Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 3-10 (Text)

Theological Observer. -Sftfdjlidj~.8ettgefdjtdjtHdje~. I. .2lmrrilro. "Lutheranism's Greatest Little Book." -In an article published in the Lutheran for May 19, entitled "As in a Schoolroom," Dr. J. W. Horine writes on the value of "Lutheranism's greatest little book." He takes for his text Dr. Krauth's description of a picture depicting the story of Lu­ther's Small Catechism: "The second result is shown in a scene in a school­room in which the Catechism has been introduced. Luther sits in the midst of the children, teaching them the First Article of the Creed. Jonas is distributing the book among them, and in the background a number of teachers listen that they may learn to carry out this new feature in their calling." Dr. Horine writes: "Several expressions are used here which call for comment. The first is the phrase 'a scene in a schoolroom.' . .. If Luther was a Reformer in the sphere of religion, he was a pioneer and pathfinder in the field of education. 'Luther is the father of popular educa­tion, its principles and its methods, and his influence has shaped the system of education throughout the civilized world up to this day.' It does not escape us that Luther's interest in this work was primarily religious: with him the general benefit resulting to the individual and the state from the education of its citizens was only secondary. For one thing, if the Bible was to be read by the 'ordinary Christian,' the ordinary Christian must be taught to read. For another thing, Luther knew very well that education 'changes the size, but not the sort,' that 'your biggest rascal is your edu­cated rascal,' that education as such is no guarantee of thinking upon the things which are true, honest, just, pure, lovely, and of good report, but that these things, in the thoughts of the heart and the habits of the life, are the direct fruit of the sanctifying Word of God. Therefore Luther would countenance no school divorced from religion; therefore he de­clared: 'Above all, in schools of whatever description, the chief and most common lesson should be the Scripture. Where the Holy Scriptures do not rule I advise no one to send his child'; and therefore Luther prepared his Small Oateohism. "We are ready, then, for the second expression used by Dr. Krauth­'a scene in a schoolroom in which the Catechism has been introduced.' ... No one more earnestly than Luther urged upon parents the importance of home-training and their solemn duty to bring up their children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord; and therefore he prepared his Small Catechism and placed it in the hands of the head of the family first, whose first duty it was to instruct his own children, and directed that it be so used and taught by him. But what will you? In our own day there are heads of families who read several newspapers a day and who give ab­solutely no religious instruction to their children, neither by means of Luther's Small Catechism nor by any other means. .And in Luther's day there were parents just as slothful and neglectful, plus the disadvantage (and in so far the excuse) that they were illiterate. What if the head of the family was unable to read and to teach or was otherwise unready Theological Observer. -~itd)1id)~,8eitgcfd)id)md)es. 771 "and unfit! He sent his children to the school to be taught; and that is how Luther's Catechism got in the school: not finding the child (for whom it was designed) at home, it followed and overtook him in the person of the scholar. This proceeding leads us to remark that, where the parochial school, in which the Catechism is daily taught, has given place to the 'Sunday-school (a sorry substitute, by the way), in which the Catechism is seldom taught, it would be to the great advantage of the Sunday-school, to the teachers and scholars, to divide the time between the teaching of the Bible and the teaching of the Catechism. In May, 1530, just one year after -the Catechism appeared, Luther can write to the Elector of Saxony: 'Now the tender youth of both sexes are growing up 80 well instructed in the 'Catechism and the Bible that it does my heart good to see how the girls ,and boys can pray and believe and speak more of God and Christ than formerly any religious foundation, cloister, or school could or yet can.' 'That was when the Catechism was studied and learned in school. Nowadays 'it is not often that it does a pastor's heart good to find the boys and girls in the catechetical class 'so well instructed in the Catechism and the Bible.' .And yet the Catechism, in its original intention, was a simple introduction -to Christianity, a text-book for the instruction mainly of children. Hence this scene in the schoolroom, in which the Catechism has been introduced and Luther is seen sitting in the midst of the children teaching them the First Article of the Creed. It was not a catechetical class he was teaching. The reservation of the Catechism to the catcchetical class and the require­ment of a knowledge of it for confirmation is to transfer the Catechism from the beginning of religious instruction to its end .... "At this point some one will say: 'You have spoken of the Bible and the Catechism, the Catechism and the Bible; that is putting the Catechism ,on the same plane with Scripture.' No, we answer, not quite, but on the plane next below it. The Scriptures, of course, are supreme, but of the principal parts of the Catechism -the Ten Commandments are in the words of Scripture, the Creed is consonant with the doctrine of Scripture, the Lord's Prayer is a verbal citation of Scripture, and so much of Scrip­ture enters into the Sacrament of Baptism and likewise the Sacrament of the Altar that these two parts are a virtual paraphrase. It is no wonder therefore that in the Formula of Concord the Catechism is called 'the Bible of the laity,' forasmuch as in it 'the Christian doctrine from God's Word is comprised in the most correct and simple way and, in like manner, is sufficiently explained for simple laymen.' It is no wonder that Luther himself, than whom no one ever revered the Scriptures more highly and adhered to them more solely and wholly, once declared that he would be willing for all his books to perish save the Catechism and his treatise on the Unfree Will, and furthermore declared that in the Catechism 'are com­prehended the entire contents of the Christian doctrine which it is needful for the Christian to know for his salvation.' ... "This article is already too long, but to omit mention of the contents of the Small Catechism would be to commit a catechetical sin almost un­pardonable. . .. It is a model of simplicity and completeness. It leaves out nothing necessary and admits nothing superfluous. Its language is devout, almost devotional. One has said of it, it is a book which can be pmyed. . .. But perhaps more remarkable still is this, that throughout 772 Theological Observer. -.Rhd)IidJo.8eitgefdJid)tHdJes. the Catechism the catechumen makes personal application and appropria­tion of the saving truth, or rather, perhaps, places himself in a personal relation to the God and Giver of that truth. For this is the significance of 'the pronouns of the Catechism,' of the 'Thou' of the commandments, the 'I' and 'My' and 'Me' of the Creed, the 'We' and 'Us' of the Lord's Prayer, the 'Thee' of Holy Baptism and the 'You' of the Holy Communion .... " The Luthe?,(Ln says: "The article is timely." We regret that on account of our limited space only portions of it could be here submitted. E. Theology Adjusting Itself to "Science." -The modern theologian, who insists that theology must be in agreement with seience, is not, as a, rule, thinking of science, but of speculative philosophy. He does not, usually, attempt to show how the advance of science, the discovery of new facts, modifies the teaching of t.he Bible. He did not add a new chapt.er to Christian dogmat.ics on the st.rength of Colonel Lindbergh's flight across the ocean five years ago. Nor does he find that. the feat of Mrs. Amelia Earha.rt Putnam, thc first. woman to make a solo airplane flight. across the Atlantic, on May 21, has any bearing on Biblical theology. He may cogitate on the essential equality of the male and the female, but he will hardly on the strength of this achievement go about revising 1 Tim. 2, 12. What is back in his mind is the idea, that theology, in conflict with the modern world-view erroneously based on the advance of science, must be brought into harmony with it. He will frequently give plain expression to this idea, and the following quotation, illustrat.ing our point., also shows to what, extent he is willing to revise theology. It is taken from a sermon delivered by Dr. George R. Dodson, minist.er of the Church of the Unity, St. Louis, at t.he "May meet.ings" of the Unit.arians in Boston. "Tradi­tional Christianity was based upon a world-view. It proclaimed a scheme of redemption which was a great process ext.ending from the creation of the world to the Judgment. This venerable world-view, now dead or moribund, has been replaced by ano·ther. We arel t.o-day concerned to know what is man's place in the universe and what will be the probable cosmic fate of t.he supreme values. vVe look down the long vistas of evo­lution in order that we may discover, and work with, the upward tendencies in the universe, and then we look in t.he ot.helr direction that we may, if possible, discern the goal toward which we may hopefully strive to climb. What o'clock is it in the evolution of religion? What is the stage of development that. we have reached? . .. The second great event which has taken place in the religious thought of educated men in the yc,cent past is the clear l'ealization of the fact t.hat we are not. merely spectators of the process of evolution. We have definitely left behind the laissez-faire theory that progress will take place automatically and that we can 'sit back and let evolution do it,.' It is true that most progress of the past was not due to human planning and that it has been understood only after the event.. Mankind has been pushed up; but it grows ever clearer t.ha.t, if we are to keep in the ascending path, we must henceforth climb.­We have heard of the man who wished he had been present at Great,ion, as he would have liked t.o make a few suggestions. Well, evolution means that. creation is st,ill going on, that. we are present. and that we are making suggest,ions which aTe effective. We are remaking plants, animals, sciences, Theological Observer. -.!l:itdj1idj'3eitgejdjidjtlidjes. 773 arts, institutions, and laws and are revising the ideals which led us on. We can discern and work with the upward tendencies in the universe. vVith the Christ of tIle fourth gospel each of us can say, 'My Father worketh hitherto, and I work.'" E. A New Denomination Planned. -The following item we take over from the Ch1-istian Cent1!ry:-"Announcement is made that definite preliminary steps have been taken by commissions of the Unitarian and Uniycrsalist churches to organize the 'Free Church of America' as an aid to extending by united action a program of religious liberalism in this country. The new Church would provide an opportunity for other liberal religious groups and in­dependent churches to enter into a 'working fellowship.' Each denomina­tion would keep its own name and organization, but the elimination of duplication would be sought. The commissions have been at work on the plan for six months. The plan is an enlargement of the original proposal to merge the Unitarian and Uniycrsalist churches; the present proposal looks toward cooperation in church extension, in social amelioration and reform, a11(1 in recruiting a larger number of able men for the ministry. The plan is to be presented for the consideration of the conventions of the two communions. Among the members of the commissions are Dr. Louis C. Cornish, president of the American Unitarian Association, Dr. John Howland Lathrop of Brooklyn, and Dr. Frank D. Adams of Detroit." A. News from Two Protestant Conventions. -The Methodists held their quadrennial meeting in Atlantic City. From the newspapers and church journals we gather that the chief topic of discussion was retrench­ment and adjustment to the present economic situation. In the Methodist Church a number of papers are being published which bear the name The Christian Ad'ooaate. The convention resolved to eliminate one half of these Christian Advocates, retaining three of them, one to be published in New York, the second in Kansas City, and the third in San Francisco. The salaries of bishops were reduced from $7,200 a year, each, to $6,000, "with allowances for house rent, traveling, and secretarial help," as the Christian Century informs us. There was a distinct modernistic trend noticeable, as is evident from this report taken from the same source: "A commission on the revision of the Church's ritual reported, and its work was approved. The changes made by this commission, while relatively few, are significant. The marriage ceremony, for instance, has been freed of a phrase not always tending to edification: 'with my worldly goods I thee endow'; and no reference is made either to the institution of marriage 'in the time of man's innocency' or the wedding-feast at Cana. The challenge and warning to the congregation and the principles touching possible impediments to the marriage are deleted. In the burial service the words of committal have lost all suggestion of 'earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust,' and there is nothing said about the resurrection of the body. Some will miss these and other familiar passages, though their vanishing is real gain." The reporter is one of the people who do not believe in the resur­rection of the body or in the story of man as recorded in Genesis, and he therefore rejoices in the elimination of statements which touch on these matters. If one of the purposes of the dpression is to bring us closer to 774 Theological Observer. -.Ritd)1id)~.8eitgefd)i4Jm4Jes. the Word of God and make us more faithful to it, this purpose has not yet been realized in the case of the majority of the delegates who con­stituted the Methodist convention. The Presbyterians (Northern Presbyterians) met in Denver. History has repeated itself touching the election of a moderator. The candidate of the Fundamentalists, who were attacking the "machine," which is largely liberal, was not elected, nor did the outspoken Liberals succeed in placing their candidate in the chair. A Fundamentalist was elected, Dr. Kerr, who, llOwever, as the reporter in the Ohristian OentuTY informs us, is of the ,gentle kind and places more emphasis "on his religion than on his the­ology." When the question arose whether the Presbyterians should con­tinue to support the :B'ederal Council of Churches, there was a sharp divi­sion of opinion, but a resolution prevailed which favored adoption of a budget including the Federal Council item. Two men, Dr. H. M. Griffiths and Dr. Edwin J. Reinke, described as militant Fundamentalists, were un­successful in their earnest endeavors to make the Presbyterians withdraw from the Federal Council of Churches. Their arguments emphasizing the untrustworthiness of the leadership of the Federal Council, the birth­control scandal, and the necessity of economy proved unavailing. Their protest against remaining in the Federal Council was simply recorded. 'The only positive gain, if it can be called such, which these men achieved was that "the assembly did ask for greater care in the radio program of the Council and a reorganization of the Council committees." The report does not indicate that these men fought their battle on the basis of the Scriptures, pointing to the false teachings which are sponsored by prominent men in the Federal Council of Churches. As to missionary endeavors, we are told that the Presbyterian Church U. S. A. (the official name of the Northern Presbyterians) is one of the few churches which have not curtailed their foreign missionary work during the last year. One of its leaders told the convention that "not one mis­sionary has been withdrawn, not one furlough has been prolonged, not one station has been closed, and sixty new missionaries have been sent to the field." This is truly remarkable in the face of unfavorable economic con­ditions. The reporter in the Olwistian Oentury informs us that "this has been accomplished in spite of a loss of $355,000 in contributions during the past year from living donors. There was a deficit of only $65,000. This fine record was made possible by gain through foreign exchange, the cur­tailment of capital expenditures, and the raising of the 'no retreat fund.' The entire staff of the Foreign JliIissions Board at the home base con­tributed ten per cent. of their salary to this fund." The forty years of .service which Dr. Robert Speer has given to foreign missionary work were recognized by the convention. As was to he expected, the assembly reaffirmed its "unequivocal en­dorsement of the Eighteenth Amendment" and called "upon the state and the nation to make effective the enforcement of its supporting laws." With its complaint that "inanities, imbecilities, immoralities, and obscenities" are terms characterizing what is being offered the people in the moving­picture shows we find ourselves in agreement. It was urged in the report that came before the convention that Federal action should be taken to prevent the showing of such harmful films and that local organizations 775 should be established which are to inspect the films before they are pro­duced before the public. What is more important is that pastors and teachers warn those committed to their care against the evils lurking in wicked moving pictures. A.. The Presbyterian Moderator Calls the Methodist Bishop to Orde·r. -It so happened that the same issue of a. St. Louis daily carried these two items: "Montreat, North Carolina, May 26. -The Rev. 'Villi am Crowe, D. D., St. Louis, Mo., was elected moderator by the Seventy-second General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States here this afternoon. . .. The St. Louis minister, invited to open the assembly by Dr. R. A. Dunn, the retiring moderator and layman, pleaded for a per­sonal type of evangelism as the only 'guarantee of the future of the Church.' 'National Prohibition,' he said, is an achievement for the American people. But it is no business of the Church of Jesus Christ in its organized capacity to promote the addition of any amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Nor is it the business of the Church of Jesus Christ in its organized capacity to assume the responsibility of defeating any candidate for the Presidency of the United States. Instead of spiritualizing business and politics, the Church is bent upon the secularizing of the gospel of Christ .... '" -"Washington, May 26. -Bishop James Cannon, Jr., de­clared to-day that, should either the Republican or Democratic convention, or both, 'take unfair or unprecedented action on the ProhibitioIl question,' organized drys would insist that the people ignore such action in electing their Senators and Representatives next fall. As clmirman of the Board of Temperance aml Social Service of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Bishop Cannon sent a letter to every Senator and Representative saying the 'extreme limit' to which the organized Prohibitionists would go in the party platforms would be to declare for 'vigorous, efficient enforcement,' and further, 'that, whenever the people desire to amend or to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment, etc., etc.''' E. How the Catholics Refute the Doctrine of Justification by Faith Alone. -"Oatholio Belief. By Ve,"y Rev. J. Faa Di B,"uno, D. D. Five hundred and fiftieth thousand." This booklet is offered for sale in the vestibule of the St. Louis cathedral. It bears the nihil obstat of the Oensor LibrMum and the Imp,"imatur of John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. We are very willing to give it wide publicity and help to swell its sale by a few more thousand copies. It will serve a good purpose to make men acquainted with the kind of arguments that the archbishop con­siders convincing. TIle Catholic spokesman says: "Luther admitted that justification and salvation by faith alone was a new doctrine; for in his comments on 1 Cor. 5 he was vain enough to speak of himself as one 'to whom the mystery of genuine faith, hidden t,"om fonner a.gcs in God, had been revealed.' But having determined to introduce his newly invented doctrine of justification by a mere reliance on Christ for pardon, which he called faith, and despairing to find another text that could serve his pur­pose better than the text of St. Paul, Rom. 3, 28: 'For we account a man to be justified by faith without the works of the Law,' thought of making this text the great bulwark of his new doctrine; and being at the same time fully convinced that even tbis text was insufficient to establish his Theological Observer. -~ird)lid)~8eitgefcf)id)mcf)es. new principle, he betook himself to the mad expedient of corrupting this passage, adding the word alone to the word faith in order to make it appear that saving faith was not only in contrast to the works of the Old Law, called by St. Paul the law of wOTlcs, but also to the deeds of the New Law, called by the same holy apostle the law of faith, that thus it might help him to start a new method of justification by faith alone. People remonstrated with him on every side on this account; even his fellow-reformer Zwinglius accused him in these sharp words: 'Luther, thou corruptest the "\Vord of God. 'J'hou art seen to bc a manifest and common corrupter and perverter of Holy Scripture.' But it was of no avail. De­spairing to find one text in the whole Scripture to prop efficiently his device and seeing the necessity of introducing this word 'alone' in order to give this passage the appearance of favoring his novel principle of jnstification by faith alone, he declared unblushingly that this word should remain in spite of everything and of everybody; and this on no other but his own authority and for no other reason than his own will. . .. To show the unfairness of taking the word faith occurring in Holy Scripture in this new Protestant sense of t1'USt in OhTist fOT paTdon, to the -emclusion of any otheT disposition 01' mClLns, and not in the Catholic sense of belief in re­vealed truths, which belief virtually implies the use of all dispositions, tTUSt included, and of all proper means, allow me to use the following illustration: Suppose a man afflicted with a grave disease sends for a phy­"sician of repute. The physician comes and prescribes and, to inspire the patient with more confidence, tells him, 'Only believe in me, and you will be cured.' Can we suppose that the poor sufferer on the departure of the physician would say: I shall take no medicine, for the physician said, 'Only believe, and you will be cured'? . .. The Catholic Church teaches the necessity of faith, or belief in revelation, of hope, or trust, fear and love of God, humility, repentance, purpose to observe the commandments ;and application of the Sacraments to obtain justification. Her teaching accords with Holy Scripture, while the Protestant theory of justification by faith alone is not according to Scripture rightly interpreted, but is opposed to it. . .. That St. Paul in these passages, by the expression with-011,t the works of the Law, did not exclude other dispositions except faith, but implied them in the word faith, is made still more clear by other passages of his, in which he also attributes justification to hope, charity, fear of God, penance, willingness to keep the Law, and Holy Baptism. 'Thus, with regard to hope he says: 'We are saved by hope,' Rom. 8, 24. As to charity he says: 'If I have ALL faith (therefore also what Protestants call saving faith), so that I could 1'emove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing,' 1 Cor. 13,2. Again, the faith that availeth is a 'faith that wOTketh by ohaTity,' Gal. 5, 6. As to penance he says: 'FoT the SOTrow that is aoom-ding to (fod wOTketh PENANCE steadfast UNTO SALVATION,' 2 Cor. 7, 10. As to willingness to keep the Commandments, St. Paul says: 'The doeTS of the law [of faith] shall be JUSTIFIED,' Rom. 2, 13. Again: 'Know you not that to whom you yield youTselves servants to obey, his servants you aTe whom you obey, whether it be of sin unto death or of 'OBEDIENCE UNTO JUSTICE?' Rom. 6, 16. . .. In a sermon on 'Justification by Faith,' preached in 1812 by Mr. Jabez Bunting and published at the request of the Methodist Conference the preacher devotes a full page to Theological Observer. -.ftitdJIidJ',{leitgejdJidJUidJes. 777 prove that justification is nothing else in itself than the pardon of our sins. But regeneration and therefore justification and pardon of sins, given for the first time, arc clearly attached by our Lord to the Sacrament of Bap­tism, John 3, 5, which is emphatically styled by St. Paul 'the laver of re­generation,' Titus 3,5; and again our Lord Jesus Christ has plainly and peremptorily attached the pardoning of sins at other times to the sacra­mental absolution of the priest, John 20,21-23, and not to illere tt'usting)' though hope or tnlst in God is in itself one of the necessary dispositions, never to be omitted on coming to the Sacrament of Penance." Our pen is balking. But the passages transcribed give a fair idea of how the Catholic theologian treats Scripture and his readers. E. Controversy about Militarism and Military Training. -Often it is held that those people who insist on purity of doctrine are the ones who are responsible for all the quarrels and the strife in the Church. Let those who entertain such a view read the account the Ohristian Oentury publishes of a violent dissension involving members of churches belonging. to the Federal Council. The scene of action is Portland, Oregon. "The question of militarism in education has been much to the front during the past two months in the Pacific Northwest. It came up in Seattle when a large mass-meeting asked t.he school board to close the schools to military officials engaged in promoting citizens' training-camps. The board compromised by permitting the officials to visit the schools, but only when not in uniform. This action resulted in much feeling on the part of the American Legion, which adopted resolutions about the 'direct insult' and 'affront' thus shown to the uniform of the country and the principles of the organization. The potent influence of Dr. Mark A. Mat­t.hews, pastor of the First. Presbyterian Church, was t.hrown on this side' of the cont.roversy. In a sermon he asserted that 'war has been decIared by the forces of e,vil and bolshevism against the institutions of God and America.' As a chaplam in the officers' reserve corps, with the rank of lieutenant colonel, he exclaimed, 'May God paralyze 'my tongue if ever it should dishonor the uniform of my count.ry!' The next day the papers carried a front-page statement cogently giving the Christian position on war and condemnmg the attitude of Dr. Matthews. It was signed by four leading pastors-E. A. Fridell, First Baptist Church; M. O. Sansbury, First. Christian Church; F. W. Shorter, Pilgrim Congregational; and L. W. Taylor, Ballard Presbyterian. The parent-teachers' councils of the cit.y and county took their place with these four pastors. At the same time a group of ministers in the eastern part of Washington, headed by Rev. R. B. Shaw of Spokane, started a movement to secure signatures to an initiative bill which would prohibit compulsory military training." A. What the Unitarian Thinks when He Thinks about Jesus.­.A communication to the Oht'istian Oentury, March 30, 1932, reads: "Editor the Ohristian Oentury,' Sir: The sketch, 'Suppose,' by E. Robb Zaring in the Ohristian Oentury for March 16, assumes that, if Jesus, instead of be,ing crucified in youth, had lived to old age, the doctrines which He preached would never have taken root among mankind. Is this assumption justified? Confucius, Buddha, and Mohammed all lived to an advanced age and died naturally. Their teachings survive. Certainly Mr. Zaring 778 Theological Observer. -~itd)1id)'Seitgefd)id)md)es. does not, mean t,o imply that the teachings of Jesus were so much less vit,al than these other religions that only a martyr's death could assure the survival of the teachings of Jesus. It is true that a martyr's death does add glory to the name of a great personality, but not unless the person in question is grea.t enough to impress his teachings upon the world in any event,. The outstanding greatness of Jesus is at,tested by the fact that He accomplished His work in so short a time', and that before His powers could have become fully matured. Surely He would have accom­plished a far greater work could He have labored thirty years instead of three. Charles G. Girelius, Jamestown, N. Y." The heading of the letter, supplied, we presume, by the editor, "Was the Crucifixion Necessary'!" is somewhat cryptic. E. On Dent. 18, 10-12. -"While it is true that a considerable sub­stratum of gullible folks have had traffic with soothsaying in all ages, the curious fact is that we are to-day witnessing a recrudescence of superstition considerably broader than the weakness of an occasional nitwit for mild forms of soreery. It has become a mass pilgrimage to tbe oldest. of shrines. John Mulholland, vice-president of the Society of American Magicians, is authority for the statement that there are to-day 100,000 fortune-tellers of various brands in the United States. Over one hundred broadcasting stations in different sections of the country employ soothsayers. The amount paid for the services of these astrologers, clairvoyants, numerol­ogists, palmists, and the like, reaches the humiliating total of $125,000,000 annually. Of this sum, Mr. Mulholland estimates tha,t· $25,000,000 comes from New York city alone .... "Recently in Ncw York, a city which always manages to look with severity and disdain upon the rest of the country, the t.enants of a fashion­able apartment house began breaking their leases. . .. The agitation was traced to the wives of the place: a pruminent numerologist in the city had told the ladies that. the house number at that address brought static to their destiny. . .. Ranking next to astrology in popularity at the moment is this hoary and putative science of numerology, of calculating destiny by the acrobatics of number. It is said by its lyrical exponents to have been handed down from remotest antiquity and to have been used among the Assyrians, the Greeks, and the Egyptians. . .. Certain vibra.­tions, it appears, are set in motion when a person or a city 01' a· corporation or a speak-easy is named, 'and it is only by knowledge, and wisdom that we can govern, direct, and adjust ourselves to these vibrations.' It's all a matter of the name and the number your name gives' you. And, say the nillmerologists,' you can change your luck by changing your name.' So you see that the women at the fashionable New York address had every cause for grave concern when they discovered how poorly they vibrated under an ominous house number." Then follows a discussion of palmistry, phre­nology, and tea-leaf prophecy. (Ohristian OentuTY, March 30, 1932.) "Astrology enjoys in this age of garish enlightenment a vogue it has not experienced since the clammy days of the fourteenth and fifteenth cen­turies, when it was the dominating influence a,t the courts of Europe .... vVhen Miss Evangeline Adams came from Boston to New York in 1899, she was denied admittance to the first hotel she entered; the proprietor would have none of her magic. That was thirty-two years ago. . .. Now Theological Observer. -~itcl)licl)'2eitgefcl)icl)t1id)e§. 779 her charge is $50 for a single consultation at her renowned studio in Carnegie Hall, New York." Follows a partial list of her notable clients, embracing the names of some of America's leaders in business and politics. "Miss Adams broadcasts her Babylonian patte'r three nights a week over an imposing hook-up of ten radio stations, and she enjoys a fan mail comparable to that lately conferred upon Amos 'n' Andy. . .. One astrol­oger in Chicago has induced a hundred regular clients, all of them business men, to pay him $1,000 apiece annually. . .. In California an astrologer recently sent out over radio an offer to read gratis the horoscope of any person who would write in. He received 100,000 letters as a result of a, single broadcast. Later he enlarged his appeal in a come-on circular, offering fuller information for $4, and drew 30,000 replies." (The Chris­tiam Century, l!'ebruary 17, 1932.) "The ancient Babylonians felt positive that they could divine tIle fate and future of human beings from the position of the sun, moon, and planets, and the ancient Greeks thought so, too. So did the ancient Romans and all the nations of Europe during the Middle Ages as well as in recent times; and I have heard from several sources that in America and in Eng'land, too, for that matter, there are literally thousands of bankers and statesmen and prominent men of all sorts who refuse to tlj.ke any important step without first consulting an astrologer to find out whether the stars are auspicious .... "Occasionally the best of astrologers had a bit of trouble, especially in predicting the end of the world. Several of the great ones, including a top-noteher named Stoffier, figured that in 1524 the planets were going to be so situated that the world would be destroyed by a, deluge. Great preparations were made to offset this cataclysm, especially in France, which has always gone in heavily for preparedness. President Aurial at Tou­louse, according to the records, even built himself a, magnificent Noah's ark, with the intention of diverting himself with a yachting party during the wet season. In London almost the entire population moved out into the country and provided itself with fence rails, blown-up bladders, and other life-saving apparatus in order to keep afloat, as long as possible. Appar­ently Stoffier and his colleagues had made a slight error, as 1524 was an extl'emely dry year; and President Auria! never even got his ark into the water. When the astrologers went over their fignres, they found that they should have said 1624 instead of 1524 .... " (Kenneth Roberts, in S(Ltu1'd(LY }I]vening Post, April 23, Hl32.) "What has taken place under the very nose of modern science is but a relapse into superstition of ill repute before Moses. . .. A generation tauntBd away from piety has gone to the witch for comfort. . .. The methods of the astrologers have the smell of science and the compulsion of religion. It is this two-edged appeal of astrology which accounts for its wide popularity in an age of disenchantment when the irreligious must have a sanctuary." (The Christi(Ln Century, February 17, 1932.) "Believing the stars is idolatry, against the First Commandment." (Luther, St. L. Ed., XXII, p. 1553.) "Dorrvinu8 Philippus, inquit Doctor, he delayed me, for a, day at Smalcald with his wretched and shabby astrologia, quia erat novilunium. Sic etiam he would not at one time cross the Elbe in novilunio. Et tamen nos sumU8 domini stellarum." (Weimar Ed., Tischreden, IV, No. 5147.) E. 780 Theological Observer. -.reitcl)nd)~3eitgercl)icl)mcf)es. A Roman Catholic Awakening in Mexico. -The N. L. O. Bulletin carries the following item under the caption "Catholic Mass Instruction in Mexico": -The .April 30, 1932, issue of Amerioa, a Catholic review of the week, contains an interest.ing account of how Catholics in Mexico carried out a, crusade to instruct the masses in the doctrines and history of the Church, as follows: -"The Catholic clergy and laity of Mexico carried out" from Ma,y to October of last year, one of the most remarkable pieces of mass instruction in Catholic doctrine in the history of the Church. Says their report: -"'The plan originally was to explain to the largest possible number of persons the divinit.y of Jesus Christ and the divine origin of the Church, with the idea that, if these sublime truths would succeed in restoring the image of Christ, the Redeemer, to the minds of the faithful, the latter could then better take part in the fourth centenary of the Shrine of Guadalupe (in December, 1931). "'This plan was realized. In every part of the Mexican Republic lec­tures, inst.ructions, and catechism classes were held in accordance with the synoptic plan of development. But more than that took place.' In a few words:-"'The number of catechism cIasses already established was not only doubled, but in many places increased many times over. "'The at.tendance at. all classes was notably increased. " 'Catechism cIasses were established in rural pa,rishes, ou the ranO'hes, in various small places which were heretofore without means of religious instruction. "'.A la,rge number of classes for adults were organized and were splendidly attended, especially by t.he men. Young men of sixteen years and older came to them by the hundreds. " 'Besides this there was a remarkable distribution of literature; par­ticularly remarkable for a count.ry in Mexico's present. condit.ion. There were distributed: 5,000 copies of the general plan of campaign; 18,000 copies of t.he statistical questionnaire; 82,000 copies of the Bulletin; 88,000 posters (which were sent. to 1,912 churches, as well as to all the organizations. These showed in graphic form the need of religious in­struction, of "learning about Jesus Christ"); 380,000 leaflets -in all, 573,000 pieces of propaganda printed and distributed by the Central Com­mission during the Campaign of Inst.ruction for Jcsus Christ and His Church. "'Besides these, 50,000 copies of the gospels, in Spanish, were sold in the course of four months. These were so successful that 20',000. more' were printed and are now on sale. The total cost of the campaign was $12,176.22. " 'One hundred and one parishes reported an attendance at catechism classes of 97,429 persons (of whom 11,143 were men of sixteen years and over). Sixty-five parishes reported at. religious classes 11,820 persons (2,332 men, ditto). Thirty-four parishes reported at religious .study O'lubs: 1,476 persons (518 men, ditto). Fifty-seven parishes reported at lectures on religion: 136,276 persons (33,467 men, ditto). Theological Observer. -.Ifhdj 1idj~,seitgcf djid)tltd)es. 781 "'The following good works were offered up for the success of the crusade: Masses, 20,080; Communions, 19,525; various prayers, 111,004; rosaries, 26,507; nocturnal adorations, 650; hours of labor, 5,614; visits to the blessed Sacrament, 20,407; visits to Our Lady, 10,462; acts of charity, 5,154,688; other acts of virtue, 38,026; spiritual communions, 55,108; aspirations, 271,500; acts of sacrifice, 86,440; hours of hair-shirt, 233; fasts, 961; almsgivings, 170. " 'This is the story of only what. was done in one diocese.' " It is saddening to observe that iu this so-called awakening superstition and anti-Scriptural doctrine playa tremendous role. A. me~ifo~ Sl!h:d)enftteit. .l)ieriilier lieridjtei ber ,,~ljriftHdje ~(pologe±eu: "C§raliifdjof tyranci~co ;Oroaco LJ ;simenea bon ®uabalaiara tuurbe aum btit~ ienmal aU§ WCe6ifo au§getuiefen. C§r l1.JUthe aligefaBi unb in einem tylug~ aeug naclj einem unoefannten )Beftimmung50rt in ben ~ereinigten @Siaaten gelitacljt. @Sein ~erfdjtuinben tuurbe auerft bon feinen ~ertuan.bten oefannt~ gegcoen. SVer )Beridjt rourbe lPiHer licftiitigt. -@Scljon roiiljrenb ber reIi~ giofen Btuiftigfeiien ber ;saljre 1926 lii5 1929 berfdjtuanb C§taoifdjof ;OtOaCo fpurfo~ lInb iuurbe bon ber iRegierung bergeoIi.dj gefuclji. Waclj bem m5affen~ ftillftanb atuifdjen @Staat unD Sl!itdje taucljte et tuieDet aUf linD tuanberie bon ;Ott au ;Ort. ;sn einem ,~irienotief an hie tatljortfdjen tyamilienbiiier fiinbigie C§qoifdjef ~a5cual SViaa eincn )BOl)fott allet WCi±±eIfdjulen ber ffie~ gierung bon feiien bet Sl!atljorifen an. SVet C§taoifc90f ettualjnte in feinem )Brief, ber itn ganaen )BunDe§bifttift im SDntcf berbteitei tuutbe, bat bie SNrdje fidj infelge bet burdj bie ~etorbnung bes ~rUfiDenien am 29. SDe~ aemoet 1931 eingeIeiteien ~ertuemidjung bet iRegictung§fdjulen geatuungen f elje, iljter ;sugenb eine ,djtiftHdje C§raieljung' au ficljern. SVet .l)idenbrief fam eituas tioerraj'djenb, ba feit bem 1. ;sanuat bieie~ ;saljre~, al~ ba§ @\eie~ in Shaft irat, ba§ nut 25 ~tieftet im )8unbesbif±rift geftatte±, bolIfommene iRulje ljetrfdjie. Sfein fatljolifdjet ~riefter ljat fidj ben iRegietung§veitim~ mungen gefiigt, i 0 baB iamtridje Sl!irdjen oqne ~tebiget finb." ;s.:t. 9.R. A Valuable Collection of Manuscripts. -In one of our exchanges we read: "The finest set of early Christian manuscripts, second only to that in the British Museum and outrivaling the colledions of the N at.ional libraries of Paris and Berlin and of Oxford and Cambridge, has just been accorded a new home in the Selly Oak Colleges library a.t Birmingham (England). They have been collected by Dr. A. Mingana, lat.e of t.he Rylands Library, Manchester, and the building is ther gift of Mr. Edwa.rd Cadbury of Birmingham. They consist of over two thousand Syri>tc, Arabic, Ethiopic, and Persian texts going back to A. D. 500.." A. II. 2lushmll. eic fnd)e1t bieIc ~'iinftc. m5arum ljat ;soljanne§ niclj± bie Cl:iniei,)ung bes ljeiligen m:oenbmaljI§ betidjtet? ;sn einet m:xtifeIteiIJe, "Bur C§djil)eit be~ ;soljanne~ebangelium~", bie in bet bie~ialjrigen "m:IIg. 'C§b.~2utlj . .mrdjen~ aeitung" etfdjienen iii unb mandje§ @ute vringt, befdjiiftig± ficlj bet ~et~ falfet audj mit mefer tytag-e. C§§ ljiit±e bodj tuoljI gentigt, tuenn batgefegt tuorben tui:i:re, tuarum bief e @Saclje mit bet C§djtljeit be~ C§bangeIiunt§ nidjtg au tun ljat. @Sta±± beffen gwi man fidj ab mit ber 20fung nidj± botljanbenet J1Stooleme unboeIaftet Die >tljeologie mit gana unnotig-em )8eituerf. ~orrenM 782 Theological Observer. -~itclj!ic!)~.(leUgefcljid)md)ell. unau0fteqIiclj toirb e0, luenn man bie bargeliotene Eiifung liefie~t. ~enn roir nun auclj unfere Beitfcljrift mit ber ~iebergalie bel:l auffiiIligen ~affuS3 lieIaften, fo qat ba0 etnen guten Broed. @jl:l roirb aergen, roomit mancljer ber mobemen :itqeologen f eine Beit qinliringt unb -Me 1eicljt e1' au lie~ friebigen ift. ~er ~affuS3 Iautet: ,,~ie f±e~t e0 mit bem U:e~len be§; lBericlji0 bom ~eifigen \1(lienbma~r liei ~oIJanne§;? @lcljlatier fagt au bicfer Eticre liei ~ap. 13 nur: ,~aB ~o~ ~anne£l lid ber U:uBhYafcljung bie @ltiftung eine£l @laframeni0, ettoa aI0 @jtf~ fUr baS3 IDCaql ~@jfu, oeaoficljtigt ~aJje, rant ficlj nicljt benfen, toeil oei ~o~ ~anne£l ~@fu£; ben ~iingem burclj fein ~afcljen aeigt, toM fie au tun ~alien, bami± i1)re ®emeinfcljaft nicljt aetoreclje. ~a§; ±rennt biefen mor~ gang fotoo1)1 bon bet :itaufe aI0 bom IDla1)I ~@fu, ba biefe SjanbIungen bern ~tinget nicljt ba§; aeigen, toa§: er t u 11 foII, fonbem ba£;, ioa§; et em V ~ fa 11 g e n ~at.' ~ft es fo, bann fiinnte man in ber U:uBtoafcljung aI0 \1(uf" galie gerabeau erne @tgiin3ung 3um ljeHigen \1(lJenbmaljI aI0 ®alie feljen, 1mb ~oljanne§: jutirbe iJieIIeiclji baburclj ftiUfcljiueigenb bas ljeiIige \1(lienb~ maljl au ~av. 13, unb atoar tooqI au 13, 30, boransfeten. ~aS3 toiire cine facljriclje Eiifung be§: fcljtoe1'en lBericlji0ptoolem0. ~m iiotigen finbet @lcljla±±et cinen @rfat ftir ben oei ~oljanne£l feljlenben \1(lienbmar)I~oericljt in ber lBe~ aogen~eit bon ~olj. 0 auf baS3 ~eiIige \1(oenDma~r: ,~aS3 ift Unterricljt, ben ~oljanneS3 ber ilirclje tilier baS3 \1(benbmaljI gegeben qat. @jr oefcljtieli i~r ~@jfuS3 nicljt [? b. mf.] aIS3 ben 8±if±er eine§: @larrameni0, luo~r aber aIs Den, ber fie burclj feinen in ben :itob gegelienen Eeib mit bem Eeben fveift.' ~ir tooUen ba3U aber auclj mlf einen iirteren @jtfiiirer ljinhYeifen. @lar~ toriU§ f agt in f cinen ,IDlebitationen tilier bie Offenliarung bel' SjerrHcljfeit ®o±±e§:': ,\1(n bie @jrtoiiljnung be£l SjinaU§geljenS3 bes merriitetS3' (ber merrat bes ~ubaS3 toitb auclj im lBeticljt be§; llSauIu5, 1 S1!Ot. 11, 23, in Bufammen~ ljang mit ber @ltiftung bes ljeHigen \1(lienbmaljf§ gebracljt) ,in ber lnaclj± (~o~. 13, 30) fcljIieten ficlj bei ~oljanneS3 bie ben @jinfetungstoorien, bie er nicljt bericljtet, toie 3u einem feierficljen mOt to 0 r t bienenben ~orte be§; Sj@jrm, m. 31 f.: "lnun ift beS3 IDlenfcljen ®oljn berfil'trt, unb ®o±t ift berfIiirt in ifjm. ~f± ®o±± berfliirt in iljm, fo toir)) iljn ®o±t auclj berfliiren in ficlj unb toirb iljn balb' (8V{}VC; .. ~ fogIeiclj) ,bedliiren.'" \1( n b i e f e ~ 0 rt c riif3t ficlj fofor±, toie an feinem anbcrn Ort liei ~oljanne§;, ofjne toeiteren Btoifcljen~ fat bas feIliftberUiirenbe ~ort ber ®aframeni0ftiftung anreifjen: ,Unb er naljm bas IBro±, bmtfe±e, liraclj'£l:~ft biefc memmiung unerIaub±e Sjav monilienmg obet niclj± bielmeljr eine bereclj±ig±e \1(nnaI)rne? SDenn baf3 ber l8erfaffer bes bierre11 @jbangeIium§: bom fjeHigen Woenbmaljr getouj3t unb besfjaIli leine @jinteiljung irgenbtoo in fetnem lBericlji fUr miigHclj geljaIten unb fie bori ben [cljriftricljen] Eefem fetnes lBucljes tiberIaffen fjat, barf boclj mit gutem ®runbebeljauvtet toerben." (Bu ben ~orten ,,'@jr 11a~m ba§; IBroi, banfde, braclj's" finbct liclj folgenbe u:utno±e: ,,@lielje 01. @lVerI: ,~aS3 emPfingen beim erf±en \1(lJenbmaljI bie ~tinger aI0 donum coeleste?' ~n biefer ®tubie toirb auclj hie merftoiirbige @jrfcljeinung, berB ~o~annes bie @jinfctung bet :itaufe eoenfotoenig ettoiiljnt af£l hie bel:l WlienbmaljI0, in bem @linne erHiiri, baf3 ~oljanne~ bie flJnoviifcljen @bangeIien ljicrin nul' ergiinac, unb 3toar beb·eutfam fo, bat er ,bie g run b reg en ben ®e~ banfen ftir baS3 merftiinbni§; bet ®aframen±e au§; ben !Reben be§; Sj@jrrn mitteiIt' -fur hie :it'aufe S1!ap. 3, fUr ba§; UbcnbmaljI S1!ap. 6; ba§;fellie gill Theological Observer. -Si:irdjHdj'{jeitgefdjidjHid)es. 783 hJoljI roegen ~olj. 20, 22 [,~eljmet ljin ben SjeHigen @leift'] audj flir bie ~fi11gf±galie -, hJeldje [bie meben ;;s~fu] bie ~linger liefiiljig±en, 3U ber~ fteljen, um hJa~ e~ fidj liei ber ;Q'aufe foWie beim ~lienbmaljle ljanbfe, al~ nun bic Bcit flir bie ~infetung ber @?aframente gefommen luar'. ~uf bie~ fen Bufammenljang beuM bieUeidj± audj bie iYormeI ,banfte ll11D 1iradj'~', bie fidj nidjt nur liei ber @?tiftung be~ ljeHigen ~benbmaIJI~ finbet [IDCatt. 24,26; IDlad. 14,22; Eu!. 22, 19; 1 Sfor. 11, 24], fonbern fdjon borIJer [IDCattIJ. 14, 19; 15, 36; IDCad. 6, 41; 8, 6. 19; Euf. 9, 16] uubl nadjIJer [Eu. 24, 50 unD ~ct. 2, 42]; in~liefonbere ift, hJenn ~oIJ. 6 [@?peifung ber iYlinftauienb unb bie mebe ;;s~fu in S1'apernaum] fidj aUf ba~ ljeiHge ~lienb~ maIi1liesicl)±, bie ~araIleIe ,;:Sol). 6 = IDCattIJ. 14, 19 '-" IDCad. 6, 41 = Euf. 9, 16 lieadj±en~hJet±' ") "m5arum :;SoIJanne~ alier niclj± f eIlif± Da~ ljeHige ~enbmal)f lieridjtet, baflir giM iBornljiiufer eine neue ~rffi±rung (159 ft.): ;;soljanne~ fdjhJeige bom ~enbmaIJI (Wie audj bon bet ~a1tfe), hJeiI e~ in t ern e, g e lj e i m suljartenbe @lemeinbefeiern gehJefen feien, nodj meIJr ag ba~ ilibifdje ~affaljmaIJI eine interne @lemeinbefeiet roar. ~r fdjlueige gerabe be~IJaIli, roei! fein '~bangeIium IDC iff ion ~ fdjrift -unb nur Da~ -fein folIe unb roolle. ,m5a~ bom ~enbmaljI giIt, gilt elienfo bon bet 5l:aufe. ~rft ergeIJt bie j)JCifiion~prebigt an :;S~raeL ~uf Da~ ~a au iljr = ,,:;S~fu~ ift bet irljrif±u0, ber Sj~rr" foIgt ~aufe unD ~benbmaIiI; bgI. bie aHtef±amentIidje 2[rfanbifailJ!i:n.' m5iebet fdjein± U110 mornljiiufer~ ~ntegung feljt banfen0roert 3U fein. @?eine ~efe ro'litbe nodj mel)r gel~ ten, roenn ~oljanne~ in Sfap. 6 ba~ IJeiIige ~lienbmaljI aI~ geljeimngbolle geiftleibIidje @lalie berf±anben IJalien foute. @?oIl momljiiufer redjt lj ali en, fo mfrf$ten freUidj bic brei anbetn ~bangenen, b'a fie einen ~lienbmal)I~~ betidjt en±ljarten, feine eigentIidjen IDCiffion0fdjtiften, fonbern @?¢fjtifien fur ir lj tift en geroefen fein. iYur ba0 Eufa0ebangelbun ift bie~ roegen Euf. 1, 3 (~l)eolJl)Hu0 J) feljt roaljrfdjeinIidj, flir IDCattljiiu0 elie.nfaIlS (bgI. 3. m. @?djlatter0 mattljiiu~fommeniar: IDlat±IJiiu0 fei flir jubendjriftIidje @lemein~ ben gefdjrieben); flir IDCarfu~ liif$t e~ fidj rooljI audj hlenigften0 betmu±en. ~ann IJebt fidj ba~ ;;soIJanne~ebangenum audj baDurdj bon ben @S\)nop~ ±ifem ab, ba\3 e~ alfcin au~gefprodjene IDl iff ion ~ f dj r i f t iff -bieI~ Ieidjt fogar b i e offiaieUe IDliffion~fdjri.ft be~ ~pofterfoUegium~, bie @S\)nop~ ±ifer alier nidj±; fie roerbenin erfter Binie @l em e i n b e Ieljre, irl)rif±en~ unb Sfatedjumenenun±erridjt f ein." m5er bon ben mobernen ;Q'l)eoIogen nodj roeiter Beit lja±, mag ba~ ~rolirem rof en: m5arum lja± :;Sol)anne~ nidjt ba~ m5eil)11adj±~elJangenum? roarum nidjt ben SjimmelfaIJt±~betidjH m5arum ljat .2ufa~ bie ~infetung ber ljeHigen ~aufe nidj± lietidj±et? m5arum fennt IDlarfu~ nidj± ba0 ljolje~ VriefterIidje @lelie±? :;Sa, unb roarum lieridjte± IDCattljiiu~ nidji? lilier bie 3'u\3roafdjung? ~lier, liit±e, feine roeiteren Sflinf±eJ ~. 2utf)er uub bie (!;delJUt~tfjcJ.lrOHic. ~arfrlier ±eiH ~rnf± @?ommetlatl) fnIgenDe0 mit: ,,@?oIdje @ebanfcn finb fdjon an Eu±l)er ljerangetreten. IDCogen fie ~eu±e im Beitar±er be~ ~rrebniffe0 unD ber @rIebni~furtur fidj lireHer unb IeiDenfdjaftIidjer geItenb madjen, fo ljat fid) fdjon Eut~er mit iljnen au~einanbetfeten mliffen. m5ieberljort fiiljr± er Die mebe ber @legner an: ,:;Sa man filje± unb fnIef ben nut nidjt'; ,ja man fnIe± unD filje±'~ nidjt.' (m5. ~. 23, 257. 259.) ,~t alier fieljt barin eine falfdje SjaItung bem ~ll11 ®o±tes gegenlilJer. @letftIidjer @lebtaudj ift nidj± basfeIlie roie ,~rIelinis'. 784 Theological Observer. -stitd)1id)~-8eit\lefd)id)tlid)es. ,SDie toolI±en gerne tappen unb fulen, auff bas lie nii(Jt gleuoen miiffen.' (L. c., 257.) -(,I;oenfo ~ar± fid) ber ®rauoe an bas !!Boti bes ~oenbma~g, bas ben Eeio bes s;?tVrrn ber~eiBt. (i!;~riftu§' EeiO ift too~r, an \J~m feloer eite[ leoen, feHcfeit unb IDol ®ott', aber es oebarf nid)t bes \:l'ii~Ien§; ber ®lauoe lDeiB, ba\3 ber Eeio niii,?e fein mun, toenn (i!;~riftu§ uns effen ~eint. (L. c., 259.) Eutr)et le~nt e§ fomit beutrid) ao, baB ber !!Beti be£: ~rocnb" ma~g oemeffen lDertle an feinem @itIe'fmisge~alt. tVoenfolDenig lDie bas ®aftament nid)t )}anad) 3U oeurtei:fen ift, lDie IDdt e£: rational oegtiffen lDerbcn fann, eoenfolDenig ift es banad) 3U lDerten, lDie lDeit fid) feine !!Bir>' fung gefii~10maBig erfa~ten Iant. SDaoei ift feine \:l'rage, baB ba£: ~menb" ma~l Eut~er aud) nad) ber @itIeoni£:feite ~in tief oelDegt ~at; er ~at etIDa0 erfa~ren bon ,bem Eeoen unb ber @?eTigfeit', bie in i~m gegeoen IDhb. -®runtljai;1Iid) ift aoer oei bet \:l'rage, loa£: ba£: ~menbma~r fei, ber Cileiid)g" punfi be£: tVrMmiff e£: au£:auf d)aIten. SDas @itIeonis f d) e i n t nur eilDa£: ®id)ere£: unb \:l'eftes au oieien, lDonad) man ,fulen unb tappen' fann. :0m ®runbe tragt cs immer tuiet,er bie W.crfmale ber Unficljer~eit unb \:l'Iiid)" tigfeit in fid). SDas ®aftament bagegen ftelI± fid) )}ar in ber gfeid)maf3igen SDauer feines :0n~an£:. @i£: oidet etlDa£:, IDa£: lDeit aoIiegt bon feefifd)em @itIelien, lDas aud) unao~Cingig lileili± bon bem &uf un)} lllieber )}e£: @itIeo" nilfes; EeiliIid)£eit. &lier gerabe barin lommi aum Wu£:bntcf, ban es ~ier um me~r ge~t a10 um tVtIef:mi£:, namfid) um Eeoen. lllid)t um @idelini§, fonbern um lY6en ift e£: Eut~er au tun. !!Bo (i!;~riftus in \:l'Ieifd) gelDorbener EeioIid)feit fid) giOt, ba ift Eelien, lDeir er feloft Eelien if±. U (SDer @5'inn be5 &lienbma~f£:, ®. 72 f.) ®ommerlat~ tut gut baran, bater )}ie @5d)lDarmerei ber @irfelini6t~eologie aUflDeift unb, bartut, )}at ber ®Iauoe fid) aITein auf bas !!Bart griinben fann, )}a£; im &lienbmaql hie )8ergeliung ber ®iinbm baroiC±e± unb burdj SDatreidjung be£: Eeioes unb mrute§ tnjrifti berfiegeIt. @ir tut aoer nid)t gut baran, baB er ben !!Bertbes ~l1ienbma~rs in ber "i!eio>' Iidjfeit" fie~t unb @5. 122 feines muCfjes oe~auptei: "SDas &oenbma~r ift :0nfarnation bes !!Borte~ unb bamit ber Eogos fefOft. U SDiefe @5CfjlDarmerei ift eocnio gefa~did) lDie bie ®efii~gfd)lDarmerei. SDer Eeio (i!;~rifti an fid) tut e§ nid)t, fonbern ber ins !!B 0 t t gefatie Eeio. @i. ;t)il' ®otte~fo~nfdjltft ~@fu im tiefften uub cigen.tridjen 6inne bet nelffnt~erifdjen ~~l'J)fogie erfCfjfiett un~ bie ,,&. @i. E. Sf." in einem &rtifel fioer ba§ n:0efu00ud)" bon SjSauf \:l'eine. SDie \:l'rage, IDns benn unfer ber ®otte£:fo~nfd)aft :0efu au berfte'ljen fei, oean±ioortet biefer in feinem muCfj alfo: n,;sefu~ ift fid) oelDutt, ([10 @5o~n ben ganaen ®ott, oeffer gefagt, ben ganaen SjeiI§IDiIfen ®otte~ mit bet IDlenfdjfjeit, au fennen unb an ben IDlenfd)en aur ?Bertoirffid)ung au liringen. SDies metuuttfein fann nur barin feinen ®runb fjaben, ban :0efus fid) in boITer '@iinfjeit mit bem imefen unb !!Birren ®ottes tuutte, bat er bies @iin~eigoelDutif ein niCfjt oeffer aw" briicfen fonnte aI5 in bet )8atcr"®o~ne~borfterrung. . .. SDie SjSerfon :0efu, unb alDar bie irbifd)"menfd)fiCfje SjSerfon ,;sefu, ift bon biefcm neuen Ciloite§" gfaulien unfrennoar. . .. :0efu~ glauote nid)t nur an Ciloti, fonnern er lDutie fid) in ®emeinfdjaft mit ®ott ftefjenb." :0efu£: ift alfo feiner SjSerfon nad) niCfjt ®ott, fonbern IDlenfdj. tVr ift aoer ein fold)er IDlenfclj, ber nidjt lilot an ®ott grauo±, fonbern auCfj lodt, bat er in ®emeinfd)aft mit ®o±t fie~t. :0a er lDeit fiCfj in boITer @iin~eit mit bem !!Befen unb !!Birren ®oties. Unb lDenn er nun liefjaupfet, bat er Theological Observer. -.Rird)Iid) • .8eitgefd)id)md)e~. 785 .ber €loljn &otte~ fei, fo wi[ er weiter nidjts fagen, a:W .ba:'6 er fidj .biefer feiner &emeinfdjaft un.b @inljeit mit &ot± beiDUBt fei. SDer ~a:tedj~~ .ber Eweralen im @lfa:'6 fag! .b~felbe in .ben }lBorlen: ,,~ef~ ift .ber €loljn &ot±e~, wei! er in immerwiiljrenber &emeinfdjaft b~ &eifte~ un.b ber Eiebe mit &ot± fteljt." SDie ,,~. @ . .2. ~.", bie Me ooige Eeugnung ber &ottljeit [ljrifti aUnt ~brucl bring!, ftraft biefe nidjt bloB nidjt, fon.bern lobt fie bielmeljr unb fagt, fie fei "ein fdjiiner j8ewei~, ba:'6 edjte tljeologifdje }lBiffenfdjaft ben SDienft tun fann, im tiefften €linn bie j80tfdjaft b~ Weuen ~efta:mente~ au erfdjIieBen unb neu au bediinbigen". (SDer @lfiiffifdje Eu±ljeraner, 3'ebrua:t: 1932.) Slavery Still Practised on a Large Scale in Africa. -The fol­lowing cornmunica.tion in the Ohristian Oentury, written by Henry Rising of Los .Angeles, California, seems to be so important that we should reprint it here. "Sir: New information on the status of slavery in Abyssinia (and incidentally in Arabia) was contained in a dispatch from London recently, which stated that Lord Noel Buxton, chairman of the .Antislavery Society's mission to Abyssinia, has returned with a promise from Emperor Haile Selassie that he would free all the 2,000,000 slaves in his country within fifteen years. Although fifteen years is a long time to bring about a con­dition which should take only one or two years, this 'promise' would not be so bad if the emperor is sincere. But is he? It will take fifteen years to find out. "Lady Kathleen Simon, in her book Slavery, goes into the horrors of this subject. She states that the slave-traders' armed column swoops at night on a village and the entire population of salable men, women, and children is carried oft' in chains. For days they are marched towards the coast, through Abyssinia and French Somaliland, right into the streets of Tajoura and Obok, and there shipped in dhows and carried across the Straits of Perim to Southern Arabia. "Gangs of slaves, marching in misery, the men chained together in rows, and the women and children dragging themselves along beside the main body, can be seen by any traveler in Southern Abyssinia to-day. Some of the big slave-owners own as many as 15,000 slaves. A British officer counted the dead and dying bodies of more than fifty captives who had dropped by the roadside. Death would result from thirst and hunger or by wild animals. In Addis Ababa, the capital of Abyssinia, it is stated, there are more slaves than free men. "How can the people in the Christian countries be aroused, so that a demand will be made for the liberty of the slaves in Abyssinia and Arabia at a reasonably early date? Why wait for fifteen weary years to end this monster? Will long petitions to the League of Nations or to the rulers of these countries accomplish anything? Is an antislavery society in America needed? What can be done for these 2,000,000 or 3,000,000 wretched slaves?" A. 50 786 Theological Observer. -.reitcl}licl}~.8eit\lefcl}icl}mcl}e~. ~u~ 1Iet $Jllmliurgifdien i801f~firdie. SDie ,,@;bA3ut~. g:reifirdje" bom 24. 2rpri! 1932 en±nimmt ber ,8eitfdjrifi: ,,9lur feUg!" foIgenbe§: "SDer ~af±or S)ennecre, ber in ber S)amliurgildjen ~orr§firdje fdjon bor bier ;,saI)ren offentridj bie @runbtna~r~eiten be§ djriftridjen @Iaulien§ gefeugnet ~atte, DamaI£l alier ru~ig im 2rmte 'lileilien fonnie, ift jett baau iiliergegangen, in feinem )Blatie, bem ,@5±. 9liforai~)Boten', ba§ er audj an feine Si?onfirman~ ben berteiIen lieB, ben aUBere~eIidjen @efdjIedjgberfe~r aI§ djriftridj unb fittIidj erIaulii ~ini3ufterren. SDa§ faub natiirIidj fauten )Beifarr liei allen fommuniftifdjen unb foaialbemofratifdjen ,8eitungen, erregie alier groBen Untnmen liei djriftridj unb fittridj benfenben @emeinbegIiebern, tneniger, tnie e§ fdjein±, liei ber Si?irdjenlie~orbe, bie fidj mit irgenbeinem @;infdjreiten bagegen fe~r bid Bdt lieB. 1illeiI alier im i1Jeiteren ~erIauf ber 2rn~ geregen~eit bie @;rregung in ben @emeinben in liebro~ndjem, fUr bie ~olf§~ firdje gefii~rndjem IDlaBe l1Judj§ (fo lieridjtet ba§ ,@;bangeIifdje SDeutfdjlanb'), fo fonnte Die Si?irdjenlie~orbe enbIidj nidjt um~in, einilufdjreiten. @5ie ~at \f5a:ftor S)ennec'fe borIiiufig bom 2rm±e fu§penbiert unb gegen i~n ba§ SDis~ i3ipnnarberfa~ren eroffnet. ;,sn ber @5~nobe ber ~off§firdje, Die gerabe liei )Befannttnerben biefer IDCaBna~me ±agie, berlief3 barauf bie IilieraIe @ruppe aI§ \f5ro±eft gegen bas @;infdjret±en gegen S)ennec'fe bie ~er~anbIungen unb lie±eiIig±e fidj ni# me~r baran. Unb ber Iilierale \f5roteftantcnberein ber S)amliurger ~ommrdje, bern aa~rreidje \f5aftoren ange~oren, belfen ~or~ fitenber S)ennec'fe ift, beroffen±ridjt einen \f5roteft gegen bas ~erf~ren ber Si?irdjenlie~orbe in ben ,8eitungen, in bem er fdjreili±, baB jene ~uBerungen \f5aftor S)ennec'fe§, in benen gegen ba§ fedjfie @elioi ber aUBere~eIidje @e~ fdjredjgberfe~r empfo~Ien tnirb, ,au§ refigiOfem SDrang unb fittIidjer nlier~ aeugung' ~erborgegangen finb. SDarum ~iitte bie )Be~orbe nadj ~nfidjt be§ \f5roieftantenberein§ nidj± mit einem SDi§ilipIinarberfa~ren gegen S)ennec'fe einfdjreiten biirfen. -@5o ift gefommen, tna§ fommen muf3±e. 9ladjbem man in ben ~oIfsfdjufen auerft bie 2eugnung ber djriftridjen @faulien§~ re~ren aI§ gIeidjlieredjtigt gebufbet, bann anerfann± ~at, tnm man jett audj fUr bie 2eugnung unb )Befiimpfling ber einfadjen fitiIidjen g:orberungen ber ,8e~n @elioie g:rei~eit unb @Ieidjlieredjtigung ~alien." @;. ;tI1l~ (£ijriftentum in ~nbien. nlier bie @5±iirfe be§ (D:jrif±enmm§ im ~ergIeidj mit bortigen ~eibnifdjen unb mo~ammebanifdjen ~nlietern fdjreilit bas ,,@;b.~2ut~. IDliHion£lliratt" ba§ g:oIgenbe: "SDie )BeboIferung ;,snbien§ ift im Ietten ;,sa~rae~nt um 34 IDlmionen getnadjfen unb lie±riigt aur Beit tunb 353 IDlmionen. SDabon finb 238,330,912 S)inbu, 77,743,928 llRo~am~ mebaner, 4,306,442 @5ifIj§, 399,000 ?Bubb~iften unb 5,961,794 ~~rif±en. SDie ,8a~r bet ~~rif±en ift in ben Ie~±en i3e~n ;,saljten um 32.6 \f5toi3ent ge~ l1Jadjfen, tnii~renb bie bet S)inbu nut um 10 \f5roaent, bie ber IDlo~ammebaner nur um 13.1 IjSroaent geftiegen ift. 2rm f±iidf±en ift bie djriftIidje ?BeboI~ ferung in ber IDCabra§~\f5riifiben±fdjaft, ino audj unfere 2eip3iger\miffion ar6eite±. SDer Butnadj§ fomm± nodj immer bortniegenb au.§ ben meifen ber Si?af±enlofen, ben ,\1l:bi~SDrabiba'. ~on beu±fdjen IDCiffionen arliei±en nodj bier in ;,snbien: )BafeI, 2eipaig, )Buffum unb @oBner. SDie tilietifdje IDliffion ber )Briibergemeinbe ift enbgiirtig an beren engrifdjen ,8tneig aligegelien. SDie Sjermann§liurger IDliffion ~at i~re \1l:rlieit im ffrbridjen 5telugulanbe nadj bem 1illertfriege bon ber amerifanifdjen D~iofnobe nidjt auriic'ferljarten. SDer IDbrgenliinDifdje ~rauenberein ~at feine fellif±iinbige, in ~erliinbung mit ber engIifdjen Si?irdjenmiffion lie±rieliene \1l:rliei± aufgegelien." ;,s. 5t. llR. Theological Observer. -~itcf)Hd)'3eitgefcf)icf)tlicf)e~. 787 $rof. D. ~ldiuB !Ridjter fie\ii1ig ,;snfjrc. ~m ,,®b.~2U±q. IDUffionsblatt" lefen ltJir bie fofgenbe ~itteifung; "Wm 19. ~ebruar beging lJ3rof. D. ~u!iuB !Ridj±er in ~ernn feinen fiebsigf±en @ebur±B±ag. ~urdj ~rof. D. ®djlunf ltJurbe ifjm eine ~eftfdjrift ,~otfdjafter an ~qrif±i ®±a±t' iwerreidjt, bie fiinf~ aeqn ~ei±riige aU5 ber ~eber ber fadjfunbigften IDUffion5miinner iiber bie tnidjtigftm ~iffion5fragcn ber @egenltJart entqiiIt. Wudj unf er WCiffion5~ hlreftor D. Dr. ~fjmeI5 i.ft mit einem Wrlifer ,Unfere ~otfdjaft im qeutigen ~nbim' be±eiHgt. ~ie 306 ®eiten umfaffenbe ~eftfdjrift ift im merIage bon ~. ~erteIsmann in @iiier5Iofj erfdjienen. D. ~uIius !Ridjter fjat bie WCiffion5~ ltJiffenfdjaft im ®inne @uftab ~arnecf5 ltJeitergefiifjrt unb burdj ein reidjes Iiterarifdjes ®djaffcn in qoqem ~.Ra\3e befrudjtet. Wn erf±er ®telle fei feine gro\3angeIeg±e ,®bangeIifdje ~iffionBgefdjidjte' genannt, hle unmittelliar bor bem Wbfdjht\3 fteqt, ein )illed bon grunbfegenber ~ebeutung. ®ie umfaf$t hle WCiffionsgebie±e in ~nhlen, im :Orien±, in Wfrifa, ~ina unb ~eber~ riinbifdj~~hlen. ~aneben f±efj± bie 3ltJeibiinbige ,®bangeIifdje ~iffionBfunbe', bie aUf bem engen !Raum bon 531 ®eiten ein boUftiinbiges unb in feiner SfnalJlJqei± nidjt au iiberbie±enbes SfomlJenbium ber gefamten ~iffion5funbe barfterrt. ~n ber ,meuen Wilgemeinen WCiffionBaeitfdjrift', bie D. !Ridj±er mit D. ®djlunf qerauBgibt, befiten ltJir ein miffion5WiffenfdjaftHdjeB !Riiftaeug bon anerfann±em )illert." ~. !it. ~. Death of Patriarch of Syrian Church. -In our issue of December, 1931, we adverted to the visit of the Syrian patriarch in India who had gone there to remove dissensions which were harassing his church·body. While engaged in his mission of peace, he took ill, the climate proving too exacting, and a few days later died. This happened in the first week of February. For the Liv'ing Churoh the Rev. C. T. Bridgeman, canon of St. George's Cathedral at ,Jerusalm, wrote an interesting and informing article on the life of the deceased patriarch, adding a few paragraphs on the Syrian Church, from which we cull the most illuminating items. Syriac, which is another name for Aramaic, was the language of the people in the early Christian centuries in Mesopotamia, Syria proper, and Palestine. Syriac was one of the great tongues in which the Gospel was spread, ranking next to Greek and Latin. The chief city from which the message of Christianity was promulgated in Syriac was Edessa. About one half of the Syriac Christians of the early Church were under Parthian dominion in the East; the other half were subjects of Rome, Antioch in Syria being the western outpost. The East Syrians in the course of time turned Nestorians; the West Syrians, while rejecting Nestorianism, em· braced monophysitic teachings and thus separated from the greater part of Christendom. Under the Moslems the Western Syrians, also called Jaco· bites, or Old Syrians, were prosperous. The Crusades, however, made the Mohammedans feel more definitely hostile toward all Christians, including those constituting a small minority party like the Old Syrians. The period of decline began at that time and has continued till now. The chief centers of the Jacobites outside of India are Mardin (Turkey) and Mosul on the Tigris. In Syria itself, the part which the French received as mandated territory, now contains a good many Syrian Christians, many of whom came there as refugees. The Syrian Church in India, as far as it is not under Roman Catholic control, first seems to have been Nestorian, but is now chiefly Jacobite. A.