Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 3-5 (Text)

Theological Observer. -.Ritd)!id)~8eitgefd)id)tIid)es. 385 Theological Observer. -SHrdjndj~Beitgefdjidjtndje~. 1. ,lmtriktt. ~ul;l her 6ljnllbe. ~luB bem 6iib~~aIifornia~~ilirHt fommi bie BIacg~ rid)t, baB bie neugegriinbctc ERiHion unier ben ERe;ifanern in EoB \lrngeleB unter ber Eeitung P. )Bruno ERartineIIiB gute iSortfd)ritic mad)t ~n etnem IDlonat 'betrug hle BaI)! ber )Bcfud)er ber ®otteBhlenfte 340, unb bie \lrroeit an ben st'inbern aettigt gute iSriid)te. -~n ~aIifornia llJerben aud) golbene ~uoiliien gefeiert, ba bie 6±. ~lJannif3gemeinbe in Orange, bie '1:lreieinigfeitB~ gemeinbe in Eo§ \lrnge!e§ unb bie ,Bion§gemeinbe in Oananb int ~alJre 1882 gegriinDe± mutben. -Obgleid) man aud) im Sfanla~~~iftrift iiliet llfbnaljme an €iinnaljmen fUt hle fitd)Iid)e llfrbeit flagt, f 0 ljat bod) bet !8ifitationB~ bifttift BIero IDle;ico 120 !l3toaent ber iljm augemefienen 6umme aufgebrad)t, eille £eiftung, bie in bicfcn ,Beiten arIe \lrnerfennung berbient lInb bieITeidjt anbete reiaen roitb. -~n uub bei ~ljicago tiifid man fid) aUf baB bia~ mantene Z5uoiliium unfetB iiIteften 6d)uUeljretfeminatf3, beB Concordia Teachers' College aU miber iSorefi, ~U. '1:laf3 6eminar, auerft ag !l3ri~ batunterneljmen bon P. is.2od)ner unb P. 6. 2. ~ulit gefUlJri, rourbe im ~alJte 1857 bon ber 61)nobe iibetnommen. '1:laf3 ~uoeIfeft fOU nad) jetigen ~Iiinen im ERai ftattfinben. -llfud) im 6iiben feieri man ljeuer ein ~uoi~ Iiium, niimIid) baB fiinfaigfie ~uoiliium bef3 6iibIid)en '1:lifiriftf3, baB laut DeB '1:liftriftBolatteB am 8. iScbruar au feiern fiiIIig tuar. -Untet ben ~(acg~ ricf)ten au§ iOCinnejoia finben lUit and) langete )Berid)te iioer bie iSetern goIbener llfmtBjuoiIacn SI1Jeier !8etetanen be§ Sfreui3e§, namIid) P. &,;i. 6d)u1aeB in iSatioauIt, ber feit bem 17. ~1tIi 1881 an ber ;it'rinitatiBgemeinbe bafeIbft lteljt, unb p, mobert SYilljlerB, ber auetft in BIortlj ~aMa llJidte unb bann in IDlinnefota, coenfaIIB unter bem reid)ften 6egen ®oiteB. )Beibe ~uoiIare ljaben and) aeitrociIig baB &mt be§ !l3tiifeB in iljrem '1:liftrift oeUcibet. -'1:la~ fUoerne llfmtBjubHiium &,;ierrn €ibmunb 6euel~ ar§ ®efd)iifif3reiter DeB ~oncotbia~!8etIag~ljaufeB tuurbe am 18. ERiita, bem eigentrid)en '1:latum, unb oefonberB am 31. .\!niira gefder±. '1:ler ~uoiIar erljiert bide ®rucftviinfcge bon nal) unb fern. !l3'. €i. St. The End of an Attempt at Christian Communism.. -Students of church history will be interested to know that the members of the Amana colonies in Iowa have decided to abandon the system under which they have lived and worked for ninety years and to face the future as individuals. The daily press reports that ninety·five per cent. of them voted in favor of discarding Communism, the vote being 885 in favor of the change and 42 against it. About thirty persons did not vote. The origin of the movement, which issued in the seven Amana colonies in Iowa, dates back to about 1700. At that time there were people in Germany who made the claim that they were inspired by the Holy Ghost similarly to the apostles. On account of this claim they were called Inspirationists. They found adherents, and their views were handed down from one g"enera­tion to the other. Persecutions came upon them. In IB4l eight hundred of their number emigTated to America, settling in the neighborhood of Buffalo, N. Y. When this colony, called Ebenezer, had become so large that the members could not well be taken care of any more, a number of 25 386 Theological Observer. -stitdjIid)'3eitgefdjidjtlidjes. them went to Iowa and founded a new home for themselves, called Amana. This was in 1854. The old idea of special divine inspiration coming even nowadays to some of its members was clung to, and till 1884, when Barbara Landmann died, her friends and followers believed that in her they possessed a leader who was endowed with the gift of prophecy. The society was founded on a thoroughly communistic basis, no one having any property which belonged to him as distinct from the other members. Now a complete reorganization has taken place, which was inevitable; for a communistic enterprise may look good on paper, but is beset with great difficulties in practise, especially as the ye,us lengthen. We read in one of the press accounts: "Negotiations for reorganization have been in progress since last June, when it became known that so many of the younger members of the colonies were tiring of the plan of government whereby all shared equally and none could accumulate more than his neighbor that abandonment of the form of government had become im­perative." Strong ambition on the vne hand, laziness on the other -these evidently were strong factors in bringing about the reorganization. The society owned 26,000 acres, packing plauts, woolen mills, a furniture fac­tory, and other real and personal property. A cooperative stock company has been formed, and every one of the members of the society has been given his share in it, based, as far as the preferred stock is concerned, on the years of service to the Communist society. "A separate corporation is to be set up to handle church and religious matters." A. Rome has Not Changed Its Position on Protestant Marriage. In reviewing a book by an American Roman Catholic (The Shadow of the Pope. The Story of the Anticatholic Movement in America, by Michael Williams) the Oongregationalist says: "It is a coincidence, not without deep significance in our mind, that on the very day on which Y1r. Williams's book has come to us for revif1w the daily newspapers havc broadcast to the country a message from the Pope informing the world, Roman Catholic and Protestant alike, that in cases where Roman Catholics have married Protestants and have not fulfilled the decrees of the Roman Catholic Church, their marriage is 'illegal' and they are living in 'concubinage.' Such language and the attitude from which it springs are alike insulting to the State, which includes many citizens who profess no religious faith, and to the entire Protestant community. In this country no authority has the power to declare a marriage 'illegal' except the State, and while we should uphold to the full the right of any religious body to make regulations governing its own members as long as such l'egulations do not adversely affect the rights of others, for the Roman Catholic Church to make a charge of concubinage in relation to any marriage which it cannot control is to seek to bolster up its authority by referring to a policy of denunciation as unseemly as it is inconsiderate and unfair. What a howl against Protestant bigotry would ascend from the public press and public consciences of this country if the Federal Council of Churches or any similar Protestant body should presume to speak in similar terms of marriages in which Protestants have united with Roman Catholics!" Our readers will agree that we must carefully distinguish between "illegal" and "unscriptural." Any child of God has the right to declare a marriage unscriptural if it contravenes the principles laid down in the Bible. To Theological Observer. -~ird)Hd)',8eitgefd)id)m~s. 387 proclaim something illegal belongs to the province of the State. Rome exhibits its antichristian character by going beyond the Scriptures in laying down principles for Ohristian marriage, arrogating authority to itself which belongs to Christ alone. In the review from which we have quoted another Catholic writer, Father Knox, is cited, who thus gives his views on religious freedom: ".A body of Catholic patriots entrusted with the government of the Oatholic State will not shrink even from repressive measures in order to perpetuate or secure domination of Catholic principles among their fellow-countrymen." .Again he is quoted as saying: "When we demand liberty in the modern State, we are appealing to its own principles, not to ours." In other words, Rome is willing to take, but not to grant, religious liberty. .A. ,BUt ®efd)idjte bet ~lmflrlitiltii.1n. ZSm ,,2uiqcriidjen £)erolb" refen wir ein moti lioer bie stonfirmation, ba5 wit: un5 meden fiinnen, oefonber5 in Wnoe±radji ber )taifadje, baf3 e5 nodj immer streife giOt, bie aUf waljr~ ljaft luiljerifdje @eoruudje wenig )illert legen. $Die stonfirmaiion qat lidj aIlerMng5 oei un5 fo eingeoiirgeti, bai3 baran nidji au riitiefn ifi; aber anberweitig fati fidj woqf ao unb au biefeThe 6timmung finben, Me einfi rongregationaHftifdjerfeig uber bie stonfirmation Bum 0:u5bruc£ georadjt rourbe. m3ir lefen: "uoer bie stonfitmaiion fdjreiOt ber ,stirdjenootc', ba5 (Jrgan ber beutfdj~ engIifdjen ~ongrega±ionaHftengemeinben: ,Wg wir bor naljeau brei ZSaljr~ aeljnien iit5 ljeHige ~rebigiamt traien, ba gab e5 unter unfern ~rebigern einige (@oti fei Sl)anf, feljr roenige), wefdje @egner ber ~onfirma±ion waren. 1mir ljiitien .bamag ben Wwbruc£ ,,~irdjen~show" -ben ber Heoe 2efer woqI oqne naqere @drarung l1erfteljen wirb -in ~eroinbung mit bem fcljonen )Braudj ber ~onfirma±ion. $De5gfeidjen wurbe babon gerebet, bat man ben stinbern im Unterridjt ia bodj nur "ben ~opf mit aIletIei lioer~ ffiiHigem Wlemoriedram fiiIIe", ber bodj oalb lJergeffen werbe, unb mail bergleicljen @inwiinbe meljr waren. Sl)er ~aupieinwanb, ben man aber niclji gana fO faut !Jororadjie, roar woqf biefer: "Unfere engHfdjrebenben ~irdjen ljaben bie ~onfirmaiion nidji, fie mirb boclj oalb ber ~ergangenljeit angeljiiren, warum follen mir un5 bamit pfagen?" ~eute finb aIle Mefe @inllJiinbe gefdjh1llnben. imeljr ag ie fielji man ben m3ert unb Me 91oi~ roenbigfeii bC5 ~onfirmanbenunierridjg ein, unb gerabe hie @emeinben, um bereniwiIIen man ben fdjiinen )Braudj aUfgeoen woIIte (bie angloamerifa~ nifdjen) , fucljen iljn einaufU'9ren unb qaben iljn aum )teif in ber einen ober anbern lSorm eingefU'9rt.'" ZS. )t. im. The Religion of Dr. Fosdick. -Christianity To-day (March, 1932) publishes a sermon by the Rev. J . .A. Schofield, Jr., minister of the First Presbyterian Church, Gouverneur, N. Y., in which he states his reasons why he is a Fundamentalist and as such must repudiate Modernism . .Among the many fine statements we find also an excellent characterization of the religion of Dr. H. E. Fosdick. While the paragraph contains nothing that is new to our pastors, it serves to point out the fact that even outside the Lutheran Church there are pastors who are able to judge Modernism correctly. Pastor Schofield writes: "Harold Paul Sloan, the great Meth­odist, says this about Dr. Fosdick, the great Modernist ... : 'It ought to be perfectly evident even to a dull understanding that Professor Fosdick has completely separated from Christianity. He has no more in common 388 Theological Observer. -stitdjIidj'{\eitllcjdjidjtridjes. with historic Christianity than Buddhism or Mohammedanism has. He is a refined gentleman, who accepts the ethics of Jesus with more or less fulness; but he is not in any sense a Christian thinker. The cleavage between Professor Fosdick and Christian thought is a great deal wider than that between Christianity and Judaism.' This is strong language, and I merely quote it to illustrate what I mean when I say that Funda­mentalism and Modernism are totally different religions. Dr. Machen ... says that they are not only different religions, but belong to totally dif­ferent types of religions. True Christianity is a redemptive religion. Modernism is a religion of human merit." But if that is true, how can Dr. Fosdick represent the Federation of Churches of Christ in America as its chief exponent? Or rather, let us ask, How can Fundamentalists like Schofield and Sloan still walk in this counsel of ungodly enemies of divine truth? J. T. M. Too Bloody Gospel-Hymns. -Time of March 14 reports au intercst­ing bit of news on the attitude of modernistic churches toward some of the old Christian Gospel-hymns. No doubt, the samples of "bloody Gospel­hymns" are extreme and the songs are rejected really for other reasons than their "imagery of blood." It is not hard to visualize the real reasons why the old Christian hymns must go out of modern hymnals. We read: "For three years a joint commission representing the Methodist Epis­copal Church, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the Methodist Protestant Church lIas been working on a revised hymnal and psalter. One group studied words, another music. This week the full commission was to meet at Cincinnati to join the efforts of the two groups and to ratify the changes recommended by each. "To a gathering of Methodist ministers in Manhattan last week Dr_ John William Langdale, secretary of the commission, revealed the additions and deletions in the hymnal of 1905 which the words group would propose at the Cincinnati meeting. To many moderns, Dr. Langdale explained, the 'imagery of blood' in old-time hymns is distasteful. As the kind of thing the commission would put out of the revised hymnal he read a stanza from "The Gospel," by Isaac Watts, eighteenth-century hymn-writer: -"To the blest fountain of Thy blood, Incarnate God, I fly; Here let me wash my spotted soul From crimes of deepest dye. "The Manhattan ministers agreed it was 'too bloody.' Then Dr. Lang­dale offered this lugubrious one, also by Watts: -"The pains, the groans, the dying strife, Fright our approaching souls away; And we shrink back again to life, Fond of our prison and our clay. "It, too, faced elimination. One preacher said he liked the fourth stanza of "Welcome, Sweet Day of Rest" by Watts, which is on the com­mission's list for rejection. But the others giggled when Dr. Langdale read: -"My willing soul would stay In such a frame as this And sit and sing herself away To everlasting bliss. Theological Observer. -.Rird)HC!)'8eitgefd)id)tnc!)eIJ. 389 "In the revised hymnal 44 of the 121 hymns by Charles Wesley are tentatively to be dropped. Isaac Watts, who wrote some 600 hymns in all, has 53 in tl18 present book, of which 14 have tentatively been rejected and 9 challenged. John Wesley's 19 hymns are to be reduced by six or seven. Several hundred other hymns are too. antiquated, sentimental, or infrequently sung to merit retention. But no old favorite, like 'Rock of Ages' or 'Jesus, Lover of My Soul' is to be dropped. "Most modern hymns, said Dr. Langdale, are disappointing. But the words group found a number worthy of inclusion in the new hymnal. Prof. Henry Hallam Tweedy of Yale Divinity School contributed this rollicking onc: -"Eternal God, whose power upholds Both flower and flaming star, To whom there is no here nor there, No time, no near nor far, No alien race, no foreign shore, No chili! unsought, unknown, Oh, send us forth, Thy prophets true To make all lands Thine own! "Tentatively included for the first time in the Methodist hymnal, which will draw upon all faiths in its selections, are Poet John Greenleaf Whittier's 'All Things Are Thine,' and the hymn of St. Francis of Assisi, which begins: -"All creatures of our God and King, Lift up your voice and with us sing Hallelujah, Hallelujah! Thou burning sun with golden beam, Thou silver moon with softer gleam, o praise Him, 0 praise Him, Hallelujah, Hallelujah, Hallelujah! Amen. "Declared Dr. Langdale to the Methodist ministers who heard the proposed changes: 'You might as well make up your minds that there will not be universal sat.isfaction in the new hymnal.' " J. T. M. The Campbellite Modernists Applauding the Methodist Mod­ernists. -The Ohristian Oentury, representing the theology of the Dis­ciples of Christ, abhors the doctrine of atonement through the atoning blood of Jesus and is pleased to see its modernistic brethren making strenuous efforts to delete this doctrine from the Methodist hymnal. The issue of March 16, 1932, carries this editorial: "When a denomination sets about the revising of its hymnody, the heresy-dousers get out their witch­hazel twigs and begin solemnly to pace across the field. The newspapers gladly fall into step. Just now the Methodists have a commission at work on a revised hymnal. One of the brethren on the commission makes a speech, which is colorfully reported. That starts the heresy-hunt. Outcry is made that the faith is in danger. Reports fly here and there that the revisers will throw out of the book such hymns as 'The Old Rugged Cross' and 'Shall We Gather at the River.' The fact that neither has a place in the present hymnal is airily disregarded. Much of the distress is caused by the report that all references to 'the atoning blood' will be excluded from the new book. Without question there is a growing objection to some of the more sanguinary metaphors of the older hymns, among which Charles Wesley's are conspicuous. But the Wesley hymns 390 Theological Observer. -.ffirdJ1idJ<,{leUgefdJidJt!idJes. have been slowly losing their disproportionate acceptance, even among the more conservative Wesleyans. Time was, in the memory of men yet living, when a Wesleyan hymn-book was almost exactly that, with a moderate sprinkling of the work of other hymn-writers. If the new book does not contain fewer Wesleys than the old, at least an exchange is promised, and that is as it should be. Some of \Vesley's figures of speech would shock even his most ardent defenders if they could be stripped of their concealing familiarity and be seen for what they are. Not the most literal and offensive among certain widely used Gospel-songs can match some of Wesley'S hymns in their glorification of a theolo,gy which suggests a shambles mther than a revelation of the boumdless love of God tor sinners." (Italics ours.) The Modernists, by the way, do not hesitate to use strong language. They insist on their right to apply the objurgations "shambles," "sanguinary metaphors," "shocking," to the doctrine of redemption as taught by Paul. But it is a curious psychological phenomenon that these same men are much hurt and violently protest when we also apply plain terms to them. They set up the cry "heresy-hunt." They are not ashamed to commit heresy. They glory in it. Why should they protest against the name? Is it because the man concerned does not care to have the cry "Stop thief!" raised? E. II. 2{u5hm~. §jilt eill jc "tote Odfjobo~ie" gegefien? ®eljr fein fdjrei6t D. ~. Eaiole in ber "W. @:. ,\3. Sf." in feiner @:rlDiberung aUf 1Sricbridj ~eitmiilIerill "SDie Si'rifi5 ber @emeinfdjaft50elDegung", lDorin Mefer audj bie "tote Ortljobobie" geif3ert. ~ir freuen un5 lioer fo mandje5 in EaiOre5 Wrtifel. oefonber5 aber lioer feine WU5fpradje lioer ba5 genannte :itljema. ~ir lefen: "IDCit bem ,iirteren Eutljer' ging e5 fdjon aOlDiirt5; C5 ging bolIenb5 in ben :itob mit ber ,±aten Ortljobobie'. [Eaiore aWert ironif dj .\:>eitmlilIer. -m e b.] .\;>eit~ miirrer ift ljier ba;3 Opfer bon @ottfrieb WrnoIM ,Unparteiifdjer Sfirdjen~ unb Sfeterljiftorie' gelDorben, bem er aUf5 ~ori grauo±. Wrnolb ljat oefanntridj auf ;saljtljunberte bie ~arore bon ber ,ioten Oriljobobie' aU5~ gegeoen; alIe5 ljat fie aufgenommen, audj bie ~eorogen. anan oebadjtc nidjt, baB Wrnolb in ljeftigem ~ampfe mit ben Oriljob06en ftanb unb aI5 foldjet unmogIidj ein ,unparteiifdje5' UrteH lioer bie Ortljobobie ljaoen fonnte . .\;>eute lDeif3 man, baf3 er bie @efdjidjte in Diefem ®tiicI biteft, lDenn audj unoelDuf3t, gefiilfdjt ljat. ®djon ber einfadje ~ljtift mUf3te fidj immer fagen: ~ann ein 2eitarter ,tot' gelDefen fein, ba5 un5 bie fdjonften SfirdjenIieber fdjenfte (~aur @erljarl:ltl) unb eine 1SlilIe frommer ~reMgt~, @eoet~ unb 2tnbadji5oiidjer (;solj. Wrnbl)? Sfonnen aUf fteinigem lEoben foldje IElumen ltJadjf en; fann eine geiftridje ~lifte eincn fordjen @arten ljerbororingen? ;snalDifdjen ljat aoer ein jlingerer :itljeolog, ber gefcljrte D. Eeuoe (jett nadj @:rrallgen oerufen), bie OuelIen neu burdjforfdjt, IEricfc anb ::tageoiidjer ber ,foten' Drtljobobic unb alIc5, lDa5 mit iljr 3ufammenljiingt, unb ein unber~ greidjIidj ofiiljenbe5, geiftridje5 Eeoen, a. IE. ba5 fdjIidjtcfte 1SamHienrelJen, borgefunben. @elDif3, bie Ortljobobie ljaite iljre fdjlDeren 1Seljler; fie tvar raulj unb ljart [bie5 UrieH ift au influfib unb geljt au ItJcH -me b.]; ljatte fein !8erftiinbni5 fUt ben ~ieti5mu5 [ba5 llmgefeljrte ift audj ber 1Sail -me D.] ;bennodj ljaite fie Eeoen, Eeben in @ott. ~urdj Eeubc5 !8erbienf± ift bie jaljrljunberteIange ;srrefliljrung m:rnolb5 enb~ Theological Observer. -mtd)nd)~8eitgefcI)id)tlid)eg. 391 gurtig cntIatb±, unb nut gefdjidjtridje Unfenn±nis fan n n 0 dj i n f e i n e @S dj lin 9 e n f a I len [bon uw ~erborge~ooen­m e b.]. . .. jillo~I, Me ftiUen .8eiten fiinnen tote .8eiten tuetben, Fnb es andj oft getuotben; nadj bet Ieoenbigen .8eU ber Drl~obo~e fam bet tote matio~ naIismus. ~oer bann forgte ber .\>@:rr ber mtdje bafUr, baf3 tuiebet Eeoen uoer bas ~otenfelb fam. Unb auffaUenb genug, bie mufer im @Streit tuaren fiimtIidj @Sii~ne Eu±~ers, mnber ber ,toten Drl~obo~ie'." -~aS IDCiirdjen bon ber "toten Drl~obo~ie" ift bem gleidj, tuonadj Eut~er eine "freiere @Ster~ rung" our ~nf1:liration bet .\>eiIigen @Sdjrift eingenommen ~aoen foU. ~udj uoer biefen !\Sunfi burften .beutfdJe ~eologen einmal genau aUf @runb ber @efdjidjtsquellen teferieren. ~. ~. IDC. Obedientia Activa. ~aruber f1:lridjt fidj D. @:Ierl in feiner "IDCor~ p~oIogie bes Eut~erlumS", @S. 103, alfo aus: ,,@:s ift ein nidjt ~odj genug einaufdjii~enbes !BerMenft ber ~onforMenformeI, baf3 fie burdj i~re ~nter~ 1:lretation ber iustitia Christi gegen jebes IDCif3berftiinbnis jener ~rl einen ~amm erodjtet ~at. @:s gefdja~ burdj ben gegen (lfianber geridj±e±en @S~, bie bem &Iauben augeredjnete @eredjtigfeU fei fein @e~orfam getuefen. (Sol. Decl. III, 9.) @Sie tDirb atuar andj umfdjrieoen ars ,@e~otfam, Eei.ben unb ~uferfte~ung' (15) ober als ,@e~orfam, Eeiben unb @Steroen' (32), aoer es tuirb bodj audj bas &anile feiner !\Serfon, feines Eeoens unb feines jilledes unter ben }Begriff bes @e~orfamS georadj±. ~iefer @e~orfam aeigte fidj barin, baf3 er ,fUr uns bas @efe~ erfUlIt' ~at (30), unb atuar agendo et pa­tiendo, in vita et morte (15). IDCan fann atueifeIn, 00 bie fdjarfe oegriff~ Hdje ~rennung ber obedientia activa unb pq.ssiva, bie bon ben f1:lii±eren ~ogmatifem ~ieraus a6geIeitet unb in ber ~eoIogie bes 19. ~a~r~unberlg emeut ~art umftritten tuurbe, in Eu±~ers @Sinn geIegen tuar. jillenn Eu±~er bon ber impletio legis burdj {Diriftum f1:lridjt (jill. ~. 2, 466, 14; 523, 15; 561, 39; 563, 35; 10 I, 1, @S. 471, 2), fo ift i~m tuie !\Sanlus bas &efe~ fte±s ein @anaes, eine ober bieIme~r b i e oojefiibe IDCadjt, beren en±fdjei~ benbe ~orberung nadj @:intreten ber menfdjHdjen @Sunbe Me @Su~ne ift. IDCit bem meuen ~eftamen± eroIidt Eut~er Me @Su~ne in etfter Einie im ~reuaes~ tob {Dirifti. ~lIein biefem foute bodj nur fu~nenbe }Bebeutung aufommen, tueH ~~riftus bem ganilen @efe~, alfo au dj burdj Me afiibe @:rfUlIung feiner @ellote, @enuge geleiftet ~abe. ~n ber @5adje fellift oebeu±et es bes~ ~alO feinen grof3en Un±erfdjieb, 00 man bie aftibe @efe~eserfUlIung als !Borausfe~ung ober alS IDComent inner~alO ber bem @efe~ geIeifteten @enug~ tuung anfie~t. ~ie ~onforbienformeI oetont andj im Eei.ben bas afiibe IDComent, niimIidj Me ~reitumigfeit (Sol. Decl. III, 15), unb faf3± bie aftWe unb 1:laffibe @efe~eserfUUung un±er ben }Begriff bes @e~orfams aUfammen." ~. ~in furdjtlofer .Benge her jillnijrijeit. !Bor furiler .8eU ftaro in filiiri~ fdjer !Beroannung ber tuei±~in llefannt getuorbene \lSto1:lft ~erbinanb .\>iirfdjer~ mann im ~o~en ~lter bon fedjsunbfiebaig ~a~ren. uoer biefen eifrigen unb furdjUofen .8eugen ber jilla~r~eit fdjreiDt Me ,,~.~ . .2.~.": ,,!\SroW ~erMnanb .\>iirfdjeImann ge~iirl au ben marfan±eften !\SrebigergeftaIten .ber ebangeIifdjen SHrdje @5ubruf3IanM. @:r tuar ans @:ftlanb geourtig, ftubierle in ~or1:lat, tuo er bas }Bert~t)fdje @Sti1:lenbium oeaog, baS bie !Ber1:lflidjtung anferIeg±e, nadj bem @5tubium im Eaufe bon bier ~~ren im staufafus au aroeiten. Dllgleidj er nadj ~ofolbierung ber Uniberfi±iit einen mUf an eine 392 Theological Observer. -SUrdj(idj~8eit\Jefdjidjtlidjes . .\)eimatgemeinbe erqiert, atoang iqn bodj feine metpffidjtung, bie Sjeimat au berIaffen unb in ben Giiben ffiutlanb9 au geqen, bem bon nun an feine ganae roeitere jffiirffamfdt gaIt. Buerft ;tIibifion?!!j:Jrebiger in ~iffi?!!, fpiiter l.jSaftorabjunfi in Sjodjqeim (Slrim), fam er 1891 al?!! ~adjfolger Gamuer SleUer?!! in bie IDlut±edolonie ~eufa~ (Shim). :;sn ber geiftlicljen 1Betreuung biefe?!! SHrdjfpier?!! beftanb feine ganae 2eben?!!arbeit. ;tIa?!! Slirdjfj:Jie! qaite einen ffiabiu?!! bon 80 bi?!! 120 SlHometer, fo bat feine 1Bebienung nur burd) eine au~gebeqnte ffieif etiitigfeit miigIidj roar. IDlit groBer 5treue unb biiUiger Sjingaoe IeOte er feinem 1Berufe. IDlan fann biefe fittridj iibetau?!! qoclj~ fteqenbe rerigiiife (3'iifjrergeftaIt au?!! bet @efcljidjte ber beutfcljen Slolonien GiibrutlanM unb im oefonberen bet S\'rim nidjt roegbenfen. )[5on befonber~ nadjqartigem ®influB ift fein S\'onfitmanbcnunterridjt unb fein Gdj1trunter~ ricljt geroefen, ben et oi~ aur Wnfnnft bet 1Bolfdjeroifen in ber 9leuf~er Ben~ tralfcljule (bet iiIteften qiifjeren beutfdjen Gdjule ber Shim) erteirt qat. ;tIie Ietten ~afjre roaren fiir ifjn btiifung?!!fdjroere BeUen: 1920 ftatb fein Goljn ag ~rtot ber freiroilligen Wtmee, 1925 ftarb feine @attin. Geine Sjiiu~~ Iidjfeit rourbe iljm aUrniiljriclj aetftiirt. Bulei)3t burfte er nodj in "roei Heinen 1Bauernftiibdjen im ~orfe leoen. IDlit [etncm iirteften Goqne, P. (3'erbinanb SjiirfdjeImann JUIl., oebiente er audj roeiterfjin mit berfeloen 5treue rein Si:irdjfpieI. jffieil et bie iqm aUferlegte 0Jetreibefteuer nidjt begleidjen fonnte, routben iqm unb f einer (3'amHie 1928 bie gef amte jffioqnung~einridjtung unb aUe Si'leiber berauftioniert. 'iDer filnfunbfiebaigjiiqtige IDlann orieo auf einem Gtroqraget auriict. Wg ein @emeinbemitgrieb fUt iqn ein 1Bett auriictfaufte, routbe e?!! iqm roiebet aogenommen unb aum aroeiten IDlale an ben IDleiftoieienben bedauft. Wg et audj bataufljin f ein Si'itdjfj:JieI nidjt betnet, rourbe iqm ein neuet I.jSroaeB angefjl'ingt, tootauf er au einigen :;saljten @efiingni~ berur±eiIt rourbe unb fein Goljn au aelinjiifjriger mer~ oannung. WUB ber @efiingni?!!ljaft l11lttbe er nadj einiget Beit befrett; er mutie abet bie Sltim betIaffen. :;Sn Gibitien gao e§ bide Si'olonien bon <§ften, aoet fcinen l.jSaftot, ber bet efinifdjen Gptadje miidjtig roat. WW SjiitfdjeImann bon biefet ~ot ljiirte, entfdjlot fidj bet Gedj~unbfieoaigiiiljrige. nadj Gioitien au faljten, um bod be§ j:Jaftotalen Wmte?!! untet ben ®ften i\U roalien. 2Thet aW er nadj Gibitien fam, routbe iljm bon ben @etoalt~ qabern bie fteie 1Betvcgung betooten unb e?!! rourbe iljm bie GtaDt weinulfinH aum Wufentljart~ort angeroiefen. Sjier qat er untet ben roentgen ®ban~ geIifdjen, bie fidj fanben, bi?!! aulei;}t treu geroirfi." :;So it. we. ~ie mltdjt iter OJotHofenliclt1egung in 9luilltnb. :;Sm ,,2utlj. Sjerolb" Iefen roic ,,~adj cinet Gtatiftif ift bie Bag! ber ortqobo!;ett l.jStiefter in bet Gorojetunion roiiljtenb bet Iei;lten bteiaeqn ~aljte um 65 I.jStoaent auriict< gegangen, aIfo um tunb aroei 'iDritter. 'iDie ~tiefter erljarten nut nodj freiroillige @aben iqret @emeinbegIiei:let, bie fie fuapp bor bem Sjunget" to be fdjiii;len. :;S'l1 ciner or±qobo!;en @emeinbe am Gdjroaraen IDleer ljat ber I.jStieftet IDlaffieroic3 ben IDlut gegaot, untet bet :;Snbufttieoebiilfctung ein (3'Iug'bIatt gegen bie @ottIofen6eroegung au betoteiten unb ~ugenbbetfamm< Iungen gegen bie @ottrofigfeit au otganifieten. ®t Mtb roagtfdjein!iCij bon ben mit iqm ft)mpatljiiietenben Wt6eitetn untctftiitt, f 0 baB bie Britung ,s.£let @ottIofe' fdjtie6: ,'iDet ijeinb ift noCij nidjt boilfommcn aerftorl i et fudjt neue IDlittel unb jffiege filt feine Bctftorung§at6eit.'" ~. ~. IDl.