Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 3-6 (Text)

458 Theological Observer. -~itdjIidj~3eitgefdjidjtIidje$. 1. 1(mcrikll. '.rhe nl[eaning of the Term "Day" in the Creation Account.­The following excerpts are from an article by Prof. H. C. Leupold, which appeared in the April and May issues of The Pastor's Monthly. "This matter did not constitute a problem in days of old. The term day was taken in its most common meaning to be a twenty-four-hour day. ... But the standing tradition in this question was given a rude jolt at the time when geologists began to make rather sweeping statements with regard to what they had found, claiming that scientific proof was available demon­strating the fact that the earth had passed through a succession of crea· tive periods, each of rather long duration, which periods could clcrtrly be discerned by the scientist in the strata of rock or fossil-bearing rock with which the scientist had familiarized himself. . .. So a new trend sprang up in the world of exegesis, a trend which in some cases simply capitulated on the spot and said, 'We must modify our interpretation so that it con­forms to the latest achievements in science.' Since day may be conceived of as 'period,' men with surprising facility injected this view into the Scriptural account. . .. This type of interpretation is dominant in the exegesis of the day. You find almost the entire corps of exegetes in array over against you if you attempt to take the term day as did the fathers .... "Exegesis is not dependent upon, nor conditioned by, geology. It does not arrive at certain results which must afterward be checked up against the findings of geology and be rectified in accordance with the latest state of this science. . .. Just what does Gen. 1, 5 mean? A literal translation runs thus: 'And it became evening, and it became morning, day one.' ... Let every man think soberly. What does this imply on the face of it? What impression did the writer intend to convey? Answer: The same impression that the Church has always gotten until somewhat more than a century ago and the same impression we all get. The author is speaking of a twenty-four-hour day .... "The objections urged against our view shall also be examined. 1) It is objected that the term yom may mean 'period.' However, painstaking, exact lexicographers like Koenig know nothing of this. The only mean­ings he knows are these: a) 'day' in the broader sense (twenty four hours) ; b) 'day' in the narrower sense, the light part of the twenty-four hours; c) the general meaning, 'time'; d) a figurative meaning, like 'day of the Lord.' Yet, though that 'day of the Lord' has none of the foregoing mean­ings it certainly does not yet mean 'period' on that account. Men have their 'day' when their season for action, for opportnnity, comes. So it is when the Lord has His day: it is a time for Him to get into action with regard to works that He has long anticipated doing. But who has ever dreamt of substituting a word like 'period' for this thought? That yom should mean 'period' is pure fiction. 2) Perhaps the most common, at least the most popular, argument that is advanced by the day-period advocates Theological Ob8cner. --,ITitd)Hd)'SeitgefdJidJtlidJes. 459 is the one derived from 2 Pet. 3, 8: 'One day is with the Lord as a thou­sand years.' . .. They should be sure, in order to give the thought of the passage correctly, to add the second half of the verse : 'A thousand years are as one day.' ... A most nnfortunate verse to quote here if it is not arbitrarily to be torn in half. But if they insist on using their half of the verse alone, then it must follow that every time the word day is used in reference to works that God does, then periods must be implied, as Ex. 13, 4: 'This day came ye out' of Egypt. Certainly the word cannot mean period in this instance. According to what principle is this newly found meaning, then, to be applied? When it suits the purposes of him who uses this meaning! ... 3) Then comes the somewhat alarming argu­ment that in the creation account itself day means period, namely, Gen. 2, 4. . .. The word day is here to be taken in the general sense, 'time,' a sense which is common enough. . .. 4) With a certain show of triumph, however, men point to the fact that for the first three days there was neiLher SUll nor moon. However, the same expression is used after the sun was created on the fourth day as was used for the days before. . .. The most that could be proved by such an argument would be perhaps that the first three (In,ys were of different length than ordinary days. But we still have the last three days to which this contention cannot apply. Therefore the vote stands three against three. A deadlockl .,. But let it be remembered that this argument is built on the presupposi­tion that day and night as we now have them cannot be except there be a SUll. "Tho knows enough about these matters as they originally stood to advance any contention? ... "But the argument that seems to carry most weight in our day is the argument from geology. . .. Let me emphasize first of all that this problem, whether there were or were not long geologic periods, is still a mooted one. ... Reputable geologists earnestly contend for a radically different view. ... Herbert Spencer's remarks on this point are interest-ing: 'Though probably no competent geologist would contend that the European classification of strata is applicable to the globe as a whole, yet most, if not all, geologists write as though it were so.' . .. Note what Huxley in his day already had to say on the matter: 'In the present state of our knowledge and of our methods one verdict -"Not proven and not provable" -must be recorded against all grand hypotheses of the paleon­tologists respecting the general succession of life on the globe.' . .. It would be a mere trifle to cite countless cases where this order is absolutely disregarded by rock formation." (A number of cases cited by reputable geologists are given.) . .. "The ultrapositive claims in regard to the mat­ter of long periods involved in the formation of the earth's surface are unsubstantiated theory or, to speak our mind freely, crude speculation." Another matter: All the labor spent by the theologian in making day mean "period" in order to harmonize Scripture and "science" is misspent, since the six "periods" of Scripture do not conform to the rather larger number of periods which science has constructed, unless the theologian suc­ceeds in making "six" mean twelve or any other number science may at any other time demand. (Cf. Lehre und WehTe, 1919, Oct.; Theological Monthly, 1924, Feb.) E. 460 Theological Observer. -.lHtcljliclj~.8eitgefcI)icljmclje~. ~ereinigung bun ttutctridjt§nnjtlllten in ber Il{merifllnifdj·gntfjerifdjen fHrdje. Z'Sm ,,2u±~. S)erofb" Iefen tuit ~ieriloer: ,,(fin :8ufammcnfdjluB bon UnterridjtiJanftar±en ift bon ber (fraie~ung§oe~orbe ber mmerifanifdj·52utqe~ rif djen Si'irdje in (frllJiigung geaogen ilJorben. ;t)ie folgenben (fmjJfc~rungen tuurben gemadjt: bie ±~eologifdje moteiIl1ng ber Capital University mit bem m5ariol1tg.@Seminar in ;t)uDuque, Z'Sotua, au betbinben; ba£! St. Paul Luther College mit bem Eureka College in @S±. l13auI, IDCinn., au beteinigen; bie moieill1ngen fUt qumaniftifdje @S±ubien unh 2eqtetbOtbHbutig bet m5ariburg. ~otmalfdjuIe in m5alJetIIJ, Z'Sotua, nacij ~Hn±on, Z'Sotua, au betIegen unb mit bem msarlourg~~onege bafelbf± au betoinben; bie @Sdjule (St. John's College and Academy) in l13etet§butg, ms. ~a., au f(~neten. ;t)a£! ~ttdjil:J foU bet Capital University iibetlDiefen unb bort aufbel1Jaqri tuetben." Z'S.~. llR. ~ereiuiguttg ber Ifbnngclifdjen @51)nobe nnb bet ffiefurmil'ricn ~irdje. mUf einet j8etfammlung bet j8eteinigung£!fommiffionen bet (fbangeHfel:)en @SlJnobe bon ~orbametifa unb bet mefotmierten Sfitdje in ben j8eteinig±en @Staaten, bie am 12. ~ebruat in l13it±£!butgq, l13a., f±a±±fanb, tuutbe ein~ ffimmig her borgelegte (fn±tuurf be£! j8eteinigung£!jJlan§ bet beiben Sfircijen­fiirlJer angenommen. ;t)et (fn±tuurf foU Dis Bum S)etbf± 1933 iiberIeg± llJetben, unb bann foUen bie S)aujJ±betfammlungen ber oeiben S1itdjen~ gemeinfdjaften bie entfdlcibenbe ~rn±tuorl geoen. ;t)er ~ame beiS neuen StirdjenfiitjJet£! foll I)eif3en ,,;t)ie (fl:JangeIifc~e unb meformiette SHtdje". ®e~ meinben unb mnf±arten mogen i~te ~amen oeioeI)aUen, abet fie foUen i~te IDlUgIiebfdjaf± in bet (fl1angelifdjen unb mefotmierlen Sfitdje renntIidj macijen. Z'Sn oeaug aUf lJie ,l3eqte tuitb gefag±: ,,;t)ie gefdjidjmdjen IBdenn±ni£!~ fdjrif±en her bdhen Sfitdjen erfennen tuir an unb ne~men tuit an aI£! ,l3e~t. gmnblage bet \8creinigung." ;t)ie ~jjel:)f±e gcfej3gebenbe SfjjtjJcrfdjaf± ift bie ®eneralflJnobe, bie fidj au£! cinet gleidjen :8aI)I otbinierlet l13af±oren unb 52aienmitgIiebcr 5ufammenfej3t. ;t)ie ®emcinben, maHen, @Sl)noben unb ;t)iftrifte follen 11)eitetoef±e~en unb iqre Wroei± in bet m5eife l1crridjten, tuie e£! bot bct j8eteinigung gefdjeqen ift; fie foUen audj ba§ WUffiel:)t£ltedj± liber iqr (figentum unh iqte mnftaHen be~aIten. ®emeinben ohet mnf±aIten fonnen fiel:) mit gegenf eitiget :8l1ftimmung beteinigen; bodj un±etIiegt cine foldje j8ereinigung bon ®emeinben ber IBef±iitigung bet maffen obet ;t)iftrifte, cine j8eteinigung bon mnf±aIten abet bet IBeftiitigung bet ®eneralfl)nobe. (.mtdjenblatt.) Testimony against the Lodge. -A statement by Rev. J. P. Milton, appearing in the Luthenkn Oompanion and answering a question on public testimony against lodge-membership and other popular sins, touches on points which deserve consideration by every pastor. Pastor Milton writes: -"It is my firm conviction that the pastor shonld speak out with re­gard to these things. I believe that he should speak both publicly and privately. Some brethren, I know, disagree with me as to the value of the public utterance in such matters. They say that no good is accomplished thereby. It simply stirs up emotions. The effective way is that of private conversation, where calm reasoning and loving persuasion may prevail. Certainly, private conversation in these matters is effective and should be sought diligently by the conscientious pastor; but there is no more reason to rule out public preaching on these topics than to reject all preaching Theological Observer. -~ird)lid)~8eitgefd}id}md}es. 461 in favor of personal work. The pastor is to be a watchman and as such flhould warn all where danger threatens. That resentment will sometimes be the result cannot be denied; but if it is resentment against the truth, the method of approach will have little to do with the case. Then, too, my experience has been that there have been just as definite fruits from the public preaching on these questions as from personal conversation; and often the two contribute equally. "But I do believe just as firmly that preaching on these matters should never degenerate to mere nagging. First, there are other sins equally great. The people should not be given the impression that only these are con­demned. Secondly, these questions should never be presented except in clear and unmistakable connection with the central relationship of the individual to Christ. It should be made clear that only the saved soul can be expected to see the wrong in these as in other things. Thirdly, I believe that these questions should rarely be referred to just "in passing," but should be given intelligent discussion. The whole case cannot be stated each time, but some well-motived reasons for the Christian's con­demnation of these evils should be given. Fourthly, I bclievc that the tone shoulcl be that of warning and pleading love, never that of sharp, bitter, or sarcastic invective. On the lodge question, for example, I am happy to recommend the little booklet by Pastor S. Hj. Swanson, Christ and the Lodge, because of its fair and irenic, yet firm, straightforward, and fear-less spirit." A. The King James Version Lauded. -Our readers will be glad to read what an expert in Greek language and literature, Prof. John A. Scott of Northwestern University, has to say about the superior excellence of the King James Version. The Olass';cal Journal of April, 1932, publishes a short note from his pen on the thirteenth chapter of First Corinthians, from which we cull two paragraphs: -"When the translators of the New Testament undertook to render in English the agape of 1 Cor. 13, they saw they had a difficult problem in transferring to English the exact meaning of the original. The easy thing was to translate it 'love,' as had been done in so many other pas­sages; but they knew that no word in English is so vague and 80 in­definite as the word 'love' when standing undefined and alone. The love of the ilesh is called lust or carnal, love of wealth is named avarice, love of food gluttony, and selfishness is love of one's self. The list of ignoble loves is a long one, but Paul meant no one of these. The church at Corinth was torn with dissensions, and he wished them to overlook wrongs and to bear with patience the faults they could not cure; he wished them all to have 'a disposition that inclines men to put the best construction on the words and actions of others,' and that is the very definition of 'charity' given in Webster's Diotiona1·Y. "The ability of the King James Version to rise above the letter and to get the spirit constantly thrills me. The trouble with the Revised Ver­sion is that it always hugs the ground; it is never sure enough of its knowledge of Greek or of English to trust its wings." Coming from a man who is deeply versed in all things Greek, these words deserve our close attention. A. 462 Theological Observer. -.lth:d)1id)~8eitgefd)id)t!id)es. An Ominous Law Enacted in New York. -The Oh1'istian Oentury informs us that Governor Roosevelt of New York, on March 17, signed a bill which, if we mistake not, was sponsored by the Roman Catholic forces in the Assembly and is intended to strengthen the influence of this Church in the public-school system of the State. The law makes it a mis­demeanor if people engaged in seeking or giving employment to public­school teachers "directly or indirectly ask, indicate, or transmit orally or in writing the religion or religious affiliation of any person seeking employment or official position in the public schools of the State of New York." '1'he persons expressly mentioned in the law as enjoined from giving or seeking such information are "members of employment agencies and any board of education, trustee of a school district, superintendent, mem­ber, or teacher of a public school, or other official or employee of a board of education." If convicted of transgression of this law, a fine of not less than one hundred dollars and not more than five hundred dollars will have to be paid or imprisonment of not less than thirty days and not more than ninety days will have to be suffered, or both imprisonment and fine may be imposed. Will it, after enactment of this law, be surprising if soon the public schools of New York will be taught chiefiy by nuns ap­pearing in their religious garb? The Oh1"istian OentuTY comments: "The people of New York are hardly aware of the outrage that has been per-petrated upon their constitutional liberty." A. A Strong Word against Movies. -An Episcopalian rector, writing in the Ohristian Oentury on the question, "Have the Movies Cleaned Up?" presents startling evidence showing that they have not. Beginning the discussion, he says: "I am not against moving pictures. I am only against the forty-five to fifty per cent. of them that are evil; but they constitute, I believe; the greatest menace to thc morals of our boys and girls this country bas eVel-seen; for sixty million of our young people under twenty­four years of age (as many as the entire population of Japan) have been going to see them every week; and nothing in my estimation is so fraught with danger to this country to-day as these evil pictures, and nothing seems to llave less oversight by parents, Ohurch, and State. ::\I[ost parents in all probability do not realize the damaging nature of what their chil­dren are seeing. Therefore the great need to-day is to arouse American parents to that realization, 80 that they will rise up in indignant and overwhelming protest to the American Government and demand a change." Having presented a list of typical advertisements showing the degrading nature of the respective plays, he tells of the report of a committee of twenty women from a Presbyterian church who made a canvass of the films shown in their city during five weeks a.nd who stated that of the sixty-seven feature films investigated twenty-one were judged to be good, seventeen indifferent, and twenty-nine bad. At that, some of the worst films shown during that time were not viewed at all. The writer quotes a recent article from a London newspaper, saying: "There is a flood of demoralizing screen stuff coming from the States at present, a Niagara of scum which deserves a barricade, a dam as firm and strong as we can make against it. . .. How America can permit these contemptible pictures of her youth and of her society to be distributed over the civilized world passes understanding. If we are to believe the picture of American life Theological Observer. -.Rhd)lidv8eitgefd)id)tltd)es. 463 as it is thus shown, we must accept it as disgraceful and as lamentable a state of affairs as any reputable nation ever suffered from." He like­wise quotes the New Statesman of London thus: "Americans should realize that, so long as the United States travesties and profanes herself before the whole world by the loathsome pictures that pour steadily from Holly­wood, there is little excuse for complaining if other peoples think America ridiculous ... ancI not only ridiculous, but obscene and trivial. . .. America somctimes makes excuse for Hollywood on the ground that foreign nations must enjoy these pictures, or else they would not patronize them. . ., It is an argument that could be used equally well by the keepers of brothels. People willing to traffic in a certain line of goods can always do a lively business with the unhappy human race, but they should be content with gold for payment and should not clamor for respect." Are we alive to the dangers lurking in this institution for the spiritual life of our young people? A. A Sample of Modern "Gospel"-Preaching. --As reported in the ChltJ'ch at Wm'k, the bulletin of the Metropolitan Church Federation of St. Louis, the guest speaker during the first week of noonday Lenten services, Dr. Bernard C. Clausen, delivered an address from which the fol­lowing paragraphs are taken: "When young people say, 'For crying out loud,' they are labeling with scornful resentment what I take to be the worst sin of our present generation, the sin of the cry-baby, the disposi­tion to excuse our own failures by paying attention to the difficulties involved in our own environment. It begins in our babyhood, when chil­dren find out the easiest way to get what they want is to cry loudly for it. We understand it in our babies, and we know that these babies will learn better as they grow older. . .. From this innocent extreme at one side this vice goes all the way to the logical extreme on the other side. This is the most prevalent form of disease in America. More than half of the hospital beds are filled by mentally ill rather than physically ill people. At least half of these have what is known as dementia praecox, which is the extreme of this habit of 'crying out loud.' This occurs when people prefer to live in an unreal world and to explain their present failures by means of existing difficulties. . .. Shocked by the most dreadful tragedy imaginable, tortured by heart-breaking anxiety, the Lindberghs have been showing the world what a brave spirit can do when they refuse to 'cry out loud.' They are showing the kind of Spartan courage I wish we could cultivate in business and daily life. That ought to show us who are com­plaining about the loss of a few thousand dollars or a half dozen extrava­gant luxuries to look facts in the face. But be fair when you select the facts. At the depth of our depression our average tax-payer is five times as well off as the averag'e Englishman, our average worker has six times the buying power of the average Russian, and we ,we now at a higher 1evel of material wealth than any other nation of the world has ever been at the beight of its prosperity -and we are cringing and whining in despair! ... Woman's favorite sport is 'speaking of operations.' A woman must have three or four symptoms to discuss nowadays in order to be accepted in polite society. Many confess that the most flattering photo­graph they ever had taken was an X-ray of their gall-stones. Is it any 464 Theological Observer. -.Ritd)lid)~8eitl1efd)id)t1id)es. wonder that we invite illness? . .. I plead for that great fortitude which Jesus showed when He climbed Calvary refusing to 'cry out loud.'''­Even if one overlooks the exaggerations and the attempt to appear face-tious, how can this be designated as a Lenten address? P. E. K. Meddling with Politics Condemned. -A very sensible expression of opinion from Senator Borah was published recently in the Presbyterian Magazine. The Senator assigned to the Church its true sphere in the life of our nation, saying: "The Church has been, and ought to be, a great factor in all matters which pertain to the building up of character in the individual. The Church ought to devote its effort to equipping the in­dividual for citizenship by building up his intellectual and moral status. The Church, however, has no business in politics. There seems to me to be a lack of steadiness, a lack of courage, a lack of willingness, on the part of the individual to-day to bear the burdens of adversity. If we are not on the crest of material success, we think the world has all gone to pieces. But, after all, material success is only a small part of life. It is the Church's business to develop character that can stand up under ad­versity, character that realizes that life does not consist merely in pos­sessions. Let the Church keep out of politics and center its effort on the development of character. It will then make a fundamentnJ contribution to the nation -the development of true citizenship." We would add that a true Christian character is developed where the message of Christ is received and man through faith in the Redeemer has become a new creature. A. 1932 the Centenary of an Antimasonic Wave. -In a review of the Oommonweal we are reminded that a hundred years ago an interesting movement was on foot which was directed against the Masonic order. It will be recalled that, owing to the mysterious disappearance of Mr. Morgan, which was quite generally charged to the revenge of the Masonic lodge, which had become incensed by the revelations made by Morgan with respect to FreemasoIiry, much feeling was aroused in the United States against this order. The Oommonweal says that in 1832 this Antimasonic sentiment played somewhat of a role in politics. Clay, we are told, "could have had the Antimasonic support, but refused it, confining himself to saying nothing either way." There was an Anti­masonic party, whose candidate was William Wirt of Maryland. It is very interesting to note "that the one State which Wirt did carry was Vermont." The point of the Commonweal is that Catholic influences had but little to do with Antimasonic feeling a hundred years ago, and it adduces the action of Vermont, which could not and cannot be considered a strong Catholic State, in proof of its contention. We remark, Alas, for human forgetfulness! A. Lane Seminary Moved to Chicago. -In 1829 two Presbyterian seminaries were founded, McCormick Seminary and Lane Seminary. The latter was located in Cincinnati, where, under the presidency of Lyman Beecher, it became a famous school. Living in this city, across the river from a slave State, the daughter of this president, Harriet Beecher Stowe, obtained the impressions which she voiced in Uno Ie Tom's Oabin. McCor­mick Semina.ry, located at Chicago, is now known as the Presbyterian Theo-Theological Observer. -stitdjlid),,t)eitgeldjidjWdje§. 465 logical Seminary, and it is with this school that Lane Seminary will be merged. The trustees of Lane will continue to administer the assets of the institution, providing fellowships, scholarships, and endowments for students at the school in Chicago. A. Death Removes Secretary of U. L. C. -"The Rev. Dr. Melanchthon Gideon Groseclose Scherer, secretary, since its organization in 1918, of the United Lutheran Church in America, died Wednesday afternoon, March 9, 1932, at the home of his son, Paul E. Scherer, D. D., ... in New York City. Had he lived till March 16, he would have been seventy-one years of age." This is the beginning of the obituary of Dr. Scherer, written by Dr. Kieffer and published in the Lutheran. The ancestors of Dr. Scherer, as this notice informs us, settled in Guilford County, North Carolina, about the middle of the last century and "have furnished the Lutheran Church quite a num­ber of earnest, faithful, laborious, and successful pastors." As pastor, professor, and synodicH,l leader, Dr. Scherer played an important role in the United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South and in the U. L. C. This year a book of his appeared, entitled Ohristian Libe1·ty and Ohristi4n Un·ity. His friends anci acquaintances pay him high tribute as theologian and Christian gentleman. A. Death of Dr. Hall.-The Protestant Episcopal Church of our country lost one of its thcological leaders when Dr. Francis J. Hall, who had been professor of Dogmatics at the Western Theological Seminary in Chicago aDd at the General Theological Seminary in New York, passed out of this life. In reading about him, we are told that on February 27 he for the last time received Holy COlliIllunion and on February 29 Holy Unction. In addition to this the Living Chm'ch reports that requiem masses were said for the departed. One step more, and these people are in the midst of Popery. A. II. AU5hmi}. $roteftanttfdje ~ii~tet in ~nrDVa. ~as "S£irdjenolait" oringt tie foI~ genbe intereffante IDeitteUung: ,,~n bem aum groBten Steile fatqolifdjen iStanfteic£j ift ber ~tlifibent l:ler fficpuoIif ~lOumer [t 7. IDeai] eoenfo !Die ter borige ~oumergue ~ro±eftant, fo baB bie neine IDetnoritiit l:ler ft:an~ 30fifdjen ~rotef±an±en atoeimaI nadjcinanber aus Ujren ffieiqen bas 00er~ liaupt ber ffiepuoIif geftelIt liat. . ~uB ber beutfdje ffieidjsjn:iifibent bon ~in~ benourg, aus aHem ebangeIifdjem @efdjledjt ftammenb, ±rw au feincm ebangelifc£jen ~l[auoen fteljt, ift oefannt. ~aB l:lie norbifdjen ffiejruaIifen (!fftIanb unb iSinnlanb, bie faft gana ber ebangeIifdj~Iutqerifc£jen S£trdje an~ geljoren, audj ebangelifc£je ®taaiSpriifibenten ljuoen, ift bort feThftbcrftiinbHdj. Wber au bertounbern iff e6, bafl audj ®±auten, bie Bum grofl±en SteHe fatljo~ Iifdj finb, toie s. lB. llngarn nnb bie StfdjedjofIotoafei, ~roteftanten an HJrer ®piJ.?e qaaen. ®o geqort ber ffieidjs1Jertoef er bon llngarn, ber frfrljere Wb" miral ~ot±ljl), ber ebangeHfc£jen S£irdje an, eoenfo !Die tet frfrljere IDctnifter" lJriifil:len± Gltaf Q3e±qlen. Wuc£j in Q3i.iqmen (StfdjedjofIotoarei) fteljt an bet ®pii;)e aI6 ®taatspriifil:len± bes frbet!Diegenl:l ra±ljolifdjen s:lanbes ein ~ro~ teftant, ~rofeffot IDeafarl:)f, bet mit breiflig ~aljren bon bet fatljoIifdjen aUt ebangeIifc£jen S£irc£je iibcrfrat unb bor bem ~aqre 1918 bier l:leiJ!Degcn er~ burbet ~at." ~. St. IDe. 30 466 Theological Observer. -.Ritd)fid)~.8eitgefd)id)md)es. @in 5eitgemiifie~ jffiori iilict' Qluet~c. imir aUieten au~ bem ".I3u±Ij. Z,erolb" eine furae, populiire, aber im allgemeinen boclj fadjgcmiine unb roaIjre Shim iiber @oeiIje. 5\)a~ Q3Iatt fdjreibt: ,,5\)a~ @oe±ljegebenfjaljr roirb rooljl in allen aibiIifier±en .l3iinbern ge~ feier±. imir fLinnen c~ nur biIfigen, baB man bie merbienf±e bief es lJJCanne~ roiirbigt. IDCan foIT groBen IDCiinnern gereclj± roerben, aber man foIT iIjr .l3ob nicljt iibertreiben; man foIl fie niclj±, um einmaI ein moberne~ imori au ge~ braucljen, ,bergo~en'. 5\)a~ gefcljielj± je~± bidfaclj mit @oeilje. IDCan nenn± iIjn ,ben gro])±en beutfcljen IDCann', unb babei lenni iIjn bie IDCaffe be~ beut~ fcljen moIfe~ falUn, unb roenn er nie gdebt Ijiitie, roiirbe e~ iljn auclj nicljt bermiffen. imenn ljeu±e ±aufenb IDCiinner luie @oe±lje im aHen ma±edanbe auff±iinben, roiirben fie bem beu±fcljen moHe fdjroerliclj aum '2rufftieg au~ f dnen mancljerIei :i/Oten berIjdfen. Si:laau roaren anbere IDCanner no rig roie .l3u±ljer abet, in fIeinerem IDCaBe, \{Saul @erIjarDt, @rnf± IDCori~ &rnb± u. bgI. ftnan fann iljn aI~ 5\)iclj±er, afS 5\)enfer, aI~ imeHmenfcljen feiern, aber er roar niclj± ,ber groj3±e beu±fclje IDCann'. &uclj roar er fein gIiiubiger @:ljrift. {}'reUiclj roar er auclj fein @otie~Ieugner, fein 6poiter unb .l3iif±erer roie bie mobernen {}'reibenfer [ba~ ljeiBt, im 6inne ber ljeutigen 12rtljeiften; naclj ber 6cljrift geljort @oe±lje aber boclj ilu ben @otiesleugnern, 6po±±ern unb .13iifterern, roeir er mit ber imaljrljeit bes imor±e~ Qlo±±e~ troiJ aUer f djonen &u~fpracljen iiber bie Q3wef feinen ®po±± trieb. -st e b.]. Si:ler @oe±lje~ bunb in 5\)eu±fcljfanb, ber fidj ilum imorifilIjrer unb ®adjroarter aITer Q3e~ ftreoungen madjt, Die ber @emeinljcit, aITem 6cljmu~ in stunft unb .l3itera±ur freie Q3aljn fdjaffen 1DoITen, madjt feinem @ebiicljtni~ feine @ljre; aber audj bie fri±iffofen Q3erounberer, bie @oeflje aum Sl!ronaeugen be~ ebangeIifdjen iIl:ljriftentums erljeben modj±en, tun ber imaljrljei± unb @eredjiigfeit feinen 5\)ienft, 1Denn es audj nidjt au reugnen ift, ban man aus ben 46 Q3iinben ber mserfe @oetIje~ cine Q3Iii±ertlefe bider fdjonen msor±e unb @ebanfen iiber Q3ibel unb @:Ijriften±um fammeIn fonnie linD gefammeH ljat. . .. @oetlje ift ein 6±ern erfter @riiBe am 5Didj±erljimmeI, aber an b e m ~immeI, bon bem 5\)an. 12, 3 gefdjrieben ftelj±, prang± fein ~ame reiber nidj±." ~. 5t. ftn. ~ie ~e!Jt:iiifdje SJudjfdjule in $afiiftina. nber bie Uniberfitii± in ~eru~ fafem, bie bisljet nodj immer meljr 5tIjeorie afS \{Sra6i~ roar, refen tuir in ber ,,&. @ . .13. Sl!.": ,,&fS Die britifdje stegierung im ~aljre 1918 eine Sfommiffion unter Dr. mseiamanns {'Yiiljrung nadj \{SaIiiftina fanDie, um fef±auf±eUen, ob fidj bie @riinbung einer iiibifcljen Uniberfitiit ermogIidjen laffe, fidjerte fie iluniidjft @runb unlJ Q30ben filr bie erforberIidjen @ebiiube aUf bet ~olje be~ 6copus, roo fidj ein luunberbar fdjiiner stunbbIicf bidet aUf bas @ebirge ftnoab unb bM ~o±e Wleer aUf ber einen unb auf ~erufalem aUf ber anbern 6eite. ~adj ftni±±eHung be~ 6peaiaIforrefponben±en be~ M anohester Guardian bom {}'ebruar b.~. entljiiIt ber inaroifdjen fer±iggef±errte ~eu6au ber ~odjfdjule ffiiiumIidjfeiten fiir folgenbe Un±erridji§attJeige: ~umaniora, ftnailjematif, Q3iologie, @:ljemie, llCaturgefdjidj±e, ~~giene, \{Sarafiten~ unb Q3afterienfunbe. Si:lie in einem 60nbergebiiube am roefHidjen \lIbljang bes 6copus ltnter~ 'gebradj±e Q3ibIio±ljef entljiirt iiber eine bierleI lJJCiITion roeriboITer ~anb~ fdjriften unb Q3iidjer in aUen 6pracljen, Die aur .Beit au~ ber borljer in ber 6±ab± in berfdjiebenen Z,iiufern un±ergebradjten ~iilJifdjen ~a±ionalliibno~ tIjef f±ammen. 5\)M @ebiiube ift bon .I3orb Q3alfour feierIidjft eriiffnd roor~ ben unb en±ljiir± neben ben Q3iidjer~ unb ~anbfdjriftenfanunrungen .l3efe~ Theological Observer. -.ltitd)rid)~3eitgefd)id)md)cs. 467 riiume unb eine einaigar±ige @lammlung bon IDCanufftip±en unb ®emiilben fjerborragenber jubifcljet IDCiinnet. \]Stofeffor ctinf±ein ftifte±e ~ietfjet fein IDCanufftip± uoer bie !Rera±ibitii±~±fjeorie. ~ie erf±e ~of±orbiff er±ation fanb llitaIiclj fiat±, unb anbere tDerben foIgen au~ ber ficlj our :8eit aUf 180 oe~ !aufenben :8afjI ber ®±ubierenben, bon benen tie .\,;Jiilfte au~ \]SaIiiftina f±amm±, tDiif)tenb bet mef± ficlj aUf ~eu±fcljranb, \]Solen, bie ~ereinig±en ®±aa±en, Q:anaba, jyinnlanb, !Rtlmiinien un)) bie stfcljecljofIotDafei beX±eiIt. ~er ,j1'otpet ber afabemifcljen 2ef)rerfcljaf± oef±ef)± au£; 60 ®nebern, un±et benen ficlj brei ctngliinber oefinben unb an beten @lpite ber Rector magnifi­cus Dr. ;;subalj magne§ f±eq±, ein !Rabbi, ber bormaf§ ~iref±or ber jubifcljen ®emeinbe in inetD glod tDar. Sl'oUegiengelber tDerben bon ben 6±uben±en nicljt geaaqrt, unb ba~ ~ubge±, in biefem ~af)re 35,000 \]Sfunb 6±erling, mira bornef)m!iclj bon tDoljIljalJenben ~llben in ~merifa unb freimiUigen 6tif±ern aufgebraclj±. Un±crfllnfgriiume fut tie ®±ubiercnben finb nicljt botl)anben; jeboclj oef±efj± tie ~lJficlj±, bemniicljft ein ®eoiiube flir bief en :8tDed' 3U erricljien. ;Jungft ift ein 2eljtftul)I fur in±ernationale~ iSrieben~~ reclj± erriclj±e± lIJorben, geftif±e± bon @lit montague ~ur±on. cttf±er ~n~ l}aber ift ber ®eneralantDart bon \]Saliif±ina 6ir inotman ~en±tDiclj." ;J. st. m. Was Calvin Responsible for the Execution of Servetusr -The latest apologia of Calvinism (The Reformed Dootrine of Predestination, by Prof. Loraine Boettner, 1932) also discusses this point. "Calvin con­ducted the theological part of the trial, and Servetus was convicted of fundamental heresy, falsehood, and blasphemy. During the long trial Servctus became emboldened and attempted to overwhelm Calvin by pour­ing upon him the coarsest kind of abuse. The outcome of the trial was left to the civil court, which pronounced the sentence of death by fire_ Calvin made an ineffectual plea that the sword be substituted for the fire; hence the final responsibility for the condellillation rests with the Council." (P.416.) Dr. Emile Doumergue, the author of Jean Calvin, gives this account, as quoted on p. 417: "On October 26 Calvin wrote again to Farel: 'To-morrow Scr-vetus will be led out to execution. We have done our best to change the kind of death, but in vain. I shall tell thee when we meet why we had no success.' (Opera, XIV, pp. 590.613-657.) ThuB what Calvin is most of all reproached with -the burning of Servetus­Calvin was quite opposed to. He did what he could to save Servetus from mounting the pyre." What is the general Reformed opinion on this math:r? Dr. M. G. G. Sherer quotes on page 65 of his book Christian Lib­erty and Churoh United (1932) the following from John Calvin,' HiS Life, Letters, a.nd Work, by Hugh Y. Rayburn: "On the spot where Servetus was executed there now stands a monument raised by some of those who have a more reverent regard for the convictions of their fellow-men than was cherished by their theological ancestor. On one side it bears this inscription: 'The 27th October, 1553, died at the stake at Champel, Michael Servetus of Villeneuve, in Aragon, born 29th September, 1511.' And on the other side: 'The respectful and grateful sons of Calvin, our great Reformer, condemning an error which was that of his time, and firmly attaching themselves to liberty of conscience according to the true principles of the Reformation and the Gospel, have raised this expiatory monument. 27th October, 1903.''' John F. Hurst's History of the Ohris-468 Theological Observer. -.RitdJlidJ'SeitgefdJidJtIid}d. tian Ohuroh does the matter full justice when it says: "Calvin had him arrested and was never contented until Servetus had becn executed. In­deed, he made it a condition of remaining in Geneva tJlat Servetus should be put. to deat.h, although he wanted him beheaded, not burned." (II,298.) Professor Boettner's statement that "the final responsibility for the con­demnation rests with the Council" cannot stand. -Much less can Calvin's own later statement stand, as quoted on page 417 from Opera, VIII, p. 461 : "From the time that, Servetus was convicted of his heresy I have not uttered a word about his punishment, as all honest men will bear witness." And in one of his later replies to an attack which had been made upon him, Calvin says: "For what particular act of mine you accuse me of cruelty I am anxious to know. I myself know not that act, unless it be with reference to the death of your great master, Servetus. But that I myself earnestly entreated that he might not be put to death his judges thenlselVeS are witnesses, in the number of vlllom at that time two were his staunch favorites and defenders. (Calvin's Calvinism, p. 346.)" E. mom bcerbigt tJ,reimnurer. noel' ben fiiraIidj betitorbenen (Sranaofen 21:riftibe mrianb beridj±e± bie ,,21:. ®. Q. Sr.", tttie foIgt: ,,21:riftibe mrianb, (Sreimaurer ~o~cl' G\Jrabe unb a!§ en±fdjloffener 21:tqeift befal1nt, audj firdj~ lidj e6fommunidieri, ift ±l'o~bem firdjIidj beerbigt roorben. SDie Umgebung be§; ~al'binaIerabifdjof§; bon ~ari§; begrtinbet bie ®adje gemiif3 ber ,®el'~ mania' bDm 12. mara fa, ba\3 mrianb im Eaufe ber Ie~ten Beit cine freunb~ Iidjere ®infterrung aur SHrdje genommen ljabe. :Jljm berbanfe man bie lffiieberaufnaljmc bel' biplomatifdjen meaieljungen atDifdjen (Sranfreidj unb bern maman unb bae ®efe~ tiber bie religiOfen Drben. SDer ~arllinaI~ crab if djof qabe tiberbic§; aUi3geaeidjne±e meaie~ungen au lErianb unter~aIten unb feine innere ®niluicfIung gefann±, bie e§; ermilgIidjt ~abe, i~m ein iirdjIidje§; megrabnii3 au geroaljren. 21:udj f ei ein ®djriftftucf mrial1M ba, roorau§; ~erborgelje, ba\3 er urn firdjlidje meerbigung gebeten qabc, unb bcr franailfifdje minifterprafibent fei in lliefcm ®inne beim llSarifer ®rabifdjof borfteUig geroorben." :J. st. m. :tIie IWiffion in (£fJina unter bem Si:rcuil. Un±er biefer lloer[djrift bringt ber "Eu±~. ~erolb" cine 2Hat au§; bern ,,®u. SDeutfdjIanb", ba§; bern Eefer einige tDidjtige lffiinfe unb lffialjrqeiten an§; ~era leg±. lffiir ref en ba: ,,21:u§; bern China Ohristian Yeal'-book ±eiIt ~rofeffor lffiitte mit: ,',Ne poIitifdjen lffiirren, bie gro\3en ~lilte, bie g:einbfdjaft ber e6iremen mober~ niften· unb eine§; steiI£i ber lEeam±en qaben am: (Sorge ge~abt, llat bie 2aqI ber (lqriften eljer ctli~ aff; augenommen ~at. ®ine neue ®tatiftH feqIt. SDa§; ift burdjaUi3 erfIarIidj, BumaI (l~ina nodj immer ben ljarten ~anlPf urn feine g:reiqeit bon ben ungleicljen meririigen rampft, bie miffionare aoer nodj nidjt freiroillig aUf iI)re merirag§;uorredjie beraidjtet ljaben, ba§; (l~riften~ tum alio poIitifdj gebeclt 'bIeib± unb unter bem ~a\3 gegen bie fremben me~ briicfer f±eqt. SDa\3 bie engIifdjen unb amerifanifdjen miffionare nicljt aUf bie merirag§;borredjte beraidjten, bIeibt qildjf± bebauerIidj. man braudjt fidj abel' tto~ aITem nidjt enimuttgen au laffen. inur forr man borfidjtig fein mit bel' ~uffterrung cine§; foldjen ~ran£i, roie llie minion iqn bor aroei :Ja~ren aUfgefterrt qat: merboppeIung ber 2aql ber (lljriften in fiinf :Jaljren. Unb nun finft bie 2aql ber (l~riften I ®oHei3 ®ebanfen finb eben bodj oft anller§; aff; menfdjengcbanfen.'" Theological Observer. -.Ritc!)lid)=,3eitgefcf)id)tlid)es. 469 meitle @ebanfen, niimfidj bat fidj djriftridje IDliffionsfreunbe burdj Me lffiirren ber Beit nidjt entmutigen Ian en hiirfen, bas IDliHionstverf tveiter ilU betreiben, unb bat man bem ~@:rrn ber llirdje leine morfdjriften in beaug aUf ben mau fcines 2ions madjen barf, ftnb bon groter lffiidjtigfeit ilU ge~ fegneier ~iil)rung ber IDlinion iiberljaupt. ;;Sn ])em einen aeigt fidj menfdj~ Iidjer SHeingIaube, in bem anbern menfdjfidjer ®tola; beibe aber fteljen ber ioaljren 'wciHionstoirffamfeit ljinbernb im jffiege. ;;So :it. IDl. mom liUbet WHffionate fiit mufllan\) ouB. ~oIgenbe merftDiirbige llladj~ ridjt bringt ,,::£l. 2L 2. .~." : ,,::£ler ,@:b. ~reifebienft 9Ciebedanb' beridjtet aus mom, bat bort jeJ,}t fLJftematifdj IDeiffionare ausgebHbet tverben fiir bie Beit, ba in mutlanh her lffieg fiit @:bangeIium§berfiinbigung !Dieber offen fein tvirb. lBefonbers ber ~apuainerorben l)at ben 21uftrag befommen, in [einem ruffifdjen ~oI1egium au mom junge IDliffionare ba3u ausaubHben. @:iner ber Ieitenben ~erfon~ Hdjfeiten biefes Orbens, ber ~ater @onbelpljus ~ermont, ein 9CieberIiinber, ift fogar mit ,Buftimmung beB ~apftes bon bem raieinifdjen mitus Bum 6t)aan±inifdj~fratvifdjen mitus iioerge±reien unb ljat bie 2eitung ber IDlii~ [ion, bie bemnadj audj bem bt)aantini[dj=flatvifdjen mitus foIgen roirb, auf [idj genommen. " ;;So :it. IDe.