Full Text for CTM Book Review 31-7 (Text)

CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL MONTHLY VOL. XXXI Arritudes Toward the Use of Force and Violence in Thomas Muentzerj Menno Simons, and Martin Luther RALPH L. MOELLERING Brief Studies Homiletics Theological Observer Book Review July 1960 No.7 EW I A ROMAN CATHOLIC IN THE WHITE HOUSE. By James A. Pike, in collabora­tion with Richard Byfield. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1960. 142 pages. Cloth. $2.50. The well-known Episcopalian bishop wants the title of his book to be read as a question: Should the American electorate vote a Roman Catholic fellow citizen into the presidency of the United States? Millions of people wo lside:l" ,he very asking of the ques­tion improper, while many others would an­swer, why not? and thus dispose of the whole itla.uer. Dum gruups would be quick tv r;1i~ the charge of bigotry against those who bring up this subject. The "religious issue" should be kept out of politics, and to apply the "re­ligious test" to candidates for civil office is un-American. Bishop Pike renders all Amer­icans, including Roman Catholics, a very val­uable service in clarifying the issue by divid­ing the question. He carefully distinguishes between bigotry and legitimate concern. It is bigotry to be for or against a candidate simply on the ground of his religion. It is not big­otty to express concern about the political implications of certain explicit religious tenets, especially when these are inherently, or at the very least potentially, discriminatory in a pluralistic culture such as ours, and also when such tenets are held and propagated by an authoritarian organization. Pike presents a lucid, thoroughly documented analysis of the interrelation of theology and politics in the Roman Catholic structure and creates an impression. cf scrupulous fairness in his eval­uation. He quotes ,he comprehensive author­ital " IS of J[r~"dieval as well as modern pOI that while some are~ All bool,s ,·eviewed in this periodical may be procured from or through Concordia Pttb­lishing House, 3558 South Jeffers01~ Avenue, St. Louis 18, Missouri. of American Roman Catholicism appear to dissent, their position must be seen in the perspective of the "official" hisiOric stance of the Roman Catholic Church. The author's closing words are: "A Roman Catholic for President? It depends [emphasis original}. The asking of the question is not bigotry. It is the exercise of responsible citizenship" (p. 133). All Americans will do well to ponder the issue on the high level m -, -, -; -,d Unfortunately many Americans HERBERT J. A. BOUMAN --'I1MUNION AND E-MENT. By George Huntston Williams. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1960. Paper. 72 pages. $1.50" Williams' purpose in this little volume is to show the connection between Anselm's atonement doctrine and the penitential­Eucharistic thought of his day. This, he feels, was a new way of presenting the doctrine of the atonement. The author in a most erudite fashion seems to have proved his thesis. But the reader is rather left in a quandary: just what is the significance of this conclusion? Is it merely that there is in Anselm a new terminology and a new approach to the atone­ment (which would make the whole study relatively inconsequential)? Or is there per­haps something new which is also wrong in Anselm's doctrine? A few questions which do not seem to be answered by the book might be asked. Grant­ing that Anselm structured his doctrine in the penitential-Eucharistic language of his day, JUSl how much of his doctrine, worked out rationally :::3 it is, has a Scriptural basis? This qu, is important. That 444 BOOK REVIEW 445 guage is taken from the sacramental termin­ology is one thing, that the idea of atonement is built on a newly developed sacramental teaching is quite another. Again, does the fact that Anselm employs terms which are common to the vocabulary of penitential­sacramental discourse (contritio, confessio, satisfactio, meritum, redemptio, and poena) necessarily imply that he wove his atonement doctrine around the prevalent Eucharistic theology? These were very old terms; some of them are Biblical. Is this later language always so different from Paul's? For instance, is satisfactio so far removed from the Biblical concept LAMJ.t6<;;? Concordia Publishing House is to be com­mended for publishing a work of this tech­nical nature. While it may provoke only limited interest, it possesses lasting quality as a good piece of research. ROBERT D. PREUS THE BIBLE WORD BOOK: CONCERN­ING OBSOLETE OR ARCHAIC WORDS IN THE KING JAMES VER­SION OF THE BIBLE. By Ronald Bridges and Luther A. Weigle. New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1960. vii + 442 pages. Cloth. $5.00. For all who insist on preserving the Au­thorized or King James Version as their favorite rendition of the Bible this book provides the authoritative program notes. Here one can learn, to mention only a few random items, that camels' "bunches" (Is. 30:6) are really humps; that Jeremiah's "cabin" (Jer. 37: 16) was no cozy fringe benefit but a prison "cell"; that "neesings" in Job 41:18 are "sneezings"; that the "feeble-minded" of 1 Thess. 5: 14 are not people of subnormal intellect but quite prob­ably fainthearted parishioners; and that Paul was not ill mannered, as the word "rude" in 2 Cor. 11: 6 might suggest, but rather un­skilled in rhetorical effect. Aside from the liberal education in the history of English lexicography and gram-mar, a book like this also alerts one to fine points of interpretation which otherwise might escape notice. The discussion of the rendering "worthy" in Luke 23: 15 will help the reader appreciate more dearly Pilate's strategy. Jesus has done nothing deserving of death, a chastisement should more than atone for Jesus' alleged crimes. The truth will out, however, and we must observe that this book was not written to increase the sales volume of the Authorized Version or improve its readability but rather to justify the existence of the Revised Stand­ard Version. We were not unaware of the fact that the Authorized Version was indeed growing old, but we must acknowledge that we never realized she had so many wrinkles. Yet rather than detract from the Authorized Version this book actually contributes to her elderly charms, which though largely unap­preciated by the younger set still wear sur­prisingly well. On the other hand, we are also convinced that pulpit time is too pre­cious to spend on the history of obsolete English words. The Revised Standard Ver­sion will free precious minutes for more extensive exposition. FREDERICK W. DANKER THE SECRET SAYINGS OF JESUS. By Robert M. Grant, and David Noel Freed­man. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday and Company, 1960. 206 pages. Cloth. $3.50. Even before the finding of the Dead Sea Scrolls a startling discovery of Gnostic docu­ments had been made about 1945 near a village in Egypt called Nag Hammadi. One of these documents contained the now famous Gospel according to Thomas, not to be confused with an apocryphal infancy Gos­pel bearing the same name. (See this re­viewer's discussion of the Harper edition in this journal [May 1960, pp. 309-311}.) The authors of the helpful volume here re­viewed sketch, with bold and confident strokes, the place of this newly discovered work in the history of religious writing 446 BOOK REVIEW in the first centuries of the Christian era. The work is certainly Gnostic, they state, and specifically appears to reflect the teach· ings and the literary techniques of the Naas­senes, described by Hippolytus. Throughout their treatment the authors warn us to be extremely cautious about entertaining the genuineness of noncanonical sayings which come from groups outside the mainstream of the Christian tradition and offer little en­couragement to textual critics of the New Testament. The commentary, a substantial part of the book, is based on translation made from the Coptic by William R. Schoe­del of the University of Chicago. Even if one has little interest in the Gos­pel according to Thomas, this work is sig­nificant for its informative discussion of Gnosticism in general. A wealth of scholar-ship Ii -j -, • -j presentation, yet t1-. boc . ppreciated by student and laymen alike. FREDERICK W. DANKER THE NEW SHAPE OF AMERICAN RELI-GION. By Martin E. Marty. Harper & Brothers, 1959. Cloth. $3.50. New York: 180 pages. The student of modern American church history will be grateful for The New Shape of American Religion. It interprets the pres­ent age as "post-Protestant." It finds that Americans have taken to a "Religion-in­General," which worships a nationalized Deity. The temporalization of religion in the democratic setting has made for an "intuitive quasi-religious American way of life with a sort of state Shinto." Marty points to reme­dies for the situation in theological and ecclesiastical resources available to the Prot­estant parish, without operating within a Lu­theran frame of reference. The work, we predict, will become a classic portrayal of the American religious scene at the close of the Hfrantic fifties." CARL S. MEYER LUTHER UND DIE SKEPSIS: Eine Studie zur Kohelet-Exegese Luthers. By Eberhard WolfeL Munich: Chr. Kaiser Verlag, 1958. 288 pages. Cloth, DM 15; paper, DM 12.50. A bibliography of 666 tides and more tr,an 1,300 footnotes mark this volume as a notable dissertation of a diligent candidate for a terminal degree at the Frederick-Alex­ander University of Erlangen. Vfith Walther von Loewenich as his adviser, the author produced a work which was esteemed worthy of being included as Vol. XII in the tenth series of Forschungen zur Geschichte und Lehre des Protestantismus. The study ap­pears in two parts. In the first part the author presents his own analysis of Ecclesiastes as a criterion for the evaluation of Luther's exege5_..; of Ecclesiastes, which he present~ in the secclld parto . (cordie Wolfel the preacher iE Ec-clesiastes is an egocentric skeptic, devoted to the pagan ideal of carpe diem. Koheleth, Wolfel insists, recognizes nothing but fate, destiny, and time. God is of no particular concern to him. The concluding remarks (12:12-14) Wolfel regards as an attempt of a second editor, a previous editor already having made some changes in the text, to extract something of value from the pessim­ism of the skeptical preacher. Wi:ilff"i looks upon Luther's COI!LJnentaH on Ecclesiastes as eisegesis rather than ex­egesis. He correctly defines Luther's prinzip, according to which the Bible must be treated as a unit whose essential content is Christ. He finds this principle in accord with Luther's famous statement in his De servo arbitrio: "Tolle Christum e Scripturis, quid amplius in illis invenies?" Wolfel, however, does not agree with this aspect of Luther's hermeneutics. But his disagreement with Luther on this point has not kept him from producing a helpful analysis of Luther's exposition. He concludes his evaluation of Luther's commentary with a tribut, BOOK REVIEW 447 great expounder of Scripture. Though also Luther knew only in part, Wolfel reminds us, he nevertheless bountifully endowed our gen­eration, which is often so rich in skepticism but poor in faith. LEWIS W. SPITZ, SR. LUTHERS LEHRE VON DEN ZWEI REICHEN 1M ZUSAMMENHANG SEINER THEOLOGIE. By Heinrich Bornkamm. Giitersloh: Carl Bertelsmann Verlag, 1958. 29 pages. Paper. DM 3.20. Though brief, this treatise is well docu­mented and may serve as an earnest invitation to further study of a subject that has en­grossed the attention of Luther scholars dur­ing the past three decades. The author, best known in this country for his helpful L1.ther's World of Thought, here shows how Luther dealt with the problems which the Christian faces as a citizen in the kingdom of grace and as a subject of the secular state. The reader will appreciate the clearly stated con­trast between Luther's position and that of St. Augustine in the latter's criticism of the civitas te.,..,.ena. LEWIS W. SPITZ, SR. AN INTRODUCTION TO WESTERN PHILOSOPHY. By Russell Coleburt. New York: Sheed & Ward, 1957. XIV + 239 pages. Cloth. $4_00. The present book no doubt grew out of classroom experience, and is designed to be a textbook for the beginner. As such it is an eminent success, (1) because of the sim­plicity of presentation, and (2) because of the number of facts presented on significant past and contemporary philosophers con­tained within the compass of such a brief introduction. The author concentrates his attention on the two main problems of metaphysics and epistemology. It is perhaps well to limit an introduction to these questions, especially since modern philosophy addresses itself almost exclusively to the latter question. One re­grettable feature of the book is that the author did not more fully treat existentialism and positivism and that he did not see fit to deal with modern pragmatism at all. The pastor who Jesires to review quickly two perennial problems of philosophy and the solutions to these problems will find this book of real value. ROBERT D. PREUS SOUTHERN BAPTIST PREACHING. Ed­ited by H. C. Brown, Jr. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1959. 227 pages. $4.00. What Donald Macleod did in Here Is My Method (Revell, 1952) for 13 famous Prot­estant preachers, and C. S_ Roddy in We Prepare and Preach (Moody, 1959) for 11 Evangelicals, this volume does for 22 South­ern Baptist preachers. Among them are names generally known like Billy Graham, C. Oscar Johnson, Robert G. Lee, and Duke K. McCall. Each contributor furnishes a state­ment, "How I Prepare My Sermons," and one of his sermons; the editor prefaces each unit with a biographical summary. Some of the contributors do not measure up to their own canons of excellence. Many stress the importance of prayer, Biblical study, and audience contact. All of the contributions are interesting, and the editor, a professor at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary at Fort Worth, puts all students of preach­ing in his debt. RICHARD R. CAEMMERER PREACHING THROUGH THE BIBLE: VOLUMES 18 AND 19, MATT. 1-7; 8-16. By Joseph Parker_ Grand Rap­ids: Baker Book House, 1959. 306 and 376 pages. Cloth. $ 3 _ 5 0 each. Originally printed under the title The People's Bible, this set, planned to run to 28 volumes, reproduces the sermons of Jo­seph Parker, the builder of City Temple in London, in which in the seven years following 1884 he preached on the whole Bible_ He 448 BOOK REVIEW was not theologically trained, but was warmly evangelical in emphasis and second only to Spurgeon in popular appeal. His method was ultra-extemporaneous, and these editions are the product of stenographic reporting. Many of the sermons show a close adherence to their texts; in effect they are homilies with a number of applications in each address. Others are topical in their adherence to a single theme which is elaborated by refer­ences throughout the Gospel. These sermons show almost no correlation with the Old Testament or the epistles. The allegiance to the atoning Christ is consistent. RICHARD R. CAEMMERER IN HIS LIKENESS: FORTY SELECTIONS ON THE IMITATION OF CHRIST THROUGH THE CENTURIES. By G. McLeod Bryan. Richmond, Va.: John Knox Press, c. 1959. 192 pages. Cloth. $3.00. The community in Christ that Christians share with one another -alas, never per­fectly in this life -manifests itself in many ways. One of them is in a common imitatio Christi. Readers will react to the varied ex­pressions of this "likeness" in Bryan's book largely according to their own background; some may even be uneasy about a number of the witnesses that Bryan includes in this devotional "anthology with comments." Yet they cannot reflect on these selections ranging from St. Ignatius of Antioch, contemporary of the apostles, to five contemporaries of the readers themselves, without realizing more fully that while the call to be imitators of Christ is common to all Christians, its ex­pression in each case is as particular as the individual. Lutherans will appreciate Bryan's stress on being "imitators" rather than "imi­tations"; wanting to be the latter evidences what Bonhoeffer calls "a pious but godless ambition," since we are then "presuming to undertake that bitter work of eternal redemp­tion which Christ wrought for us." H. Rich-ard Niebuhr's introduction underlines a sup­plementary point: "Every discipleship remains an imitation and . . . only the original One is a fit Pattern, Example and Master." ARTHUR CARL PIEPKORN HOLY COMMUNION: AN ANTHOLOGY OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. Compiled by Massey H. Shepherd, Jr. Greenwich, Conn.: The Seabury Press, 1959. 162 pages. Cloth. $3.00. Self-examination as a part of preparation for the Eucharist ought not stop at an aware­ness of the "evil we would not" which we have done; it should contemplate the good work which the Spirit "hath begun" and "will perform" in us; it should rejoice in the faith which is a "chief thing" in the Sacrament. Here is an anthology of "some of the nobler and more imperishable pieces of Christian piety from all periods and tradi­tions of the church's life" designed for such meditation before and after Communion. The compiler reminds the user, "This an­thology is not designed to prove any doctrine but only to improve devotion." That is a de­sirable objective -and this a most help-ful aid. GEORGE W. HOYER THE GOSPEL AND CHRISTIAN EDUCA­TION: A THEORY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION FOR OUR TIMES. By D. Campbell Wyckoff. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1959. 191 pages. Cloth. $3.75. This is an important, stimulating and use­ful book by Princeton's specialist in Christian education. It may lead to some significant improvements in the theory and practice in Protestant education, particularly if its Bib­lical bases and interpretations are sharpened. Wyckoff seeks to offer guidance and stimu­lation for the production of a comprehensive and integrated statement of a theory of Christian education that is both theologically valid and educationally sound. The need for BOOK REVIEW 449 such a theory is apparent -for checking our assumptions and commitments, for gaining a clearer sense of direction, and for improv­ing curricula, organization, administration, and even methods. The basic, unifying, and guiding principle of a theory of Christian education, Wyckoff asserts, is the Gospel of "God's redeeming activity in Jesus Christ." This reviewer prefers as principle "The Lordship of Jesus Christ," understood in its Biblical breadth and depth. This "Lordship" was the Gospel-embracing confession of the apostolic church, characterized its education (Eph. 6: 4, nmbELCI. X.UQLOU), lends itself more readily for the discussion of the problems of a philosophy of education, and discourages mere intellectualism by asserting very directly the importance not only of the knowledge of the divine Savior but also of the right per­sonal relationship to Him. ALBERT G. ]\fERKENS THE PLACE OF WOMEN IN THE CHURCH. By Charles Caldwell Ryrie. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1958. 155 pages. Cloth. $2.85. The author, associate professor of system­atic theology at Dallas Theological Sem­inary, as he reverently goes back to the Bible, successfully resists the temptation to join the current debate on woman's place in the church today. Without regard for modern opinion polls, sociological trends, or psycho­logical data, he seeks to discover and state what the New Testament teaches and what the early church practiced with regard to the status and service of woman in the home and church. Christianity's liberating effect on woman, marriage, divorce, remarriage, widowhood, and the office of deaconess are among the subjects discussed. Interpreting JtOQ'VELU (fornication) as Hmarriage vllthin the prohibited Levitical degrees" and therefore null, the author admits no valid causes for divorce. His conclusions concerning woman's "subordination and honor in the home, si­lence and helpfulness in the church," do not call for radical change in the traditional practice of the church today. Here is a re­freshingly unbiased and helpful book. ALBERT G. MERKENS THE CHRISTIAN TEACHER: HIS FAITH AND HIS RESPONSIBILITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION. By Perry D. Lefevre. New York: Abingdon Press, 1958. 176 pages. Cloth. $2.75. In this thought-provoking and stimulating book, dedicated to pioneers in the renaissance of religion in American higher education, the University of Chicago author discusses the relation of religion to higher education, the problems confronting a Christian college teacher, and the effect which his Christian faith, if taken seriously, should have on his teaching. Called to be a Christian, the Chris­tian teacher must strive to work out that call1ng within his particular professiun, whether as teacher of the humanities, the social sciences, or the natural sciences. All that he does as a teacher will be affected by his sense of Christian calling. In the chapters on method and its deeper implications the relative importance of method and the im­plications of a charismatic personality seem to remain undetermined. In the entire book the predicament of the Christian teacher who is prevented by circumstances from teaching Christian content or subject matter directly constantly suggests itself to the reader. ALBERT G. MERKENS THE VICTOR SPEAKS. By Edmund Schlink. Trans. by Paul F. Koehneke. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1958. 126 pages. Cloth. $2.50. A series of meditations on the seven words spoken by Christ from the cross and on eight of the statements the Savior made after His resurrection. The author makes the cross con­temporary: "Both the past of Golgotha and our modern day have the raised cross of the Lord in common. The present and the past 450 BOOK REVIEW have the crucifiers in common since we, too, crucify Him" (p. 9). There are deep insights into the significance of the words of Jesus: only a malefactor can see Christ's victory; Jesus wounds Mary's mother love that she may see her Savior; the cry of forsakenness is perhaps the most comforting word of the Bible; because the cross is failure, the failure of our life is removed; Mary did not believe because she saw Jesus but because He called her; whoever searches the Scriptures without recognizing that the crucified Lord is the risen Lord remains in blindness; Jesus' resur­rection is a promotion to a different kind of life; it is overwhelming that the risen Lord permits Himself to be overwhelmed. Doc­trine, especially that of sin and grace, is here presented in living form. These sermons of an outstanding theologian are written with relevance to the present and with deep con­viction. Hence the book is theological, keryg­matic, devotional. The translator has succeeded in putting the polished German into idiomatic English. E. 1. LUEKER THE SIGN OF THE CROSS: LENTEN SERMONS. By Otto P. Kretzmann. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959. 86 pages. Paper. $1.25. THE CROWDS AROUND CALVARY: LENTEN MEDITATIONS. By William Beck and Paul Hansen. St. Louis: Concor­dia Publishing House, 1959. 120 pages. Paper. $1.50. One smiles as he imagines a town in which each of three Lutheran preachers decides to take one of these three Lenten series as the "fuel" for kindling his Lenten sermons this year. The first suddenly develops a style in which he sonorously whispers the stirring truths behind the cross. He is at ease as his mind sweeps from quotations of Ibsen and Pascal to Hemingway and Thompson. As his people gaze in awe, he will silently ex­press his thanks to "0. P." The second man begins to preach in the sharp staccato of basic English. The listeners decide that this time their preacher is getting more out of every word of the text than he ever has before. Those knowledgeable in such things will ask whether their pastor has acquired a copy of Beck's Christ of the Gospels. The third pas­tor will rapidly gain a reputation for being interesting. The diagnosis of his congrega­tion's need will be mature in psychological and sociological insight. As urbanity of ap­proach and content becomes the hallmark of his series, he nods his appreciation to Han­sen, Denver pastor and sociologist. Reflection on the three series convinces one that al­though the central core of Lutheran preaching remains similar, the circle bends in many directions. It also causes the preacher to re­check the goals of his sermons over an ex­tended period. He asks if he is stressing the vertical relationship to God as much as the horizontal to man, if he is preaching to "faith" as frequently as he is to "life." DAVID S. SCHULLER THE INFLUENCE OF ERASMUS, WITZEL, AND CASSANDER IN THE CHURCH ORDINANCES AND REFORM PRO­POSALS OF THE UNITED DUCHIES OF CLEVE DURING THE MIDDLE DECADES OF THE 16TH CENTURY. By John Patrick Dolan. Munster, West­phalia: Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuch­handlung, 1957. xv + 119 pages. Price not given. Reformation studies by Roman Catholic scholars in recent years have brought out that there were reform movements before Luther and that these reform movements merge with the reform efforts of Roman Catholicism and Protestantism during the first half of the 16th century. The devotio moderna, the conciliatory proposals by Eras­mus, and liturgical reforms are among these developments. George Witzel and George Cas sander, an associate, were influenced by Erasmus. Witzel, irenic and scholarly, in-BOOK REVIEW 451 fluenced the policies of the prince of the United Duchy of Cleves. The church ordi­nance of 1533, the articuli of reform pro­posals in Notell between 1545 and 1556, and minor documents are examined in this dissertation. The proposition of the title is established. The dissertation, however, does not investi­gate other influences on Witzel and Cassander sufficiently. Erasmus was not the only one, surely, who influenced Witzel (there does not seem to be a definitive biography of Witzel). Nevertheless studies of this kind demonstrate the complexities of the Refor­mation era and the need for comprehensive evaluations of the activities and influence of secondary figures in this period, whether Roman Catholic or not. CARL S. MEYER THE GOSPEL OF TRUTH: A V ALEN­TINUIN MEDIT_/:J.TlON ON THE GOS­PEL. Translated by Kendrick Grobel. New York, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1960. 206 pages. Cloth. $4.00. Among the leather-bound volumes of papyrus discovered about 1945 in Upper Egypt was a group of manuscripts, labeled the Jung Codex, in honor of the eminent Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung. One of the manuscripts in this codex has been named after its opening words, The Gospel of Truth. The editio princeps was edited by Michel Malinine, Henri-Charles Puech, and Gilles Quispel in a sumptuous edition under the title Evangelium veritatis (Zurich, 1956). This translation and commentary by Kendrick Grobel offers the work at a reason­able price and in a format designed for students, pastors, and laymen alike. The commentary, presented in the form of notes facing each page of translated text, explains in sufficient detail the English rendering of the original Coptic. In his introduction Grabel states his reasons for viewing Valen­tinus as the author of this work, which he dates about A. D. 150. All students of the New Testament and of the history of dogma will welcome this pub­lication of a primary source for the under­standing of a significant area of Gnostic thought. FREDERICK W. DANKER BETWEEN GOD AND SAT AN. By Hel­mut Thielicke. Translated from the Ger­man by C. C. Barber. Grand Rapids: W m. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Cloth. 84 pages. $2.00. This exegetico-kerygmatic and yet very de­votional approach to the temptations of Christ in the wilderness grew out of the German Kirchenkampf, and the book was first published in 1938. When the author became professor at Tiibingen after the war, a second edition was published. Certainly the present English version will bring the name of Helmut Thielicke, currently pro· fessor at Hamburg, to the attention of thou­sands of American readers. It deserves to be read by many more, pastors, teachers, lay­men, to refresh not only preaching and teach­ing but faith itself. Although temptation for Thielecke is not external but lies in man's own "Babylonian heart," the reality of Satan is not "existential­ized away." Although the humanity of Jesus and His full identity with us is in the fore­ground, the fact that He is the Son of God is not minimized. Although the full reality of our Lord knowing temptation is the ham· merlike theme of the book, Thielecke adds his reverent epilog, "tempted without sin." Ultimately pro nobis is the message of the book. There are a few places where an existen­tialist prejudice against apologetics and cul­tural synthesis comes to the surface, but there this reviewer was reminded of similar echoes in Luther, especially when the Reformer's theme in De ser1/O arbitrio rang very clearly, for example (p. 58): "We are an instrumem played upon either by God or the Evil One." HENRY W. REIMANN 452 BOOK REVIEW ISAIAH SPEAKS. By S. Paul Schilling. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Com­pany, 1959. x + 148 pages. Cloth. $3.00. This interesting little volume is a revision of a study volume used during 1958-59 by the Woman's Societies of Christian Service of the Methodist Church. It aims to inter­pret to laymen "what the Book of Isaiah sought to say to its original audience, and . . . to clarify its message to our own day." The author begins by presenting in non­technical language the commonly accepted theories concerning prophecy and the Book of Isaiah as a collection of prophecies. Then there follows in three parts (chs. 1-39; 40-5 5; 56-60) a concise and informative interpretation of the important sections of the book, in which Professor Schilling ex­plains the message these prophecies conveyed to their original recipients and suggests some areas in which this message is relevant for the Christian church of the 20th century. His treatment of chs. l:18ff.; 7:10-17; 8:11-18; 14:24-27; 24-27 is, while not at all novel, as clear a statement of their con­tents as we have read. His interpretation is, in general, quite adequate for the lay reader. His reverent approach and careful explana­tion of traditional interpretations in the light of historical study greatly increase the value of this volume. Every pastor who is interested in inter­preting Isaiah to his people will find this book useful, although he will certainly need to use critical commentaries, together with this, in his preparation. HOLLAND H. JONES DER BRIEF DES PAULUS AN DIE GALA­TER. By Albrecht Oepke. Second edition. Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1957. 176 pages. Cloth. DM 12.00. In the Foreword to this posthumous second edition of the commentary on Galatians by the late Professor Oepke of Leipzig comes the good news that the important Theo­logischer Handkommentar zum Neuen Testa­ment, formerly published by A. Deichert in Leipzig, which regrettably came to a stand­still at the outbreak of World War II, is to be reissued and, it is hoped, completed by the new publisher under the editorship of Erich Fascher of Berlin. Oepke's commentary (IX in the series) has long been missing in the book market, and yet it must rate as one of the very best on this difficult letter . Not quite so concerned with minutiae as Sieffert, Schlier, or Burton, it is noteworthy for philological exactness and theological depth and helpful references to pertinent studies on all important points. Oepke in­terprets Galatians, essentially, in the spirit of Luther. We should like to see this work in the hands of all serious students who are able to read German. It makes an excellent com­panion on the technical side to John Philip Koehler's brilliant analysis which was re­cently published in English translation (See Concordia Theological Monthly, November 1959, p. 862). For the continuation of the projected series one would ask the publisher to consider putting the many bibliographical references into footnotes or into distinguish­ing type. It is somewhat irritating to have the argument continually interrupted by barely distinguishable parenthetical material, however valuable this may be. Nevertheless, we rejoice that Oepke is once more available, and it is our ardent hope that the publication of this series of co=entaries may proceed rapidly. VICTOR BARTLING A COMMENTARY ON THE EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS. By F. W. Beare. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959. ix + 182 pages. Cloth. $3.50. Modern commentaries on Philippians are few in number; those in English can be counted on the fingers of one hand. Beare's honest attempt to understand St. Paul, neither accepting an interpretation because it is old BOOK REVIEW 453 not adopting it because it iSilew, assures this work of a ready welcome, even among those who differ radically from some of the author's assumptions or conclusions. Beare opts for the Roman origin of the letter (sometime between A. D. 60 and 64) after a careful consideration of the evidence for Ephesus and Caesarea. The epistle is all from Paul's hand, he holds, with the excep­tion of 2: 5-11, an early Christian hymn adopted by Paul into the structure of his work. Two sections, in Beare's opinion, were not originally a part of the letter: 3: 2-4: 1 (a searing denunciation of Judaizing mis­sionaries and libertines, whose source cannot be identified) and 4:10-20 (a fragment of an earlier letter of Paul to Philippi) . f...n integral part of Beare's commentary is his fresh and often appealing translation. 1.,Lmy fi~-"'~ns of l~h~ • ..,. occur, e. g., "posted lere" for 'F .. t'L!1UL i n ~ / :J ad" :n YOTI sent w.ith your commission" for u.:n:ocr"t'oAOs in 2: 25. In a few places the version limps. To render the Jtuv"tu of 4: 13 "for all" is ambiguous in English beyond the Greek originaL The translation "supreme good" for VltEQEXOV in 3: 8 brings a philosophic concept into a context that knows nothing of it. In general the comments, based OLl Beare's keen grasp of the meaning of Greek words, are excellent. High points to this reader were his remarks on 1:21 and 23 (where he sees "some intimations of an intermediate state,")' 1: 2 8 (interpreted as a single token to the opponents of Christ, based on the distinction of the dative VILLV and the genitive 11lJ)))V), 2:12 (where %U"tEQYU~Eoi}E equals "the attainment of final blessedness," an eschatological concept), and 3: 8 (where the difficult YVG.H1LC; XClLCJ"tOU is treated as a fusion of Hebraic JIY~i and Hellenistic yvooou; into a Christian synthesis that transcends both, .. . 'lole su ce of the Christian life") . Less convincing is his treatment of the I-.yinn i~ 2' 6-11. Ado,,~;n,,; EnlS[ Y:l .... "1afhl'" thesis (see Zeitschrift fur Theologie und Kirche, XLVII [1959}, pp. 31 ff.) that it must be understood against the backdrop of syncretistic Hellenistic religious thought, Beare interprets it as a hymn in mythical language that has soteriological significance, but not Christo logical or ethical value (for a critique of Kiisemann's view and a good discussion of the passage, see O. Cullmann, The Christology of the New Testament, 174-181 ) . This seems to disregard the view that Paul would not have borrowed the hymn unless it was congruent with his entire theological position. With this major exception Beare's com­ments proved striking and refreshing. This commentary deserves wide use. EDGAR KRENTZ ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE NEW TES­T AMENT By J. A Thompson. Grand .apids: __ B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1960. 151 pages. Boards. $1.50. An informative and interesting survey of contributions made by archaeology, numis­matics, epigraphy, and papyrology to the understanding of the New Testament. It re­places the volume of the same name by Caiger. This volume ought to be in the library of all our congregations. Day school teachers and Sunday school teachers both will find it useful and interesting -and their pastor probably will too. EDGAR KRENTZ DOGMATIK: IHR WEG ZWISCHEN HIS­TORISMUS UND EXISTENTIALISM US. By Hermann Diem. Mlinchen: eht. Kai­ser Verlag, 1955. :,14 pages. Paper. DM 13.00. The first section of the book shows how the validity of dogmatics was challenged by the search for the historical Jesus, the ulti­male failure of which was signalized by the emphasis on "Christianity as religious idea" (Troeltsch), and by the existentialism which made Christianity itself ~h,~ eternal idea 454 BOOK REVIEW (Hegel), Kierkegaard included the objec­tive truth in the subjectively involved con­sideration of salvation. Hence Kierkegaard's work led to mistrust of all dogmatic asser­tions which could not be related to an ex­istential situation. The author next shows how the challenge to dogmatics was answered in different ways by Roman Catholicism, by Barth, and by Bultmann. He asserts that there is no access to Jesus except through the gospels (p. 77). If these fail, one may still have the sola fide but not solus CiJristuJ or Jola Scriptura (p. 85). He agrees with Barth that historical investigation must be critically pursued and that historical truth is the theological truth (p, 9I). The proclamation in the ~Tpm Testament is the proclamation of the self­revealing Jesus (p. 105). This self-revela­tion of T'2SUS U·,·ist confronts us as historical fact L..... its pr:_ :lam8.tion ~"X"" 6) _ It is present for analysis only in the texts which give the history of that proclamation (p. 127). The New Testament teaches that the Old Testament promise and expectation are fulfilled in Christ (p.135). That which is proclaimed, therefore, is not merely the historical Jesus, but this Jesus as the Christ of ScriptUre (p. 134). The basis of doctrine is Scripmre as it witnesses the saving activity of God and the new paradosis regarding the act of God in Christ, a contingent event (p.147). Scripture is inspired not only in thought but also in words. This, however, does not imply a transformation of the writ­ers whereby their limitations are removed. The Spirit who inspired Scripture can be recognized only by those who have the Spirit (p. 156) . Biblical formulations are regarded as sermon texts by the apostles, and they expounded these texts in proclamation. This proclamation in mrn becomes sermon texts. The transmissIon by apostles is itself a moment in revelation and is within the church's history (p.164). Thus what we have is the pcvradosis which the Lord Him-self gave the congregation through the apostles. (P.167) The question regarding the legitimacy ot the New Testament canon and its boundaries is answered by saying that the canon in the final analysis is self-determined in the a.et of proclamation (pp. 179-180). The refor­mation rediscovered the authority of Scrip­ture in the character of sermon text. (Pp. 190-193; see AC VII, German) The unity of Scripture implies its ability to interpret itself (p. 196). This unity in post-Reformation days became doctrinal unity (p. 197). The unity of Scripture requires that all Scripture be heard in its proclamation situation (pp. 204-208). Hence the task of sys _______ :c theo:_ u, :5 to h Jat th( witnesses in their entirery havew 5~y (p. 209). This implies (1) the perception of the situation in wh':h the . rion i: an evem; (2) the undeLtandillh ___ .. een ill' event and our situation as hearers; (3) form­ulation of statements which serve as norm for further interpretation. Thus dogma.tic truth (was) and existential event (das) go together (pp. 246-251). The three proc­esses bind exegesis and dogmatics together and continually allow Scripture to speak. For dogmas provide the approach to the text, thereby continually allowing Scripture to interpret itself. The author distinguishes Konkordanzhoren and Kon.kordanzmethode (p. 263). The interrelation 0' '.ogmatics and exegesis is illustrated. In Innection Diem treats confessions, dogma, ~ing pro­fession, fides ex auditu, pura doctrina, WOf­ship service. leading European theologians are discussed throughout the book. E. 1. LUEKER BARRIERS TO BELIEF. By Norman 1. Langford. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 19'59. 96 pages. Cloth. $1.00. In this little book we have an example of what Lutherans ought to be doing. Lang­ford, a Presbyterian dergympn. ,.jisCUSS(;S BOOK REVIEW 455 a number of basic Biblical teachings (mira­cles, the divinity of Christ, the kingdom of God, heaven and hell, predestination) which have been considered barriers to belief, and he shows that these are actually bulwarks of our faith. The book is written specifically for laymen, is lucid in style and Biblical and conservative in spirit, although we would make certain strictures on the author's Re­formed Christology. One envisions that many will be helped by a book of this type. ROBERT D. PREUS GESETZ UND EVANGELIUM IN DER LUTHERISCHEN THEOLOGIE DES 19. JAHRHUNDERTS. By Robert C. Schultz. Berlin: Lutherisches Verlagshaus, 1958. 200 pages. Paper. Price not given. This dissertation for the Th. D. degree at Erlangen, for which Paul Althaus was ad­viser, by i1 professor at Valparaiso University, examines the theology of the 19th century in German Lutheranism in terms of Law and Gospel. The opening chapter sketches the background of the 19th century, discussing especially supernaturalism and rationalism. The author then presents the doctrines of Law and Gospel as they were formulated under the influence of idealism; Schleier­macher and the mediating theologians, such as Ph. Marheineke, are analyzed. The resto­ration of Lutheran orthodoxy, the topic of Ch. iii, considers Th. Lehmus, G. Thomasius, Ernst Sartorius, Ludwig Schoeberlein, Fried­rich Philippi, Karl Kahnis, August Vilmar. Then the Erlangen theology is taken up, especially the position of Adolf von Harless and J. Chr. K. von Hofmann. The final chapter goes over to a consideration of the concentration on Law and Gospel in the [heology of Luther. Theodosius Harnack, C. F. W. Walther, Albrecht Ritschl, F. R. von Frank, and Ernst Troeltsch are the main theologians considered here. The dissertation demonstrates a good knowledge of the var­ious theologians. The underlying presuppo-sition of the work is that the contrast between Law and Gospel is central for a systematic presentation of the Lutheran teaching of justification by faith alone. However, can the entire Scriptures be categorized under these two headings? CARL S. MEYER WHAT PRESENT-DAY THEOLOGIANS ARE THINKING. By Daniel Day Wil­liams. Revised edition. New York: Har­per & Brothers, c. 1959. Cloth. 190 pages. $3.00. Prof. Williams of Union Seminary has revised and enlarged his popular and useful book of current trends in modern theology. Writing in the new preface Williams notes these three developments and issues in the years 1952 to 1958: First, the "ever-deepen­ing search for authority in the Christian faith"; second, the relation of Christianity to religion anti culture; third, the relation of religious faith to the technological transfor­mation in our age. The five-chapter struc­ture -theology, Bible, ethics, Christology, and church -is retained. Unfortunately there is no mention of the Faith and Order Conference at Oberlin in 1957 and its sig­nificance for the theological renaissance, the concern for Biblical authority, and the pres­ent focus of the ecumenical movement. This is the more surprising since the author's preface is dated Oct. 5, 1958, but it indicates the rapid pace of theological movement and the necessity for more revisions of this val-uable compend. HENRY W. REIMANN WHY DID CHRIST DIE? By F. E. Marsh. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, n. d. 199 pages. Cloth. $2.95. Quoting Hugo McMillan, who declared the atonement of our lord the grandest and most distinctive thing in the Bible and the greatest fact of Christianity, Dr. Marsh has­tens to add: "The atonement is not only 'the greatest fact of Christianity,' it is Christi­anity." He calls it "the supplier of all human 456 BOOK REVIEW need, the ,l.Hswerer of aU human questions, the minco __ .. _~ _:: :" __ ~an ills, the joy of at: human sorrows, the remover of all human guilt, and the securer of all divine glory." In a scholarly manner, always with a shep­herel', concern for his flock, Marsh, for many years a pastor and evangelist, helps the reader find the doctrine of the atonement in both the Old and the New Testament. HIS purpose is to show the reader that "Christ Crucified is the greatest theme in the universe, for it proclaims the greatest work ever performed by the greatest Person, and secures the greatest possible ends." L. W. SPITZ THE JOURNALS OF KIERKEGAARD. Translated and edited by Alexander Dru. Harper Torchbooks. New York: Harper . 959. 254 pages. Paper. $145. The scholarly but sympathetic introduc­tion by Alexander Dru to his selections from Kierkegaard's Journals paves the way for a sympathetic but understanding reading of the work. Kierkgaard's importance, which needs no elaboration here, is such that a well­informed man will welcome a firsthand acquaintance with Kierkegaard's own account of his life and thoughts. CARL S. MEYER THE PAPACY: ITS ORIGINS AND HIS­TORICAL EVOLUTION. (It Papato). By Paolo Brezzi. Translated by Henry J. Yannone. 'Westminster, Md.: The New­man Press, 1958. xiii + 225 pages. Cloth. $3.50. A brilliant Italian scholar, devout and de­voted to the Roman Church, has traced the idea of the papacy and the development of the papacy as an institution through the 19 centuries of the church's history. His theo~ logical predilections cause him to draw con­clusions that ought not to be drawn from the evidence, e. g., from the letter of Clem­ent His enables him to refrain from 1m' 19 some absurd claims, e. g., tha Pelcf ~---"'.ome for 25 years. "" ~ __ .. .... ...:~~ .... ~ -..:et veil over some portions of the history of the papacy; his condemnations are always tempered by a return to the thought that the pope is custodian of revela­tion ;loci the infallible teacher (see p. 132). It is not true, however, that epithets against the pope "are recurrent in every page of Luther's writings" (p. 13 7). Brezzi may wish to check the name of the treaty between Leo X and Francis I (p. 13 5). Brezzi, never­theless, sees that there has been a develop­ment of the papacy with ups and downs, and he tells this story with authority. His bibli­ography is worth noting. CARL S. MEYER LU'tHER. By Franz Lau. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter & Co., 1959. 151 pages. Paper. DM 360 L of Luther is unc0HHH'JDly good. s Luther into the S( 0 { his times. He tells about his early years and then about his breakthrough to the hearts of Germany. The work of the Reformation and the establishment of the Lutheran Church are portrayed clearly. Five chapters, under a total of 25 subheadings, provide the well­arranged organizational structure of the book. ConSUIIlmate scholarship, clarity of thought, aptness of expression, balanced objectivity, and sober interpretations characterize the work. Lau's treatment, e. g., of the Peasants' 'VV at is excellent. His understanding of Lu­ther's theology is based on a thorough ac­quaintance with Luther. An enterpns1fig publisher will do himself and an English­reading clientele a great favor by securing the rights to publish this work in translation at a price as attractive as the German original. CARL S. MEYER MIRACLES. By C. S. Lewis. New York: The 1-.. an Company, 1955. Cloth. $3.75. This is the sixth printing of Lewis' excel-lent on miracles first published "1947. level is Christian al 'c BOOK REVIEW 457 engaged in patient but never-compromising conversation with modern naturalism. Most of the book is such preliminary conversation to remove stumbling blocks for a secularist as well as for a religious spiritualist. It is true that the final chapters revolve around the Incarnation as the great miracle and that Lewis' structure of Jesus' miracles (old crea­tion and new creation) is rather novel. But this reviewer did not find any underplaying of the crucifixion. Moreover the whole treat­ment of Biblical miracle is sober, reverent, and orthodox. Most refreshing is the way a truly Christian doctrine of God and Crea­tion permeates the book. This is still a book to recommend. Probably already it is a classic. HENRY W. REIMANN MARTIN LUTHER: SEIN LEBEN IN BILDERN UND ZEITDOKUMENTEN. By Qskar Thulin. Kunstverlag, 1959. DM 17.00. Munich: Deutscher 188 pages. Cloth. Printer and author have produced a mag­nificent work of art in this collection of 103 pictures, of which 70 are full-page, and excerpts from sources, interspersed with chronological notations, telling about Lu­ther's life. The colored portrait of Luther opposite the title page is almost worth the price of the book ~ and the book is not overpriced. There is no quarrel with the selection of pictures or excerpts. This Lu­ther book will be a prized possession to any owner. CARL S. MEYER THE CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE REFORMATION. By Karl Holl. Translated from the German by Karl and Barbara Hertz and John H. Lichtlau. New York: Meridian Books, 1959. 191 pages. Paper. $1.25. Karl Holl (1866~1926) did much to further the contemporary Luther renaissance. His essays on Luther, first published in 1921 in collected form, are still of great conse-quence to the student of the Reformation period. Holl is concerned with the role of the Reformation in the development of the modern era. He deals with secular life, con­fronting the theories of Max Weber and Ernst Troeltsch, as he does, too, in the essay on the effects of the Reformation on political and economic life. In the third essay he treats the effects of the Reformation on edu­cation, history, philosophy, poetry, and art. The essays are scholarly, and they read well. Thanks to Meridian Books for this edition! CARL S. MEYER THE CIVILIZATION OF THE RENAIS­SANCE IN ITALY. By Jakob Burckhardt. Two volumes. Illustrated edition. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958. xxv + 516 + xv pages. Paper. $1.35 per volume. In 1 RhO Burckhndt's famous Vermch en­titled Die Kttltur der Renaissance in Italietb was published, and for the past 100 years all Renaissance studies have had to reckon with this work. The present translation is from the 15th German edition, edited by Ludwig Geiger and Walther Goetz. The Torchbook edition has a challenging introduction by Benjamin Nelson and Charles Trinkaus. Its profuse illustrations number no less than 234 figures and seven plates. CARL S. MEYER PHILOSOPHICAL DIARY. By Leonardo Da Vinci; Translated by Wade Baskin. New York: Philosophical Library, 1959. v + 87 pages. Cloth. $2.75. The true genius of the many sided Leo­nardo da Vinci was not appreciated for many centuries. The facts and legends set down by his biographer Vasari offered only a faint glimpse of his greatness. It is through his own compendious notebooks ( selections of which are offered in this handy and attrac­tive volume) that we learn of all his re­markable insights and contributions in psy­chology, botany, anatomy, zoology, music, 458 BOOK REVIEW engineering, literary CtltJClsm, and geology, in addition to art. Had he not been ham­pered by the backwardness of his age and his own deep respect for many traditions, chere might have been many more discover­ies than those adumbrated in his notebooks. That he did not finish many of his projects is due not only to his ever new interests but also to the fact that there was no way then to complete these projects. E. g., he could not complete an airplane because he lacked a motoc It is mainly in methodology, how­ever, that Leonardo exercised his great influ­ence. He was an empiricist in the modern scientific sense of the word, a fact which is brought out again and again in his journals. It "", centuries before even leading scientists saw clearly that knowledge comes through experience and experiment. ROB~~ I). PREU:; SPIRITUAL REFORMERS IN THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES. By Rufus M. Jones. Boston: Beacon Press, 1959. Ii and 362 pages. Paper. $1.95. This Beacon paperback reprints a classic study, first published in 1924, on the Schwaermer (to use Luther's designation) of the Reformation and post-Reformation cen­turies. Jones, himself a Quaker, found in Hans Denck, Sebastian Franck, Caspar Schwenckfeld, Valentine Weigel, and Jacob Boehme (among others) the predecessors of Quakerism. Quakerism, therefore, is to him a movement deeply imbedded in the left­wing Reformation (a term which, however, he does not use). It is good to have this study available again in an inexpensive edi-tion. CARL S. MEYER THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN AMERICA. By R Richard Niebuhr. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959, xxi + 215 pages. Paper, $1A5. Niebuhr's Kingdom of God in America .fint appe3red in 1937. It is a classic in his­torical literature, Niebuhr interprets Ameri-can Christianity as having one dominant motif, the ideal of the kingdom of God. Much of the life of the American Protestant churches can be told from this point of view, There were different ideas of what this king­clom is; there were those who tried to per­fect it in various ways. Niebuhr's interpreta­tion, nevertheless, is an astute analysis that explains much in the history of the Ameri-can churches. CARL S. MEYER FRIEDRICH NI1:i'TZSCHE: UNPUB· LlSHED LETTERS. Translated and edited by Kurt F. Leidecker. New York: Philo­sophical Library, 1959. 156 pages. Cloth. $3.75. Leider' herein ,... "s in tra' n some of the more pertinent letters of Nietzsche. He submits that this correspondence makes Nietzsche not quite the anti-C .... ..::::: he has they show _\fietzsche to be a rather gentle and sympathetic man, if also lonely and heterodox. Leidecker holds that it was due to Friedrich's sister Elizabeth, who doctored up Nietzsche's letters to further her own interests, that a caricature of his personality and thought has been perpetuated. In 1937 Karl Schlechta, having discovered these falsi­fications, offered a complete edition of Nietzsche's works and letters discovered up to that tim.e. Nietzsche thus became prob­ably more of an enigma than he was before, though he may appear a little more human. The letters in the present volume are filled with emotion, enthusiasm for life, bravado, criticism, pedantry, complaint, and, of course, blasphemy. ROBERT D, PREUS MARRIAGE EAST AND WEST. By David and Vera Mace. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1960. 359 pages. Cloth. $4.50. Under the impact of Western culture the once stable family structure of the Eastern world is beginning to crack. (A psychologist recently described :;_,~ __ . as one ~ __ ~_ broker BOOK REVIEW 459 family.) Because of this problem David Mace, University of Pennsylvania professor and distinguished marriage counselor, was invited to participate in a three-month con­ference of family guidance leaders which was held in Upper Thailand. This book, an out­growth of that conference, is descriptive and suggestive rather than definitive and analytic. Focusing upon the ancient, traditional mar­riage patterns of the East, Mace contrasts these with the emerging patterns of family life found in the contemporary West. The book is a mosaic of insights and brief glimpses into the problem provided in the poetry, drama, anecdotes, and case histories of these cultures. The book deliberately omits references to the Moslem cultures of the Near and Middle East and to Asiatic Russia. A special chapter m the appendix ) glimpse Ie age patterns 1!1 Co.rnmunist China. DAVID S. SCHULLER READINGS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION. By Orlo Strunk, Jr. New York: Abingdon Press, 1959. 273 pages. Cloth. $4.50. Gathered in this volume are many of the significant writings on the psychology of religion. There is a vast spread -in time and in variety of viewpoint. Many of these articles are not otherwise readily accessible. Topics treated cover conversion, development, history, method, and the relation of religion and psychopathology. This is a very worth­while volume for anyone who is interested in a rapid, comprehensive survey on the basis of the original articles and essays. K. H. BREIMEIER THE ORIGINS OF CULTURE. By Edward Burnett Tylor. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958. xv + 416 pp. Paper. 1.75. After 80 years historians of religion find Tylor's doctrine of animism as indispensable as anthropologists regard his theory of ad-hesioilS and his concept of survivals. The reprint of a book that has thus stood the test of time so largely should be welcomed by all whose interests cut into this area. WILLIAM J. DANKER 1\WHA1\1i\1AD AND THE ISUIMIC TRL1-DITION. By Emile Dermenghem. New York: Harper & Brothers. London: Long­mans, 1958. 191 pages. Paper. $1.50_ In 88 compact pages Dermenghem gives a surprisingly comprehensive review of }\{uhammad and the Islanlic tradition. Those who have read other and longer volumes will be pleasantly surprised at the frequency with which they come upon new facts and fresh insights_ Not content with a wealth of historical material, the author includes 90 pages of well-selected texts [rum the Qur'an and a wide r. ~e of other Muslim literature, marred only by their being tramia tions trom the French rather than from the originals. The whole is topped with a help­ful chronology and a well-chosen bibli-ography. WILLIAM J. DANKER BAPTIST CONCEPTS OF THE CHURCH: A SURVEY OF THE HISTORICAL AND THEOLOGICAL ISSUES WHICH HAVE PRODUCED CHANGES IN CHURCH ORDER. Edited by Winthrop Still Hud­son. Chicago: The Judson Press, 1959. 236 pages. Cloth. $3.00. Eight chapters, plus a foreword and an appendix, by seven contributors, eminent Baptist church historians, give a fresh survey of Baptist ecclesiology, The background of Baptist history in Europe and America in the 17th century is told by the editor with sober historical judgment and an arresting style. Other chapters tell about the Philadel­phia Association, John Gill Andrew Fuller, Isaac Backus and John Lela. I, Francis W/ay­land, Landmarkism, and e 20th-century interpretations. Among the t:ontributors are John Brush of Andover Newwo, Robert Handy of Union, and Edwin Gaustad, author 460 BOOK REVIEW of The Great Awakening. The combined efforts of these men and their fellows have resulted in a notable contribution to Baptist historical theology. CARL S. MEYER SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION. By Joachim Wach. Chicago: The University of Chi­cago Press, 1958. 418 pages. Paper. $1.95. It is good that this classic has been re­printed in paperback form. It will enable a wider circle of students to review the in­sights of Wach as he describes the interrela­tion of the charismatic individual and the religious community. WILLIAM J. DANKER SYMBOLIK DES CHINESISCHEN UNI· VERSISMUS. By Hermann Koster. Stutt­gart: Anton Hiersemann, 1958. 104 pages. Paper. DM 15.00. In comparison with Japan and India, China has a paucity of myth to provide the exegesis of its ancient symbols. In an age that recognizes the importance of symbol as a key to a people's understanding of the deepest realities, this is a helpful attempt to bring together in a critical compilation every­thing symbolic in the Chinese tradition, in­cluding language and symbolic thought. WILLIAM J. DANKER RELIGIONS IN A CHANGING WORLD. Edited by Howard F. Vos. Chicago: Moody Press, 1959. 441 pages. Cloth. $5.50. The coverage is comprehensive though of uneven quality, the viewpoint Fundamental­ist, and the purpose apologetic. This volume often fails to approach other religions with the fair and generous Christlike spirit that ought to characterize every follower of the Crucified One. The treatment is generally popular rather than scholarly. However, its strength lies in the fact that it is written by people who have encountered other religions in the flesh and are able to write about transformations which these religious systems are undergoing in an era of revolutionary change. WILLIAM J. DANKER MODERN TRENDS IN WORLD RELI-GIONS. By Joseph M. Kitagawa. La Salle, Ill.: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1959. 286 pages. Cloth. $3.50. Most of the papers in this volume were presented at a symposium in memory of Paul Carus, who served as Secretary of the First Parliament of Religions held at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. The famed nonagenarian, Daisetz T. Suzuki, who init­ially came to this country to assist Paul Carus in his studies, has written the intro­duction, in addition to a paper on Zen, which is perversely timeless rather than contem­porary. Under the sensitive direction of Joseph M. Kitagawa of the Federated Theo­logical Faculty at the University of Chicago an able group of scholars was gathered for an intimate discussion of contemporary is­sues and developments in the great living faiths of mankind, including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Chinese religions, and Buddhism. It was a happy thought to include the perceptive summaries of the discussions held after each paper. Sometimes the most sig­nificant points appear there rather than in the body of the essay. There is a need for more Christian schol­ars equipped to enter into such conversa­tions with genuine understanding. WILLIAM J. DANKER THE WAY IN _1.FRICA. By George Way­land Carpenter. New York: Friendship Press, 1959. 165 pages. $2.95. Cloth. With independence coming to large parts of Africa a generation earlier than some of the best informed observers predicted a scant 10 years ago, this is a timely volume for those who wish to gain an introductory un· derstanding of the elemental forces pro-BOOK REVIEW 461 pelling that great continent iJO an uncertain future. A Lutheran Zulu pastor in his address "Quo Vadis, Africa?" delivered at the All­Africa Lutheran Conference at Marangu, says eloquently (p.129), "The road that will take Africa to a glorious goal is ... the Cross of Christ and His redemption." WILLIAM J. DANKER MISSIONS: A WORLD PICTURE. By John Smart and R. E. Harlow. Westchester, Ill.: Good News Publishers, 1959. 62 pages. Paper. 50 cents. Here is a helpful condensation of a mis­sions study course originally published by Emmaus Bible School, Oak Park, IlL Pastors will find it useful in their mission education assignmenb. 'WILLIAM J. this apparent lack of affinity between the Eastern psyche and the Gospel proclaimed by Paul, whatever the extent to which it was Hellenized by Paul. In connection with his discussion of Ti­betan sacred books. another of Jung's basic insights -namely, what he, following Au­gustine, terms "archetypes," instinctual com­plexes or typical images of religious signif­icance to be found in the human psyche of all times and in all places -must be given serious consideration by a wide range of scholars. It is of significance, inter alia, in the discussion of natural revelation and of salient features in Biblical revelation as well. Mircea Eliade has given this concept central im­portance in his work. Jung's warning against \'vesrcrn dilet­tantes toying with yoga and zen are based Tfuc-",JLLECTED ,,70RKS OF C. J. on sound psychological reasons. I"lJl.JG. ·VOL. II: RELiGION -WEST ./11\1D EAST. Translated by R. F. C. Hull. New York: Pantheon Books, 1958. xiii + 699 pages. Cloth. $6.00. This volume contains Jung's shorter works on religion and psychology ranging across 25 years and a wide spectrum of the great psychologist's interests. It included the well­known "Psychotherapists or the Clergy," in which appears Jung's famed statement: Among all my patients in the second half of life -that is to say, over thirty-five­there has not been one whose problem in the last resort was not that of finding a reli­gious outlook on life. It is safe to say that everyone of them fell ill because he had lost what the living religions of every age have given to their followers, and none of them has been really healed who did not regain his religious outlook. His comparison of Eastern and Western is of interesl. E}:tlaversion is sec ___ .le "style" of the West, while intraversic is the "style" of the East. Christian theo­logians at'.J psychologists must .. ·.'restle '.'/ ith liLLiAM ]. DANKE:B_ THE PREACHER'S CALLING TO BE SERVANT. By D. T. Niles. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959. 139 pages and index. Cloth. $2.50. Niles, Ceylonese Methodist, was the first Asiatic to deliver the Lyman Beecher lec­tures, which Harper & Brothers published under the title of The Preacher's Task and the Stone of Stumbling in 1957. The present volume contains his Warrack Lectures, the no less prestigious Scottish counterpart of the Beecher Lectures in this country. The Preacher's Calling to Be Se1'vant is not merely about preaching; it is preaching. Pastors everywhere will do well to sit in the audi­ence to have the basic quality of their task clarified in Biblical and theological terms. Niles identifies preaching and evangelism, an act which disrupts people's lives and implies urgency in its fulfillment and the suffering sf the preacher. "-" on the pra the servant, and on Jesus Christ as the Serv­ant whom we serve, are notable. RICHARD R. CAEMMERER 462 BOOK REVIEW THE RIDDLE OF LIFE. By J. H. Bavinck. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W m. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1958. 128 pages. Cloth. $2.00. The professor of missions at the Free Uni­versity of Amsterdam has written a helpful devotional treatise which will also provide a certain amount of useful sermonic mate­rial. The warning against making the cause serve us instead of serving the cause is one that every sensitive pastor will heed and that every calloused professional will need. The answers here given to the riddle of life are not, on the whole, very profound. The discussion of faith understandably re­flects an Arminian bias. The uniqueness of Christianity must not be seen only in its more serious view of man's predicament, as Bavinck would have it, but in the action of God for man in history through One who was and is God. The lack of social concern in what can easily become a self-centered individualistic piety is also disturbing in a volume that can in many respects be read with profit. WILLIAM J. DANKER SYMBOLISM IN LITURGICAL ART. By Le Roy H. Appleton and Stephen Bridges. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1959. 120 pages. Cloth. $3.50. One hundred and thirty four symbols em­ployed in religious art are arranged alpha­betically in this volume. The text provides Scriptural background in King James and Douai versions together with explanations of the symbols. Mr. Appleton is an artist and typographer; Mr. Bridges is a designer of stained glass. Both the text and the designs are neatly drawn. The world problem of teaching the illiter­ate to read is matched by the church's prob­lem of helping contemporary Christians un­derstand the truths that were first expressed visually by past generations and that are still set forth symbolically in the language of today's art forms. That those who run may read is still an objective -and those who simply let eyes run past the symbols will be helped to read and understand them br this volume. Church libraries will find it a worthwhile addition. GEORGE W. HOYER THE PRICE TAGS OF LIFE. By C. Roy Angell. Nashville: Broadman Press. 1959. 125 pages. Cloth. $2.75. The pastor of Central Baptist Church in Miami presents his third volume of sermons. The sermons are broadly textual, heavily spiced with quotations, experiences, and an­ecdotes. In view of his warmth and human interest, one can understand why the mem­bership of Angell'S church has tripled dur­ing his long ministry there. Lutheran read­ers will want to add the theological dimen­sions of a mature understanding of the church, the sacraments, and the Gospel as the only motivating force for the Christian life. DAVID S. SCHULLER THE NEED TO BELIEVE. By Murdo E Macdonald. New York: Chas. Scribner's Sons. 1960. 128 pages. Cloth. $2.95. Ever since I read the first of Macdonald's published sermons some years ago, I have appreciated their fine craftsmanship. He has read widely; his illustrations hold interest; he knows our modern day. As minister of St. George's West in Edinburgh for the past 10 years, he is one of the most popular of Scottish preachers. In this book of 16 ser­mons he attempts to speak to the questions of science, anxiety, psychology, and secular­ism. It appears that he has recently moved back to a greater interest in theology. His quotations from Barth, for example, evidence a more sophisticated view of sin. As he preaches on the doctrine of man and of God. his material is useful. But some of us are still waiting for his fine gifts to be turned toward a clearer exposition of the Christ. DAVID S. SCHULLER BOOK REVIEW 463 BOOKS RECEIVED (The mention of a book in this list acknowledges its receipt and does not preclude further discussion of its contents in the Book Review section) Asia Looks at Western Christianity (Asiens Kritik am abendlandischen Christentum). By Thomas Ohm; trans. Irene Marinoff. New York: Herder and Herder, 1959. xvii and 251 pages. Cloth. $4.75. Christian Minist-ry. By G. W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1960. 119 pages. Boards. $1.50. Critique of Religion and Philosophy. By Walter Kaufmann. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958. xvii and 325 pages. Cloth. $5.00. Gems from the Psalms. By F. B. Meyer. Vol. I: Psalms 1 to 75. Westchester: Good News Publishers, 1960. 63 pages. Paper. 50 cents. Geschichte des Protestantismus in Ungarn. By Mihaly Buscay. Stuttgart: Evangelisches Verlagswerk, 1959. 230 pages. Paper. DM 12.80. Portals of P-rayer (May 1 to June 30, 1960). By Clemonce Sabourin and Elmer C. Kieninger. St. Louis: Concordia Publish­ing House, 1960. 71 pages. Paper. 15 cents. Tagliche Andachten: Der werte Heilige Geist (May 1 to June 30,1960). By Clarence T. Schuknecht. St. Louis: Concordia Publish­ing House, 1960. 72 pages. Paper. 15 cents. The Trans/ormed Life. By Robert S. Lutz. Westchester: Good News Publishers, 1957. 64 pages. Paper. 50 cents. The Wrath of God in the Former Prophets. By Herbert M. Haney. New York: Vantage Press, 1960. 87 pages. Cloth. $2.95. Das zweite Buch Mose: Exodus. By Martin Noth. Volume V of Das Alte Testament Deutsch. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck und Ru­precht, 1959. 230 pages. Paper. DM 8.50. Das historische Problem des Lebens Jesu. By Hans-Werner Bartsch. Munich: Chr. Kaiser Verlag, 1960. 31 pages. Paper. DM 2.00. The Life of Benedict XV. By Walter H. Peters. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1959. x and 321 pages. Cloth. $4.50. Luther on the Christian Home: An Appli­cation of the Social Ethics of the Reforma­tion. By William H. Lazareth. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1960. xii and 244 pages. Cloth. $3.75. Das Matthausevangelium: Ein iudenchrist­liches Evangelium? By Poul Nepper-Chris­tensen. Aarhus: Universitetsforlaget, 1958. 227 pages. Paper. D. Kr. 25.00. Melanchthon zwischen Humanismus und Reformation. By Adolf Sperl. Munich: Chr. Kaiser Verlag, 1959. 208 pages. Paper. DM 13.50. La -restauration du thomisme sous Leon XIII et les philosophies nouvelles: Etude de la pensee de jHaurice Blondel et du Pere Labe-rthonniere d la lumiere d' Aeterni Patris. With a summary in English, by Jean-Paul Gelinas. Washington, D. c.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1959. 392 pages. Paper. $4.00. Separately primed preface to The Revival of Thomism under Leo XIII and the New Philosophies in Eng­lish and French; 42 pages; paper; price not given. Religious Education in German Schools: An Historical Approach. By Ernst Christian Helmreich. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. xvi and 365 pages. Cloth. $7.50. This Faith Is Mine: Meditations for Youth on Luther's Catechism. By R. Z. Meyer. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1960. 135 pages. Paper. $1.00. The Witness of the Spirit: An Essay on the Contemporary Relevance of the Internal Wit­ness of the Holy Spirit. By Bernard Ramm. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1960. 140 pages. Cloth. $3.00. Die Formgeschichte des Evangeliums. By Martin Dibelius, ed. Gunther Bornkamm. 3d ed. Tubingen: ]. c. B. Mohr, 1959. v and 327 pages. Cloth. DM 19.80. 464 BOOK REVIEW The Growing Minister: His Opportunittes and Obstacles. By Andrew W. Blackwood. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1960. 192 pages. Cloth. $3.00. History 0/ Christianity in the Middle Ages: From the Fall 0/ Rome to the Fall 0/ Con­stantinople. By William Ragsdale Cannon. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1960. 352 pages. Cloth. $4.50. The Idea 0/ Reform: Its Impact on Chris­tian Thought and Action in the Age of the Fathen. By Gerhart B. Ladner. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. xiii and 553 pages. Cloth. $10.00. Jesus: Gestalt und Geschichte. By Ethel­bert Stauffer. Bern : Francke Verlag, 1957. 172 pages. Paper. Sw. Fr. 2.80. The Letters to the Philippians, Colossians, and Thessalonians, ed. William Barclay. Phil­adephia: Westminster Press, 1959. xiv and 253 pages. Cloth. $2.50. The Letters to the Galatians and Ephesians, ed. William Barclay. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1959. xviii and 219 pages. Cloth. $2.50. Martin Buber: Jewish Existentialist. By Malcolm L. Diamond. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960. ix and 240 pages. Cloth. $4.50. The Philosophy of Whitehead. By W. Mays. London: Allen and Unwin (New York: The Macmillan Company), 1959. 259 pages. Cloth. 25/-. The Possessed: A Play in Three Parts (Les Possedh). By Albert Camus; trans. Justin O'Brien. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1960. 182 pages. Cloth. $3.50. The Providence of God. By Georgia Hark­ness. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1960. 192 pages. Cloth. $3.50. The Pulpit and the Plow. By Ralph A. Felton. New York: Friendship Press, 1960. viii and 168 pages. Cloth. $2.95. Revelation and Existence: A Study in the Theology of Rudolf Bultmann. By H. P. Owen. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1957. vii and 160 pages. Cloth. 15/-. Sources of Christian Theology, ed. Paul F. Palmer. vol.Il: Sacraments and Worshtp' History and Doctrinal Development of Pen­ance, Extreme Unction, and Indulgences. Weslllinsrer: The Newman Press, 1959. xxv and 410 pages. Cloth. $6.00. Steps to Salvation: The Evangelistic Mes­sage of Jonathan Edwards. By John H. Gerst­ner. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1960. 192 pages. Cloth. $3.95. The Techniques of Urban Economic Anal­ysis, ed. Ralph W. Pfouts. West Trenton: Chandler-Davis Publishing Co., 1960. 410 pages. Cloth, $5.00; paper, $4.25. Commentary on the Holy Bible. By Mat­thew Henry and Thomas Scott. Genesis -Deute1-ono1nY. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1960. 496 pages. Cloth. Six-volume set. $21.95. The Epistle to the Romans. By John Mur­ray. Volume I: Chapters I-VIII. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1959. xxv and 408 pages. Cloth. $5.00. Beyond Nihilism. By Michael Polanyi. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1960. iv and 37 pages. Paper. 75 cents. Essential Books for a Pastor's Library: Basic and Recommended Works. Third edi­tion. Richmond: Union Theological Semi­nary, 1960. 71 pages. Paper. $1.00. Der Auf trag der Kirche in der modernm Welt: Eine Festgabe zum siebzigsten Geburts­tag von Emil Brunner. Stuttgart: Zwingli Verlag, 1959. 380 pages. Cloth. DM 16.00. An Apostie of Freedom: Life and Teach­ings of Nicolas Berdyaev. By Michel Alex­ander Vallon. New York: Philosophical Li­brary, 1960. 370 pages. Cloth. $6.00. A Christian View of Men and Things. By Gordon H. Clark. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1960. 325 pages. Paper. $2.45. A reprint of the 1952 edition. The Book of Exodus. By Roland E. Murphy. Part II with commentary. New York: Paulist Press, i960. 96 pages. Paper. 75 cents. The Lure for Feeling in the Creative Process. By Mary A. Wyman. New York: Philosophical Library, 1960. xii and 192 pages. Cloth. $4.75.