing committees of the diocese took place as prescribed in the canons of the Church. One thing remains: confirmation by the House of Bishops. Before this ven- erable body could act, a storm broke. It is alleged that at the convention referred to the Negro members of the clergy were asked to hold a separate, Theological Observer. - .Rird)lid)~3eitllefd)td)tlid)e~. 53 Communion service, which request deeply offended them and now has led to protests against the confirmation of the election held at that convention. Many other factors enter in, such as the prevailing depression, which would seem to indicate that the number of bishops should not be augmented un- necessarily. That a very delicate problem is here presenting itself to the Episcopalian authorities for adjustment will be readily admitted by all who have first-hand knowledge of racial feeling south of :Mason and Dixon's line. 'iVe are alluding to it, not only to register anew our disapproval of the yoke which Episcopalian (and Anglican) church polity is placing on the necks of the Christians belonging to this communion, but chiefly to draw the attention of the brethren to the difficulties connected with church- work among the colored people in our cOllntry, difficulties which demand prayerful and sympathetic study. A. The Swing toward F,itupl~sm in the Congregational Church.- In an article entitled "The Recovery of Power," written by Herbert J. Hin- man and published in the Oongregational-ist, the writer strongly advocates ritualistic services. The editor of the paper states that he does not agree with the article, but that he was printing it "because of the sincerity and significance of its challenge." vVe Lutherans may learn from this that Luther and his coworkers, when they proceeded in conservative fashion as they were reforming the Church, took a 'wise course in avoiding both the extreme of nHral'itualism and that of the barren service, which lacks all emotional DppeaL R~y. Hinman says ill palt: - "Protestantism, and especially Congregationalism, began by exalting the sermon and at first almost entirely neglected the appeal to the eye. In consequence it has continually slumped into a dry and barren intel- lectualism. From time to time it has been sayeel by the emotionalism of the revival, but it has continually slipped back into its old ways. The liturgical churches have not felt the necessity of periodic revivals because they make a continuous appeal to human emotion through their ceremonies. At the present time the revival is distinctly in the discard. Most denomi- nations have given it up, and where it is still used, the results are less and less conspicuous. But the need of emotion in religion is as great as ever. We may lecture men on the necessity of personal and social righteousness until we are exhausted. They will agree with everything we say - and then go on in the samc old way. Few men have ever been converted by an appeal to reason. The Church must stir their hearts in order to get results. This truth is gradually penetrating the consciousness of our pastors, and they are turning more and more to the emotional appeal of beauty and liturgy. In place of the severely simple meeting-house of Puritan days we have beautiful and impressive churches in all our cities. In place of the two-hour sermon and the scanty service of that period we have processionals, crosses, vestments, liturgies, and a sermon that lasts about twenty-five minutes. The Chul"ch has learned at last the true source of power, which is 'ceremony, appealing to the eye, and stirring the emo- tions of men.' If all our churches adopt this method, they will in the course of time recover the power of days gone by and will be able to speak with authority on the great questions of our day. The attempt to lecture men who will not listen is the height of folly. But when the Church has gained their attention, it can again say, 'Thus saith the Lord.' " 54 Theological Observer. - ~ir41Ti41~Seitgeicf)icf)tli41es. We, of course, entirely disagree with the writer when he speaks of ceremony as the true sonrce of power, but his words may well remind us of the preciousness of onr Lutheran liturgical heritage. A. A Practical Application of the Papal Marriage Laws. - It may be that some Protestants are not taking the pronouncements of the Pope, when he declares marriages null and void if they are not performed accord- ing to his rules, very seriously. Let them read this excerpt from the article of a Scotch correspondent in the Ohristian Oenttwy for August 31: "It was a case of a Protestant husband and a Roman Catholic wife, who had agreed to be married by a Protestant minister and were so married in Lenwood Parish Church. Their married felicity was unbroken till the arrival of a son in December, 1927. Thereupon there descended upon the wife certain relatives, who immediately raised thc question of the particular communion into which this new being should be introduced. Lord J\1ackay (the judge) regarded it as of the most serious importance that such an interference should have been allowed to come between a happily married couple. One day in February, when the family had been there, in the afternoon, the husband kissed the defendant (in the divorce suit) good-by on going to work. At tea time he found the house deserted, his wife and child gone, and a note, saying, 'Dear Jim, I have gone for good.' The husband went to her parents' house. The father came to the doorstep, the defendant being somewhere behind, and the father (not the wife) said they were required to be married in the Roman Catholic church. That was the first suggestion of any so-called religious difficulty at all. The plaintiff's reply was that they were already married and that he did not desire any priest to govern his house." As indicated above, this led to a suit for divorce on the ground of malicious desertion, and the judge granted the divorce, with severe castigation of the Roman Catholic marriage laws wl1ich led to this disruption of the family. A. A Testimony against the Lodge. - We note with pleasure that the Theological Forum, published by the Norwegian Lutheran Church of America, in its July issue submits a sermon by R. A. Ofstedal, entitled "The Lodge - a Call to ,Vorldliness." The sermon constitutes an able pamphlet against the menace of lodgery. There are paragraphs of great power in this discourse. Of the duty of the pastor to speak out on the subject the author says: "Then, again, some may be led to think, 'How is it that the pastor has such a dislike for us lodge-members since he so often speaks about our fraternal affiliations?' And I will answer that question by asking another, 'What do you expect of your watch-dog when danger approaches?' You expect him to bark. If he does not warn you, he is of no value to you. Now, you would surely expect as much of your pastor as you do of your dog, as much of watchfulness, of loyalty, of faithfulness. Do you know that your Bible speaks of pastors that see danger approaching and neglect to warn as 'dumb dogs that cannot bark'? By God's grace I would be the kind of pastor that warns, having that noble example of the Apostle Paul to look to when he said to the elders at Ephesus: 'Remember that by the space of three years I ceased not to warn everyone night and day with tears.' In tlms caring for your souls, I feel that I can best show my friendship for you lodge-members as well as for others to whom I minister. And if any of those committed to my care 55 are lost, I do not want them to be saying in all eternity, 'If my pastor had been faithful in warning me, I should not be here.'" The author shows very clearly that Masonry and Ohristianity are incompatible. May this testimony throughout the Lutheran Ohurch receive the attention which it merits! A. Subsidizing Our Colleges. - The Oatholic weekly AmeTicn recently had the following editorial: - "The financial depression of the last few years has brought some of our colleges to the brink of ruin. A few, the most notable being St. Mary's Oollege in Kansas, have closed their doors after a futile struggle. Others, we are informed, will reach their crisis by the end of the present year. It would be hard to exaggerate the gravity of the situation which confronts Oatholic higher education in this country. - No Oatholic college in the United States has an adequate endowment. Only a few have any endow- ment whatever. Practically all must depend upon tuition-fees and the in- come from chance gifts and bequests. Twenty-five years ago, when of every ten teachers at least nine were religious, it was possible by the exercise of severe economy to balance the budget. But since the beginning of the century this proportion of one to ten has changed, so that to-day it is Illore nearl"' four anel one half to five and one half. This change meam" Llf COl,,8", it ~alary list which is greater by at least 450 per cent, In all probability the disproportion is even larger. - In addition to this burden the colleges must assume responsibilities unknown a generation ago. Oatholic institutions have been compelled by various standardizing agencies to add to their courses and equipment, not because they deemed these additions in all cases an improvement, but because otherwise their certificates and degrees would be useless to their graduates. A united stanel by all Oatholic schools might have been effective as recently as 1900, but it is now too late to cry over spilled milk. At present, and as far as can be foreseen, the rule of the standardizing agencies, private and State, will control for many years, although in course of time it will probably be exercised with better judgment. - The Oatholic college of to- day, then, has reached the limits of its scanty financial resources. Unless aid comes, and comes quickly, the only institutions of higher education in this country which owe any allegiance whatever to God and His Law liay be compelled to discontinue their work for Ohurch and State. - Prom what source is this aid to be obtained? Up to the present practically all our colleges and high schools have been administered by members of religious orders. Within the last generation, however, the diocesan college and the central high school, both direct charges upon the diocese, have made their appearance. As a rule, tuition-fees have been charged, and the deficit has been made up by the diocesan authorities. The religious orders, however, have been left to their own resources, and generally they have managed to hold their own. As these resources have now all but disappeared, it has been suggested that the colleges controlled by the various religious orders be also made tIle beneficiaries of diocesan funds. - In an interest- ing paper read at the Oincinnati convention of the National Oatholic Edu- cational Association, the Rev. J. W. R. Maguire, S. O. V., president of St. Viator's Oollege, said that, while parish-schools, central and district high schools, charities, and other works of the Ohurch have access to this 56 Theological Observer. - .Ritd)ncfH3eitgefd)id)tlid)e~. revenue, 'the college alone stands apart, shackled and in want, yet striving bravely to do the important and essential work of the church-teaching.' For generations the dioceses have been engaged in other, more necessary work. Much of it has been completed successfully. Can they now turn their attention to the Catholic college? - Father Maguire writes that the problem would be settled were every Catholic in the United States to make an annual contribution of one dollar. Added to our present resources in tuition-fees, 'twenty million dollars a year will adequately furnish college education for 60,000 to 100,000 students' in the colleges on the accredited list of the National Catholic Educational Association. These dollars would be gathered under diocesan authority and prorated to the colleges. - The acceptance or rejection of this plan lies wholly within the province of the Hierarchy. It would ill become us to pronounce any judgment on Father Maguire's suggestion, save to say that we believe it worthy of serious con- sideration." P. E. K. Will Lutherans UniteI' - In the Lutheran Oompanion of Septem- ber 17 we find an ~ditorial with the heading "A United American Lutheran Church," the last section of which we desire to reprint here. After some remarks pertaining to the symposium which recently appeared in the Augustana Quarterly on the question of the union of Lutherans in America, the editor says: - "If it werG possible for all Lutherans in America to form an external union of their forces and work together as Lutherans, the thing can be done. But is this possible? We are not able to free ourselves from the suspicion that some of the advocates of union imagine that the component parts of the American Lutheran Church must retain their entity and then continue their separate work. The United Lutheran Church, the American Lutheran Church, the Augustana Synod, the Norwegian Lutheran Church, and the Synodical Conference shall flow side by side as separate streams as before. Or is not this the thought of at least one of the writers in the symposium? It was this idea that prevented the Augustana Synod from joining with other synods in the formation of the United Lutheran Church in America in 1917. If one synod should become an independent part of the new body, the union would not be organic. In the reorganized Lutheran Church in America there can be no room for American, German, Norwegian, and Swedish. Lutheran must be the uniting word; all other appellations are divisive. Are the Lutherans ready for such a move? Has the American melting-pot done its work so completely? We are united in faith and spirit, yes, but we are still human and have our own convictions as to tIle proper methods to pursue the work of the Church. Probably as far as we can get at present, is to hold conventions for discussing questions of differences, as Dr. Maier suggests. All assertions to the contrary that we are agreed on doctrine, there are still shades of difference as to what constitutes true Lutheranism." While the first part of the paragraph does not touch the real difficulty, the last sentences should by all means be heeded. vVe hold these points to be axiomatic: 1. Unity in doctrine, so that the divine Gospel and the holy Sacraments will be kept and handed down unimpaired, must be the chief aim. 2. While true unity is something everyone of us should de- voutly pray for, the matter of outward union is relatively unimportant. Theological Observer. - ~irclj1iclj~,seitgef d)id)tltcljes. 57 3. A practicable form of external union will easily suggest itself after in- ward unity has been established and is manifesting itself. 4. Earnest, prayerful study of the Holy Scriptures and the Confessions of the Church, to be supplemented by the writings of Luther and the other great leaders of our Church, together with mutual discussions carried on in the spirit of Christian charity, will have to bring about the desired l·esult. A. The Only Foundation. - Dr. Pfatteicher, president of the Minis- terium of Pennsylvania, in his annual report to his church-body at Lan- caster, Pennsylvania, last June, said among other things (we are quoting from the Kirchliohe Zeitsch1'ift) : - "Civilization arrayed in its modernistic garb is too often the god of the man of to-day. The civilization of to-day has been built upon an / .x) economic order which is contrary to the teaching of Christ and for that very reason has come tumbling down on our heads. Let us listen to ". familiar words found in the Sermon on the Mount [R. V.]: 'Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon the earth, where moth and rust consume and where thieves break through and steal; but lay up for yourselves trea- sures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth consume and where thieves do not break through nor steal; for where thy treasure is, there will thy heart be also. . . . No man can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, 01' e18e he will l1cld to the one and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.' "On other occasions Jesus likewise stressed the barrier between rich men and covetous men and the kingdom of God. We say rich men and covetous men; for the lust of more than is needful for daily life has gripped not only those who have been successful in laying up treasures on earth, but also planners of all sorts of material programs, who look with longing eyes upon the spoils of others. There have been covetous men and women in our churches who waxed fat upon bubbles which they never ex- pected to burst. Even some 'self-made' capitalists numbered among us 'went to their own place' as the bubble burst and they were unable to face the world as poor, but honest men. We have even had covetous men in the ministry who have spent their time in the service of mammon rather than of God. Capitalism in the making has seldom recognized its moral and social obligation to its employee or its neighbor, nor has it felt sufficient responsibility in times of unemployment. It has more often established foundations for peace and education upon the spoils of war and ignorance. Then, again, the lure of salaried secretaryships in all sorts of foundations has robbed us of potential volunteers in the furtherance of causes so ob- viously right they have been harmed rather than helped by the introduction of the puppets of dictators and dictatorial policies. The Christian Church believes in consecrated wealth at work for God and our neighbor as a self- evident stewardship and in a consecration on the part of those of us who have no wealth which does not look with fixed and forbidding eye upon our more successful neighbors. . . . "Society is being molded to-day by certain sinister and certain other superficial 'motivations,' which are pulling the crowd away from organized religion and toward a developing atheism. We seem to have lost all sense of sin. The word itself has been dropped from the vocabulary of the average person. We are told that we are suffering to-day from crime waves 58 rather than from epidemics of sin. These crime waves have given birth to the epics and biographies of our day and have provided society with thrills and guns - guns for the criminals, guns for our homes, guns for motion- picture actors, guns for officers of the law, guns for the nine- and ten-year- olds, as the commandment 'Thou shalt not kill' has been translated for our modern Decalog into 'Thou shalt know how to kill.' As a matter of fact, much of our modern social mechanism functions according to the following revised Decalog: 1. There is no God, and thou shalt have none. 2. Curse and prove God non-existent. 3. Forget the Sabbath and keep it joyfully. 4. Teach your parents the meaning of life. 5. Know how to kill if neces- , sary. 6. Cultivate sex. 7. Get what you can while you can, howsoever I you can. 8. P erjury means nothing. 9. There are no property rights. , 10. There is nothing sacred about the home and its relationships. "In each case we have noted the direct opposite of the Mosaic com- mandment, and we stand dumbfounded as we realize that we have penned a code which finds acceptance in the hearts and lives of many citizens and leaders in modern society. Does this not prove that we are standing on the brink of a yawning abyss? Is it too late to turn back? "In view of the pull of present-day civilization away from the Chris- tian Church and because of our earnest conviction t hat the Christian CllllTch is neeclecl to-da,y aR never before to keep humanity from its planned plunge into the dark, it is essential that we chart the task of the Church. "The primary job before us is to rebuild the Church upon the one foundation which has outlasted the ravages of the ages and of countless wars, and that foundation is Christ. 'For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.' Unfortunately the Church of the past decade or two has believed it to be its - primary- duty to add b,iildings to a - compound rather than additional stories to the main building. We have thought that by decentralizing an institution and by humanizing it we were building a bigger and better Church, and we have come to know that we have added liabilities, and not assets, to our structure." J . H . C. F . ~, , fti:.ong regationalist-CathQ!ic. ::- Studying the Foundations of Faith \ __ ,by Dr. W. E. Orchard, published some years ago, one wondered how this , ~I/ noted Congregationalist theologian could pen the following: "The question of whether Christ's righteousness is imputed or impa1'ted to us has been a source of great dispute between Catholics and Protestants. It might be thought there was Scriptural basis for the doctrine of imputed right- eousness; but this is denied by Catholic exegetes; and whether it is Scriptural or not, belief in it has now been almost entirely surrendered by thoughtful Protestants." And by Orchard himself. "The blood of Christ . . . brings about the remission of sins by destroying our very love for sin and taking away any further taste for it." (II, pp. 181. 191.) That is essentially the Catholic doctrine of justification by g1'atia infusa. Con- gregationalists are supposed to teach justification by faith. One wonders why Dr. Orchard was considered a Congregationalist. - An article pub- lished in the Congregationalist and Hemld of Gospel Libm·ty of July 14, entitled "Dr. Orchard goes to Rome," says: "The announcement that Dr. W_ E. Orchard, formerly of King's vVeigh House Chapel, London, England, has left the Congregational fellowship to join the Roman Catholic Church, Theological Observer. - .R:hcl)!idj'Seitgefcl)icl)tHcI)es. 59 while it may occasion surprise, will seem to many who have followed Dr. Orchard's course in recent years to represent the logic of what has been, and has become increasingly, the particular emphasis in his religious thought and practise." One does not wonder that D. Orchard went to Rome. He belonged there. One only wonders why not more of the modern Protestants follow him. - The Oong1-egationalist's obituary goes on to say: "For our own part we regret that Dr. Orchard has abandoned that witness to catholicity in independency. We have had little sympathy with the formal expression of Dr. Orchard's religious views and attitude, but we have had the deepest sympathy with the conception of Congregational freedom which made possible that expression within the Congregational fellowship." Now we no longer wonder how the Catholic Dr. Orchard could remain in the Congregationalist Church so long. He was welcome there. According to the Congregationalist system "each candidate for member- ship, each church or conference seeking recognition determines freely what is accepted of faith. On the other hand, each organization decides for itself whether the confession of an applicant is sufficient." (Schaff-Herzog Eno1/ol.) That is called the freedom and responsibility of the individual soul and the right of private judgment. And here we have the Oongrega- tionalist explaining to us that "the conception of Congregational freedom," its "independency," made it possible to harbor Dr. Orchard in their midst . They will not even draw the line at Liberals and Unitarians. They will even do this: "In the last Year-book of the Congregational Christian churches are listed the names of 571 men from otl1er denominations now serving Congregational churches and still maintaining standing in their own denomination." (Cong1'egationalist, Feb. 25, 1932.) E. The Plight of ~fQrmed Protestantism. - Using the title "A Ques- tion for Protestants," a pastor contributes an editorial to the Congrega- tionalist and Herald of Gospel Liberty which throughout is in a minor key and ends, his declaimer to the contrary nothwithstanding, in a note of distinct pessimism. These are his thoughts briefly summarized: A trip through New England on a Sunday morning last summer took him past well-attended Roman Catholic and poorly attended Protestant churches. "Even union services in the larger places showed little sign of an environing interest." An old Protestant church which is far into its third century of existence, a beautiful structure, well equipped with organ and chimes and tastily decorated, a meeting-place which thirty years ago was regularly attended by 150 worshipers, hardly can boast one-third of that number to-day. "Church suppers are well attended, but mid-week services have been abandoned." Dr. Fosdick, writing in a college paper, in analyzing the actual state of affairs, says that merely a handful of students regularly attend divine services and that there seems to be a general lack of interest in the Church. And yet the particular students he has in mind are from average American homes and among the best representatives of our youth. One must remember of course that charitable relief, social service, art, literature, education, are no longer so closely allied with the Church as used to be the case. Education has been taken over by the State, relief work by various public or private agencies. Exceptionally gifted preachers still attract large congregations, but that does not furnish any comfort. The Church in the future as in the past will have to be ministered to 60 Theological Observer. - .rettcI)ncI)~,()eitgefcI)icI)tlicI)e~. chiefly by average men. Twenty years ago a much-discussed article was written bearing the caption "vVhy Smith Does Not Go to Church." The answer given was that Smith was repelled by sectarian divisions. nut our author feels no assurance that "a single Protestant church where only one is necessary would have crowded pews." Avowing that he is not "an apostle of gloom," the writer quotes vVillard Sperry, who remarked that "the Church is always in the throes of her dissolution, but her demise is forever delayed." He concludes: "The Protestant Church is based on a service of worship assumed to have power to nurture the soul of man. Steadily in these days interest is declining in such services in the average church. What will happen to the soul of man? Incidentally, but still a matter of interest, what is to be the future of the Church, thus losing its chief reason for existence "I" It is a dark picture which is here drawn, and for once the colors are not deceiving. The causes of the disastrous situation are mainly two. In the first place, in very many of the pulpits of Reformed churches the "Vord of God is no longer proclaimed. In the second place, the youth of the Church is not indoctrinated. Will Lutherans read and heed the warning written on the wall of other Protestant denominations? A. ~tesbyt~il1n Pelagianism. - Under this heading, Prof. Dr. Wm. C. Robinson, professor of Church History in Columbia Theological Seminary, Decatur, Georgia, in the mid-October issue of Ohristianity To-day, severely reprimands such Pelagian Presbyterians as John Oman (G1-aoe and Per- sonality) and others who disagree so profoundly with the doctrines of the Westminster Oonfession "that one wonders by what liberality of interpre- tation they can find any substance of their faith in these Presbyterian standards." "Their Pelagianism out-Pclagianizes Pelagius"; it may be stated in the lines of the Chinese classic: - "Men, one and all, in infancy Are virtuous at heart; Their moral tendencies the same, Their practises wide apart. Without instruction's kindly aid Men's nature grows less fair; In teaching, thoroughness should be A never-ceasing care." (Translated by Giles.) :Uen of Omall's stamp are Kantians and agree with Kant's axiom that man has the ability to do whatever the Moral Law demands. How- ever, Pelagianism is nothing but naturalism, which "out of the caves of the old man creeps upon every man and every minister." "Only eternal vigilance and the continual illumination by the vVord and the Spirit can keep any preacher from repeating its suave phrases." These are some of the thoughts which the writer stresses, and very timely and necessary thonghts they are. PelagianisIll is still the most insidious enemy of the Christian faith, and theological professors must never cease exposing it and testifying against it. According to Dr. Robinson, Pelagianism accounts for the fact that there are to-day so "many calls for church affiliation and union." His indictment of the Federal Council is worth considel"ing. He writes: "A Pelagian desire for a great ecclesiastical machine with sufficient num- Theological Observer. - .Rircl)licl)~Seitgefcl)icl)mcl)es. 61 bers to dominate State politics is one' reason why there are so many calls for church affiliation and union. This purpose may be unknown or un- realized to many good men who push such schemes. The writer has the highest regard for the doctrinal soundness of certain ones of his brother ministers both in the North and in the South who have recently advocated membership in the Federal Council. These particular brethren could never be Pelagians themselves. They would never consciously tolerate a Pelagian position for their churches. May the writer have the temerity to ask them to consider whether in supporting the Federal Council they are not un- consciously asking their respective churches to take a position which is logically Pelagian? Does not the history of the Federal Council to date show that Presbyterian churches have held membership in it only at the cost at saorifioilng the Gospel to the sooial gospel? And is this not Pew- gianism?" It is certainly quite profitable for Christians holding member- ship in the Federal Council or seeking such membership to consider these questions of the frank writer. J. T. M. Religious Magazines Suspend Publication. - Under this heading l/ the Watohman-Examiner of October 6, 1932, writes: - "A quarterly maga- zine of unusual clarity, fidelity to God's Word, and of general excellence has been the Biblioal Review, published by the Biblical Seminary in New York and edited by Robert 1vt Kurt~. .A note announces to us that because of financial rea sons particularly the quar terly has been obliged to suspend publication. The R eview has been a large expense to the seminary, and it feels that in these circumstances even the excellency of the magazine does not justify the expenditure of the money necessary to its maintenance. The Oh,-istian Fundamentalist, a monthly published by the 'World's Christian Fundamentals Association and edited by Dr_ W. B. Riley of Minneapolis, has also suspended publication. Three reasons are given. First, Dr. Riley's health will not permit him to continue the almost innumerable tasks to which he has set his hand. Secondly, Dr. Riley has arranged to spend the coming fall and winter in a continent-wide compaign of Bible-teaching and evangelism. Thirdly, the financial load is too heavy to bear at this time. Dr. Ridey expresses the purpose to supply the news of the IVorld's Chris- stian Fundamentals Association through the Pilot, a magazine published in the interest of the Northwestern Bible and Missionary Training-school, of which he is the president. It is with regret that we announce the suspen- sion of these two publications. It simply shows the way the wind is / ' blowing." J. T. M. A Record Enrolment at Westminster Seminary. - Westminster , Theological Seminary in Philadelphia opened this fall with a record enrol- ment. On October 12 the student-body numbered 76. This, as Ohristianity To-day reports, includes 29 new students in the Junior Class, 23 students in the Middle Class (of whom 3 are new), 10 students in the Senior Class, 7 students in the graduate division, 5 partial students, and 2 special students. The opening address was delivered by Prof. Dr. J. Gresham Machen, who welcomed the students to a fellowship of testimony, of prayer, and of labor, interpreting their entering Westminster Seminary as a "pro- test against the current in the Church and in favor of the great doctrines of the Word." "The Seminary," he said, "has only one special task: to l1elp men become real specialists in the Bible." J. T. M. 62 Theological Observer. - Sl:itd)1id)~,seitgefd)id)t1id)es. Congregationalists Discuss Mission-Treasury Deficit. - Recently at a meeting of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- sions, which is the title of the board of Foreign Missions of the Congrega- tionalists, the deficit of the mission-treasury on which this board is relying for its funds had to be spoken of, and means to remove it had to be con- sidered. From the report of this meeting, as it appeared in the Clwistian Century, we take over one paragraph: - "Becau~e of declining income the American Board is in process of either detaining in this conn try or recalling from abroad over sixty mis- sionaries. This is the first time in nearly a century and a quarter of the history of the board that acceptable missionaries in the prime of life have been asked to find other employment for purely financial reasons. As against the release of their colleagues the missionaries in attendance on the meeting of the board offered a counter-proposition - that all take less in order that all might remain at the tasks for which they have been trained. The salaries of the missionaries of the board have already been cut, on the average, 12 per cent., and it was estimated that such a move as this would involve a further reduction of 8 per cent.; and yet the mis- sionaries themselves argued for this move with much enthusiasm and with apparently general unanimity. If a permanent reduction in personnel was necessary, they argued, it could best be brough t about throu gh the in- evitable retirements and resignations of a year or two. The matter was argued first in a meeting of missionaries and secretaries and later in a public meeting of the board, by which it was refel'l'ed to the Prudential Committee, its directing body. But the spirit of the missionaries was superb." A. "Trained in the Classics." - The following is taken from the weekly Ame1'iaa: "The young gentleman who was chosen class orator at Harvard this year, Paul C. Reardon, is both clear-eyed and courageous. In his ad- dress he suggested what some alumni still think is a hoary heresy, to wit, that the Harvard of to·day is not quite the equal of the Harvard that was. Mr. Reardon is convinced that something is lacking, 'an intangible some- thing,' in the Harvard of 1932. Alma mater is not training her sons to go out into the world equipped for leadership. She has her courses in sociology and economics, as the old Harvard did not, but these do not seem to fit students to take an active and intelligent interest in community life. 'Somewhere along this upward path something intangible has been lost.' If you press him for details, Mr. Reardon will answer that the 'something' is a training in the classics. And he points to the Harvard that sent Charles Sumner, Wendell Phillips, and James Russell Lowell out into the world to stir it with controversy and to delight it with beauty. 'They had been trained in the classics.' Possibly Mr. Reardon might have made a better selection among the alumni; all old Harvard men will have their favorites to propose; but we can see what he means, and many will agree. The classical training often resulted in a vision and an energy which the newer modes of academic effort seem unable to arouse and foster. Its students had a link with all that was best in the strength and beauty of the past, even though they had never heard of a graph and still thought that amber was the chief source of electricity. They were not men freighted with facts, but they knew how to relate the facts they had encountered, few or many, with the life they had lived. Palmer, himself a Harvard Theological Observer. - Stitd)licl)'3eit\le\d)id)tlicl)e~. 63 teacher long to be remembered, once said that to be a good teacher, a good blacksmith, or a good shopkeeper, one had to be 'human.' That was the purpose of the old classical training. If it did not turn the young men into walking encyclopedias, it did deepen the intellect, strengthen the will, .and enlarge the emotions, and so strove to make them both human and humane. - Educators of many creeds and divergent schools are looking wistfully into the past. They are fairly certain that the college which peddles courses, as a department store offers bargains in anything, from axes to lanterns to xylophones, has not succeeded in giving us either leaders ,01' men. It has all the vices of a machine age and few of its virtues; its past is something which educators recall with horror, and its future is bleakness unrelieved. The once despised 'training in the classics' may yet come into its own." P. E. K. "Modernism Riding High, Wide, and Handsome." - That is what Christianity To-day sees in the "Hall of Religions at the Chicago World's Fair." The building will be erected on the lagoon, adjacent to Lake Michigan, and house the exhibits for Protestant denominations. Statistical data, such as have never before been placed before the public, are being compiled with the avowed purpose of astounding those who declare that "Christianity is on the wane" and that "the Church is losing ground." Ref'Jtation of these assaults is the main object of the Committee on Progress through Religion in the erection of this beautiful building. " More impor tant yet is the program of many conferences that will be directed to clarifying the objectives and methods for the solution of present social problems. Emphasis will rest upon cooperation and not upon propaganda for special religious affiliations. These conferences will have for their subjects many phases of religious education, the attitude of youth toward religion, changing forms of worship, the methodology of charity and social service, the cooperation of religious bodies for peace, and the organization of religious leaders for the reduction of poverty." Indeed, "Modernism riding high, wide, and handsome" ! J. T. M. What Do Episcopalians Believe Touching the Real Presence?- The controversy originated in the Interdenominational Communion Service at Christ Church Cathedral, St. Louis (Episcopalian), has naturally in- volved a study of what the official position of the Protestant Episcopal Church is on the meaning of the Eucharist. The Living Church, spon- soring the views of the ritualists among the Episcopalians, says in its issue of August 13, 1932: - "The full force of the tradition of the Anglican Church shows very explicitly that the Holy Communion is much more than a commemoration of the Lord's death by a company of believers in fellowship with one an- .. other and with Him. It is that indeed, but it is also the means whereby the Holy Spirit sanctifies the elements of bread and wine, so that 'we, re- '. ceiving them according to ... our Savior Jesus Christ's holy institution in remembrance of His death and Passion, may be partakers of His most blessed body and blood.' (Praym··book, p. 81.) And again the inward part, or 'spiritual grace,' of the blessed Sacrament 'is the body and blood of Christ, which are spiritually taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's Supper' (p. 293). In other words, the Anglican Church not only agrees with the Protestant bodies that the Holy Communion is a perpetual memorial of our Lord's death, but it goes farther and witnesses to the fact v 64 Theological Observer. - ~itdjlid)'8eitgefd)id)t1id)e§. that the blessed Sacrament is in truth His very body and blood. Most Protestants, probably all of those who participated in the St. Louis service,. have lost this witness. To them there is no Real Presence in the Holy Communion, which is simply a memorial celebration and an expression of fellowship. It is exactly because the Anglican Church has been faithful to its witness to the Real Presence that it has maintained the need of a divinely ordained sacrificing priesthood to celebrate the Holy Eucha- rist," etc. Reading these words superficially, one gets the impression that Episco- palians teach what we Lutherans hold concerning the Lord's Supper, that. is, that in, with, and under the bread and wine Christ's body and blood are imparted to the communicants. Unfortunately the Prayer-book itself, in the appendix containing the Thirty-nine Articles of the Anglican Church,. puts a veto on such a favorable view. There very explicitly it is stated that unbelievers do not receive Christ's body and blood, so that it becomes quite apparent that the eating and drinking of Christ's body and blood professed by Anglicans is one that is performed by faith, a spiritual eating and drinking, and not that sacramental communion which is taught in the Scriptures and confessed by the Lutheran Church. A. "We Fair-Wea ther Modernists." - It is not often that Biblical Christianity can assent to \-v-hat Dr. H. E. Fosdick broadcasts over the radio. Now and then, however, he says things that are worth quoting. Recently, in one of his addresses, he reproved the Modernists as follows: "We fair- weather Modernists, with our too easy gospel of God as a sentimental Lover, would better salute those old Christians. They did not blink the facts; instead, they achieved a faith able to rise above the facts and carry off a spiritual victory in the face of them, and at their best, in the darkest hours that ever fell on human history, they stood like houses built on rocks." But Dr. Fosdick has still more to say of his fair-weather fellow- Modernists. Ohristianity To-day quotes him as having said, too: "Old- fashioned religion often did produce an unconsenting and courageous in- dividual conscience. At this point Modernism often fails. It has breadth and easy-going complacency and general good will, but lacks moral grip to lift men above the ordinary levels of daily life and give them courage, if necessary, to defy the world." Again: "vVe Modernists pare down and dim our faith by negative abstractions until we have left only the ghastly remainder of what was once a great religion. Then seeing how few our positive convictions are and how little they matter, we grow easy going about everyone else's convictions and end in a mush of general con- cessions." All this has been said before by Biblical Christians, but it is well for us to learn how Modernists themselves r egard the idolatrous stuff which they offer to the world in the name of religion. But if it is so worthless, why do they continue to preach it? J. T. M. Languages Used in Europe. - The International Linguistic Office in Geneva recently released the information that of the 125 independent languages which are spoken in Europe, German is used by eighty-one mil- lion, occupying first place. According to the tabulation the Russian lan- guage is second, with seventy million; English, forty-seven million; Italian, forty·one million; French, thirty-nine million. News Bulletin of N. L. O. Theological Observer. - ~itcl)licl)<.8eitgejd)id)md)es. 65, II. )(lLsitmb. ~llrr 2311xt~ null, llcr Sfllt~Dfiiii!.Jmd. Unter biefer ftlieridjrift ±eiIt meHor m5ilIiomm cine ffiraIidj getane WUBfpradje beB befann±en beu±fdjen ~~eologen bialeftifdjer midjtung ~atI Q\art~ iiber ben ~a±~onaiBmUB mit, bie nidj± o~nc )Bebeutung ift. Q\ar±~ fdjrcilit: ,,@Sic fonn±en fidj fragcn, toarum idj gerabe in biefer Wngeregen~eit fo fdjarf roerbe, fiatt ~~ten Wngriff fdjroeigenb au meinen reidjen WHen a~nIidjer Wrt au regen. ~dj roilI eB ~~nen fagen: lJatllm toerbe idj jcljarf, rociL idj in @Sadjen lJeB ,~at~on3iB1l1UB feincn @Spat l1erfte~e. ~dj mcine einigermaBen au roilfen, juaB ~aifjoIiaiBmUB if±, unD meine, mit lmii~e geben SU follen, eB immer belfet au roilfen. ~dj ~a1±c i~n fUr einen unfjeimIidj ftaden unlJ iiefen, re~mdj fUr ben einaigen roidHcfJ emft au nefjmenbcn @efPradjBgegner ber ebangeHjdjen ;;tfjeorogie. :;'5dj ~arte ben :;'5beaIiBmuB unb bie Wntr)ropofop~ie unb bie boffijdje meIigion unb bie @o±±Iofenbehlegung fiir ~nbereien, gemeffen an biefem @egner. ~dj leibe barun±er, bat bie ebangelijdje 5tfjeologie ~ier blinb if±, baB fie nidjt merH, au roelcljer geijtigen unlJ geiftfidjen R3ebeumngBlofigieit iie in eincr ahlei~ ~1mber±ja~rigen