Full Text for The Effective Minister: Scriptural Criteria, Individual Oberservation, and Practical Research (Text)

THE SPRINGFIELDER January 1974 Volume 38, Number 1 The Effective Minister: Scriptural Criteria, Individual Observation, and Practical Research OVL! MAY WE DESCRIBE the effective minister? What kind of H a person is hc? What does he do that makcs him any different than other ministers? The answers to these qucstions are important especially to thc minister hiinsclf. But parishioners, church leaders, and seminary faculties are equally concerned, since they are vitally involved respectively as recipients of and participants in the minister's service, as directors and as educators. Three types of data are available to help us gain a clearer picture of the effective minister. Thc criteria set forth by St. Paul in his letters to Timothy and Titus, as well as other parts of Scripture, provide the authoritative requirements for the service of the "man of the cloth." However, these references give us only a description of the type of man wlho is to be considered eligible for ministry and say nothing specifically about varying degrees of a man's effectiveness in the pastorate. We therefore need to assume in the case of thc Scrip- tural data at this point that the minister's effectiveness may vary with the degree to which the traits identified by the Scriptural criteria are present in the person. A second source of data stems from observations of synodical district presidents regarding nlore and less effective men within their jurisdictional area. A final source of data includes the evidence available from research studies which havc attenlpted to identify characteristics of the effective minister. It is the major purpose of this study to characterize ministerial effectiveness by comparing the data from these three sources. In the comparative study we need to determine whether the data are entirely similar, or whether there are some differences. Or do they provide different pictures altogether? Can we then find enough agreement among these data to identify any reasonably well established criteria for ~mnisterial effectiveness? The Data Sources. Labels for and definitions of the Scriptural criteria are taken from a list prepared by the faculty and student Committee on Personal Development of Concordia Theological Scm- inary (Springfield) .' An intensive study of the passage in I Timothy 3 revealed ten such criteria. It would be possible to brcak each criterion into specific items and to list siill more criteria, but practicality suggests some limitations. Still other combinations of specific items could perhaps have produced other labels and definitions, but the present set seems adequate for our purposes and is also easily understood. Other Scriptural rgfcrcnces are supplied in the explanations below to give n more detailed picture of each criterion. Observations from the district presidents have come from their responses to a set of cjuestionnaircs sent then1 in 1972. Each ques- tionnaire dealt with a specific pastor whom the president had earlier ranked as one among the more effective or the less effective clergynlen in his district. If the president had judged that another rnikster could definitely, or at least likely, be very effective in the parish occupied by the -man who was the subject of that questionnaire, a response was requested to the following question: What kind of pastor would it take to be VERY EFFECTIVE in this particular ..- parish? Twenty-seven of the 35 presidents of Missouri Svnod districts in 1972 responded with 136 items for the parishes served by the effective pastors and 85 in connection with their consideration of the parishes served by the less effective men. Each item in the latter case was characteristic of effectivcness also, since the procedure required naming a positive item as a result of looking first at the parish and service of the less effective pastor. For the purposes of this paper, the items supplied by the presidents were grouped accord- ing to the ten Scriptural criteria and three other miscellaneous cate- gories (see Table 1 ). Response Given in Relation to an Effective Pastor Number and Per- Response Given in Relation to on Ineffective Pastor Number and Per- cent of cent of District Number llistrict Number Presidents of Presidents of Responding llesponses Responding Responses Sociable ................................................. 9 Considerate ............................................ 18 Faithful in Familial Relationships .... 0 Temperate ................................................ 3 Self-disciplined ........................................ 5 Industrious in the Church's Work ...... 14 Serving As a Model ............................... 10 Experienced in the Faith ...................... 5 Flexible .................................................... 5 Effective Facilitator of Learning ........ 7 Functions ,,,, . .................................. . 12 Leadership ................................................ 12 Others ....................................................... 2 TOTAL ITEMS ................................ The Effcctivs Minister _. - 39 Thirteen research studies on ministerial effectiveness, docu- nlented and revicvcled in Concordia Seminary Studies 7 3-7,' consti- tute the third source of data. Similar results from the different studies were combined in a number of categories in this seminary paper. Includecl in the thirteen studies are two which characterize Missouri Synod pastors. One is by Kenneth Breimeier' and involved 36 grad- uates of Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, during the period of 1952 to 19 5 6. The second is a more recent investigation of 792 graduates of both St. Louis and Springfield included jn the 1970 Ministerial Research Project (70 MRP)." The pastors in the 70 MRP repre- sented graduating classes from 1930 through 1969. Three of the other eleven studies picture Methodist clergy, while there are ti170 for Episcopalian and two for mainline Protestant pastors. Unitarian, Presbyterian, Lutheran Church in America, and Roman Catholic clergy arc each included in one investigation. Data from all the sources have been organized for review in five groups developed froill a logical categorization of the ten Scrip- tural criteria: relationship with others, stability, leadership, develop- ment of personal values and goals, and cognitive functioning. The presidents' observations and the empirically-derived effecti\icness data are set alongside similar criterion items for comparison. An additional section of the paper lists other factors which do not appear to be related to the Scriptural criteria used here. Thc final portion of the paper is de~oted to discussion and conclusions. Three of the Scriptural criteria appear similar enough to fit under a category which involves interpersonal relationships. They are the pastor's inclination to be sociable, considerate, and faithful in familial relationships. Sociable. According to the Scriptural picture of the pastor, "a pastor must bc . . . . given to hospitality" (I Tin-i. 3: 3; see also Romans 12 : 13). Being hospitable requires that the pastor be socially accessible, ready to communicate with others, and able to relate warmly to people. One third of the district presidents (33%) described the effective pastor as people-oriented or outgoing (7 presidents), con- genial (4), and warm (2).j As they considered effective ministry in parishes served by the less effective pastors, 19% of the church leaders responded with the same traits as those just listed-outgoing (3), congenial or friendly (2), and warm ( 1). Both Missouri Synod studies of effectiveness found an extro- verted trait to be more regularly evident among effective ~ninisters.~ Jackson's effective Methodist clergy were found to be less shy.' However, both Jackson and Dyble,$ the latter with United Presby- terians, found no relationship with effectiveness on another dimension of extroversion-introversion, and Ham's effective mainstream Protes- tants showed emotional distance from pe~ple.~ .. - Considerate. Being hospitable requires an underlying attitude of love and consideration. The association of hospitality with this atti- tude is established best in St. Paul's letter to the Romans ( 12 : 9- 13 passim): "Let love bc genuinc. . . . love one another with brotherly affection. . . . contribute to the needs of the saints, practice hospital- ity." There is no. need to rcfer to the many other Scriptural references which speak of love as a central characteristic of a Christian as well as of a pastor. In still other ~vords, the minister is considerate by being discerningly generous, responsive to others' needs, lovingly concerned, and gracious. In characterizing the effective minister, 67% of the district presidents suggested that he is one who is accepting (3), forgiving (I), and evangelical or Gospel-centered (7). I-le is also able to comnlunicate God's love to others (I), shows pastoral concern (7), and has love for people (8). In thinking of the less effective men, 52% of the presidents cn~phas-ized the need for the pastor to be humble (I), tactful (2), loving and with a pastoral heart (71, for- giving ( 1 ), acccpting ( 1 ), concerned (2), and evangelical ( 1 ). He should also be a true "pastor" on a one-to-one basis (4) and stay with the people ( 1 ). As might be expected, this criterion seems to be more broadly supported by empirical data than allnost any other. Effective Lutheran Church in America (LCA) pastors showed a greater interest in human relations than their less effective brcthrcn,'" Episcopalian clergy showecl a greater love for souls,ll and R'lethodist ministers dis- played more sensitivity to people.'"4ainlinc Protestant clergy dis- played a correlation between effectiveness and noder rate allocentric tendencies.':: Finally, two stuclics of cIergy involved in specialized functions revealed a greater identification and involven~ent with peo~le (Episcopalian priests selected for counseling ability),].' and showed attitudes reflecting "non-coercivc assistance of others" (Meth- odist clergy rated on pastoral care functions).'" Faithful in Familial Relatiorzships, The pastor must be "the husband of one wife" and "must manage his own householc1 well, keeping his children submissive and respectful in every way; for if a man .does not know how to manage his own I~ousehold, how can he care for God's church?" (I Tim. 3: 2, 4). FaithfuIness to one's wifc and children involves for the pastor being a good family manager a~ld ]laving a healthy relationship to his wife and children. No descriptive statements in this area were supplied by the district presiden ts. There is contraindicative evidence among hflissouri Synod clergy, and likely in other denominations as well, though none appear to be carefully documented, that in so~llc cases serious probleills for a man's ministry have been associated with marital and fanlily prob- lerns. However, there was no difference between more and less effec- tive clergy of the 70 MRP in their ratings of the amount of time spent ~vith their family, according to the present, expected or ideal situa- tions, or even acccrding to the importance of falllily time.'" TWO Scriptural criteria reflect the stability of a cIergynlan in his personal and professiollal life. Ile should be temperate and self- disciplined. The Efcctive Minister 4 1 'I'ei~zperate. "The bishop must . . . . bc . . . . not violent but oentlc" (I 'Tim. 3: 3) 'The pastor should thus be able to show in his 0 bchavior a tempering- of an untoward expression of strong feelings which bespeaks imlx~ticnce wit11 one's self or with others. To 1 1 % of the district presidents patience (3) is required for effectiveness. Another 19 010 referred to patience (5) in considering the parishes of the less effective clergynlen in their district. - The only empirical data which seem related to this criterion refer to a comparatively IOFV degree of mobility from one pastorate to another as characteristic of more effective clergy. The fact that the cffcctive minister has expericnced fewer brief pastorates may suggest a forin of patience in his attempts to serve his parish. The association of s~rch a nlobility pattern with effecti.veness appears to cross cfenom- inational lines with their respective ecclesiastical polities, as indicated by significant research results anlong Methodist clergy". who hold to a hierarchical' form of church government, and also among Presbyteriansls and Missouri Synod Lutherans,'!' both of whom rep- resent a collegial polity. Self-Disciplined. The behavioral pattern of being temperate reclrlires an underlying abiIity to discipline one's self, or, in the words of St. Paul, to be "sensibleJ' (I Tim. 3, 2), "master 'of himself . . . . and self-controlled" (Titus 1 : 8). Being self-controlled or self- disciplined describes the pastor who is elnotionally stable, able to express his feelings without letting them control or direct him unduly. He is well-orctered in his personal life without being excessively rigid or coinpulsive in the requirements he sets for himself or for others around him.. Nineteen percent of the district presidents called an effective minister en~btionally stable (l), organized or self-disciplined (2), and one who shows comnlon sense (2). Enlotional stability (2) and common sense (I) are descriptions of effectiveness used by 11 9; of the presidents as they viewed the less adequate pastors and their congregations. Emotional stability is suggested by elnotional health among effective Unitarian20 and Methodist clergy,21 the better adjustinent oh effective Roman Catholic priests," and the overall stability of 1,CA pastors.'" Although Dyble "'found no relation between personal integration on the Omnibus Personality Inventory and effectiveness of Presbyterian pastors, contraindicative evidence was derived from the finding of enlotional instability among problem cases who had been identified as such by hlissouri Synod presidents.*" To the extent that the criterion of self-discipline reflects a desire for autonomy, it is supported by Dyble's finding in the case of Presby- texians2hnd by effective Missouri Synoci pastors who founct oppor- tunity for its expression in ministry.?' The leadership relation between a pastor and his arishioners would quite evidently ap ear to be a primary requisite or a clergy- k' F man. This function may e reflected in two Scriptural criteria tvhlch describe the pastor as a man who is industrious in the church's work and also is serving as a model. I~zdustrioz~s in the Church's Work. To "desire a noble task" of the ministry (I Tim. 3 : 1) would suggest that the pastor is ambitious in a good sense, that he is eager to serve the Lord enthusiastically (Ron~ans 12: 1 l), and is not negative or cynical, but full of thc joy of thc Lord (11 Cor. 6 : 10; Romans 12: 12; Phil. 4 : 4). In the words of 52 % of the district presidents, the effective minister shows a willingness to serve (6), is diligent (4), confident ( 11, joyful (7), dedicated (5) and positive (3). From observation of the less effective clergy,. 37% of the l~residents saw effectiveness ! in terms of showing initlatlve (11, hard work, diligence or zeal (7), joyfulness (3), and a positive experience ( I). . . Productive energy is an appropriate phrase for the character- istic suggested by Jackson's effective Methodist clergy who showed a moderate amount of initiative and aggressiveness and who were also less apathetic than the less. effective men.29 The morc effective h4issouri Synod men in the 70 R/IHP also rated themselves higher than their counterparts in degree of effort, task accomplishment and ) amount of work, while their parishioners likewise gave them higher ratings on effort and task ac~omplishment.'~ It should also be noted that the less effcctive LCA clergy were judged to have a higher degree of energy than their morc effective brethren." 0Ve may suggest in explanatioil of the seemingly disparate results that both extremes of degree of effort expended may characterize the less effective pastor. Additional research data which seem related to the pastor's industriousness incl.ude the finding of a distinctive perceptual pattern among the more effective R4issouri Synod pastors in the 70 MRP. These men consistently rated perceptions of themselves and of their involvement in their parish at a significantly higher level than did the less effective men both at the present and in the expected future."' This higher rating pattern was interpreted as perhaps indicating an optimistic outlook, which coulci have been derived froin an a.rvareness of the Lord's positive and specific role in their lives. The correlative interpretation that a lower degree of industrious- nos, and correspondingly less effectiveness, may be associatctl with a less optimistic, or sometlmcs even negative viewpoint, seeins supported by Benton's reference to a group of Episcopalian pastors who were less effective in counsrlinp. He noted that they "may demonstrate a tendency to see parish~oners' problems and troubles under the figure of sin res~llting from disobedience" and that their solutions perhaps lay in a renewed obedience to the L~Iv.'? ']To the cxtcnt that being industrious may be related to similar experiences in one's earlier life, the higher academic achievement on the part of tllc cffccti~rc clergy in c311ege3' and seminary",' bears some mention. Satisfaction with one's ~r~ork ~vould seem to be related to a posi- tive and industrious outlook. Ashbrook" found that effectiveness was associated with sorne degree of satisfactiol~ with Protestant clergy- men's tasks of ministry, but yet "enough dissatisfaction to keep a The Effective nlli~zister 4 3 -- minister sensitive to his people and the realities of his situation." Satisfaction with the local ministerial position and work was asso- ciated with effectiveness in thc 70 RIRP, but no differences appeared between Inore ancl less effective groups in satisfaction .tvith the ininistry in $enera1 as one's profession.':" Scrvilzg as a fi~lodel. The pastor is to be "above reproach" (I Tim. 3 : 2), ".rvell thought of by outsiders" (I Tim. 3 : 7). He should also "set the believers an example in speech and conduct, in love, in faith, in purity" (I Tim. 4 : 12), or, in the words of the first letter- of Peter (5: 3), be an example "to the flock." As St. Paul explained the necessity for his own service (I1 Cor. 6: 3), "we put no obstacle in any one's way, so that no fault may be found with our ~ninistry." Such a "modcl" life should, of course, be no more than living one's own human it,^^, even with the ind~velling Spirit, and it will be less than perfect. The adll~ission of one's own limitations and faults, sometimes in public, sometimes in private, need not stain a pastor's reputation. Nor, on the other hand, must the pastor's life be just a show for others, a facade covering the real man inside, for the man of God is advised to "let his love be genuine" (Romans 12: 9). He is therefore to be consistently real as a inan of God, circumspect, exer- cising authority, responsibility and accountability to God and to. his family and congregation. Ten different district presidel~ts ( 3 7 % ) saw the effective minister as'one who is an examplc to others (4), .sincere ( I), open (31, human ( 1 ), exhibits a neat personal appearance (2) and has a sense of hunior ( 1 ). Openness ( 1 ) is the only characteristic in this area observed by one president upon the basis of his esperience with the parish of an ineffective pastor. No research evidence related to this criterion appears to be available. T.,cndership Skill. The general area of leadership seems to be par- ticularly important to district presidents, even though there does not appear to be a Scriptural criterion in the listing used here which enlploys this specific label. Almost half of the presidents (44 % ) used the terms, "administrative abilityn (6) and leadership (9), to characterize their effective pastors, while 4 1 % described effective- ness, from observ;ttion of the ineffective men, as beinq a good leader (3), and organizer ( I), ancl in terns of working ~71th the people (2), leading people to serve (6), and leading people to social concern ( 1 ). RIinisterial researchers have also devoted a good deal of attention to leadership. Able leadership among effective ministers is sufigested by special interests in organizational and administrative sk~lls- LCA," an ability to manage a parish efficiently-Episcopalians," a favorable leadership style match with the parish- h4S,'jg skills and attitudes related to the achievement of professional goals-Meth- ~dists,'~ and lcaclershil) which is both aware of people and skillful in task activity-Y rotestants? Missouri Synod district presidents, who had been asked to rate very effective and less effective ministers included in the 70 ilTRP, regarded 98% of the very effcctive as especially able in leadership, and 73 % of the less effective as lacliing good leadcrship. l2 In addition, Jacl llc\cartlt Strilj- Churcl~ Resenrcl~ Scriv- Churcll llesearc.ll tare Leaders turo Lcotlcrs tllre 1,caders Criterion Source Criterion Source Criterion Source Sociable Considerate Faithful in Familinl ReZationships STABILITY Jluc.11 Degree of SOIIIP Ade- qlincy 3Iillirn:tl or xnllc Itcscarcli . Scrip- ture Criterion Sourcc Ternpcrnfc Criterion Source Self-disciplined DEVELOPkIT-:NT OF I'ERSONAL VALUES AND GOALS Scrip- Cllurcl~ llrsearcl~ l urc 1,caclcrs Churcl1 Leaders Criterion Source E~7,eriozccd irt thc Fnitlz Criterion So74rcc Flcxible COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING Scriv- Cl1llrc.11 llcsearcl~ Scrip- Cllurrl~ Resear~ll Scrip- Cllllrcll Ilc~carcll Iurc 1,catlrrs lure Leaders ture I.cadcrs Critcriorr Soztrcc lndzrslriotrs in the, Ckrlrcl~.'~ lrorf: Criterion Source Serving As n Model There appears to be very oood agreement at a high level of P adequacy for four cri teria-considerate, self-disciplined, industrious in the church's work, and effective facilitator of learning. Industrious- ness and loye or consideration are both highly supported by research findings and district prcsiclcnts' observations as n~clll as Scriptural references. Ilowever, self-d.iscipline appears to be only reasonably adequate in the presidents' characterizations but high in the other two areas, while facilitating learning is only reasonably adequate in the research area anc'l high in the others. For fi.vc of the remaining six criterion areas the findings suggest overall reaso~lable adequacy (sociable, temperate, experienced in the faith, flexible, and serving as a model). Only one area, faithful in familial relationships, seems inatlecjuate as a measure of effec- tiveness. Although this criterion is authoritative as a requirement for ministry, it has no adequate observational or research evidence, at least as yet, tc link it to ef ective ministry. Overall, it would seem that both the high and the reasonable levels of adequacy are quite sufficient to assure our use of a criterion. This juclglllent would then apply to all the criteria in this listing except the one referring to the familial relationships. The Effecti17e AlIi~zistcr. \\That do n7e 1cno.r~ n0.v about ministerial effectiveness? As we look at thc nine criteria which seen1 to be well associatetl with effectiveness, is apl3ears that all these data tell us not sc nluch what an effective minister does, but who he is and how he carries out his ministry. The criteria used here include four which represent basic, r~nderlying attitudes, and five which emphasize the nlanner in which behavioral functions of the n~inister are executed. In each case, an effective minister will likely show more of thc characteristic than n less cffccti\~e man. Concern, love or considerateness and a well-ordered stability are two main attitudinal characteristics of the pastor which are to guide hinl in all of his behavior. In addition, if effective ministry is to result, the pastor will show a solid faith integrated in his life and exhibit his desire to be a Christian exa~nple in his life, Of apparently equal importance for effectiveness are the ways thc minister serves. He displays an enereetic and joyful industrious- ness, gentleness or patience, and flexibility in expressing his own feelings and in responding to the needs of others. In addition, he proves himself to be an apt teacher. Changes in the Prese~zt Criteria. Is it possible that other criteria of effectiveness may be substitrtted for any of the present set? Can another characteristic receive bctter support from Scripture, observa- .tion and research? We need to review and coinpare the data sources, looking first at the Scriptural source. Only one of the sourccs of data is inherently authoritative. The Scriptural criteria cannot be disputed insofar as the labels are truly representative of or correspond faithfully to the Word of God from which they are derived. In only one case, ho\vever, is a criterion labeled with the same tern1 as used in Scripture-self-disciplined. Another six of the criteria (considerate, faithful in familial relationships, experienced in the faith, industrious in the church's work, serving as a model, and effective facilitator of learning) seem to be quite similar to the Scriptural words or to be ~vell supported with other Bibilical references. The labels for the remaining three criteria (sociable, temperate, and flexible) are judged to have only moderate support from the Scriptural bases. In view of their firm relationship to the supporting Word and also to the expert observational and significant research findings, there are three highly adequate criteria of effectiveness-considerate, in- dustrious, and effective facilitator of learning. It would seem probable, then, that changes might be considered for the remaining seven criteria. The changes may be made in labeling the criterion itself or in retaining the label and finding more observational or research support. If, in accord with our efforts to identify adequate criteria of effectiveness, a change should be needed in the labeling of any of the criteria, there are three ways in which this can be effected. A different tern1 would be needed to refer, first, to only one Scriptural item, if the previous label included several, second, to the same Scriptural items but with a different emphasis, or third, to a different combina- tion of Scriptural items. If such a new label would be offered, a different alignment of exp& observations and research findings would likely be needed. It seems possible that these data could be applied in some way to other criterion labels. It is possible, of course, that the criterion label is still appro- priate and that there is only a lack of supporting observations and/or pertinent research results. This inight apply especially to three criteria. No definite observations or research findings at all were reported for the faithful in familial relationships criterion, and research has not even attc~npted to locate characteristics related directly to being experienced in the faith and serving as a model. Although all except one of the criteria to date appear to have at least a reasonable degree of support from the data sources, we still need to devote more study ancl research to establish with assurance OLIY set of criteria. Other Factors. Does any of the presently available research suggest that we may need more criteria than we have now? The research results ~~hich are related to the leadership category but not specjfically to either of the two criteria in that category show that this area requires much more attention in both Scriptural and em- pirical research. It may be that leadership, is too broad a concept and \voulcl instead require more specific delineation to relate to solme of the other existing criteria. It appears, however, that at least another criterion area is necessary for assessing effectiveness besides the possibility of general leadership skill and in addition to the Scriptural criteria already reviewed here. The data from research results and extra district presidents' observations suggest that a pastor's effectiveness may be enhanced or te~l~pered somewhat by certain factors in the situation .in .c,vhicb he serves. A few research rcsults suggest the "common sense" feeling that various factors in a parish and community can make a difference. It makes sense, for example, that a general atmosphere of cooperation or of apathy among thc parishioners can have considerable effect upon the degree of the minister's effectiveness. Hefereilce by district presidents to various situational factors also suggests that a pastor's effectiveness may depend upon the presence of other than Scriptural criteria. One president, for examylc, noted that a man of only average ability could function effectively in a certain parish, cven \.I-it11 the implied assumption that the pastor would he only aseraqe in respect to his rating on the regular Scrip- tural criteria. Conditions may have bcen just right in that parish for a man who tvould be average in ability and in other areas to produce an effective ministry. Other presidents referred to the need for politically conserva- tive leanings, involvement in community affairs, previous experience, the ability to relate to a rural community, and the clevelopment of skills in evanoelisnl. A11 of these iten~s, according to other details in -7 the presidents statements, seen1 to pertain to particular situations which recjuirecl certain assets on the ]?art of the pastor if he were to be effective there. These data offer a great cfiallenge in research now to identify those characteristics in the minjsterial situation-parish and com- munity-which bear special weight in detcrnm-ining a pastor's effec- tiveness. A final item mentioned by eleven clifferent district presidents and not associated in this study with ally of the other criteria men- tioned is the reference to strong and inspirational preaching as a characteristic of effectiveness. It seems that this item is probably better treated as a nlinisterial function which can reflect one or several of the res~~lar criteria. For example, rather than serve as a criterion by itself-, the strong and inspirational preaching is probabl;; more indicative of certain aspecis within the other criteria, such as joy or confidence in industriousness, sincerity in the inodcling area, good teaching as a facilitator of learning, common sense in being self-disciplined, or Gospel-centered in considerateness. Seuzinary and Continzting Educatio~z. In addition to yivi11g US ? more definite data for the assessment of the eligibility of ministerial candidates and of the effectiveness of pastors, the material in this study offers bases for specific objectives for thc trainine of seminarians and for the continuing education of pastors in the field. If we are interested in developing curricula and prograins which lead to more than just average competency, we have the opportunity to make good use of these research results. Of special note is the difference between these criteria and our ordinary objectives which focus upon thc accumulation of knowledge and understanding and upon the devclopnlent of skills. The Scrip- tural criteria are affective in type and require a much different approach for their dcvelopnlent in an individual. This is not to say that other categories of objectives are no longer necessary for minis- terial education, but rather that they should no longer receive an almost exclusive attention in scnlinarg education or in pastoral con- ferences or workshops. In fact, the objectives of kno~vledge and skills are very necessary, but, if a comparison is ncedcd, they are probably subordinate to de\lelopment in the criterion areas listed here. tVe must add that if effective ministry is to occur the olic cannot get along without the other. It is also important to recognize that the traits identified b!; these criteria are not so closely related to supposedly inherited per- sonality tendencies, m to those cleveloped early in life, that the): cannot show regular change within an individual in later life. Cer- tainly, if, as we believc, the Spirit can motivate and effect change within a person, why should we not provide clearer channels and better means for such development? It can be done, if nre only -pern.lit God's Spirit to guide us in this exceedingly important chalIenge. FOOTNOTES 1. Members of the Personal Development Committee during thc period of 1972 to 1974 included Professors G. Aho, V. Bohlmann, J. Costello, J. Fritz, K. Martens, W. Meyer, A. Nauss, D. Schlecht, and R. Schultz, and students G. Bock, J. Frahm, R. Henlte, I3. Holstein, S. Knapp, and C. Ortloff. l'rof. L. Petersen served as a consultant. 2. Allen Nauss, "Ministerial Effectiveness Research: Past ancl Future," Concordia Seminary Stzidies, 73-7, November, 1973. I 3. Ihnneth Breimeicr, "The Relation betweer1 Selected Personality, Interest, and Ability Measures and Ministerial Effcctivencss," Unpublished paper, 1963. 4. Allen Nauss, "Towartt Excellence in the Ministry," Concordia 'seminary Studies, 73-1, January, 1973. 5. The arabic numeral in the parentheses refers to the number of presidents responding with a word preceding it or with a descriptive word or phrase similar to it. For many of the criteria individual presidents each supplied several adjcctives used to describe a single criterion. The percentage figure in the sentcnce is intended to refer to thc number of different preside~~ts who responded with acljectives fitting under the respective criterion. 6. Ureimeier, op. cit., 5; Nauss, op. cit., 25. 7. 1)ouglas E. Jackson, Fuctors Differentiating between Effective and Ineffec- tive Methodist hli=istcrs, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern Univcrsity, 1955, 98. 8. .john E. Dyblc, "Report to ad hoc Ministry Study Committee," Unpub- lished l'apex, O1I:lce of liesearch, Board of Christian Education, United Prcsbytcrian Church in the U.S.A., 1972, 27. 9. Howard M. FIaln, "I'ersonality Correlates of Ministerial Success," Iliff Kevietv, 17, 1960, 6-7. 10. J. Victor Renson and Mikihachiro Tatara, "A Longitudinal Investigation of Psychological Test Characteristics of LCA Clergymen Correlated with Other Criteria Measures of Effectivencss," Unyul~lished Confidential Preliminary Draft Report to the Board of TheologicaI Education, Lutheran Church in America, 1967, 11. 1 1. Willianl T. Douglas, ljrcdicti?zg Ministerial Effectiveness, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, 1957, 49. 12. Jackson, op. cit., 108. 13. Ham, op. cit., 8-9. 14. John A. Renton, Jr., Perceptual Churucteristics of Episcopnl Pastors, Unpublished Ph.11. Dissertation, University of Florida, 1964, 46-52. 15. Blaine B. Rader, "l'astoral Carc Functioning," Ministry Studies, 3, 1969, 26. 16. Allcn Nauss, "Yerccptual Characteristics of More and Less Effective Ministers," Concordiir Seminary Studies, 73-3, 197 3. 17. Jackson, 017. cit., 132-137. 18. Ilyblc, op. cit., 21. 19. Allell Nauss, "The Relation of Pastoral Mobility to Effectiveness," Re- view of Iieligiozas Rcsenrch, 15, 2, Winter, 1974, 83-84. 20. i\/Iolly Harrower, "Mental-Health Potential and Success in the R/Iinistry," Jozrrlzcil of Rcligioll. and Health, 4, 1964, 55-58. 21. Rader, op. cit., 26. 22. David Carroll, "A Follow-up Study of Psychological Asscssment," in TV. C. Bier, Ed., Psychologictll Testing for itlilzistei-ial Selection, New York: Fordham University Press, 1970, 179. 23. Benson and Tntara, op. cit., 8. 24. Dyble, op. cit., 26. 25. Allen Nauss, "The Effectiveness of Missouri Synod Pastors," Concordia Seminary Stzrriics, 72-8, 1972, 9-10. 26. Dyble, op. cit., 18. 27. Nauss, "Percel>tual Characteristics of More and Less Effective n'linisters," op. cit., 7. 28. Jackson, 017. cit., 95-99. 29. Allcn Nauss, "The 1970 Ministerial Research Project," Unpublished Data. Also, Nauss, "Perceptual Characteristics of More and Less Effec- tive ~Ministers," op. cit., 7-8. 30. Bcnson and Tatara, op. cit., 8. 31. Nauss, "l'erceptual Characteristics of More and Less Effective Ministers," op. cit., 7-8. 32. Benton, op. cit., 47. 33. Benson anct Tatara, 027. cit.; 12. 34. Nauss, "To~vard Excclle~lce in the Ministry," op, cit., 23-24. 35. James B. Ashbrook, "R!linisterial Leadership in Church Organization," Mi~zistl-y Studies, 1, 1967, 24. 36. Nauss, "The 1970 lMinisteria1 Research Project," 012. cit. 37. Rcnson and Tatara, op. cit., 11. 38. Douglas, op. cit., 49. 39. Nauss, "Toward Excellence in the hlinistry," op. cit., 14-16. 40. Jackson, op. cit., 110. 41. Ashbrook, op. cit., 24. 42. Nnuss, "The Effcctiveness of Missouri Synod l'astors," 027. cit., 22. 43. Jackson;op. cit., 72-73. 44. Ashbrook, op. czl., 24. 45. Douglas, oy. cit., 122. 46. Jackson, op. cit., 105. 4 7. Breimcier, op. cit., 5. Also Nauss, "To~vard Exccllence in the Ministry," op. cit., 14-16; "The Open System Model for Pastoral Leadership," Concol-diu Seminary Studies, 71-8, 197 1, 10-20. 48. Kader, op. cit., 26. 49. Nauss, "Perceptnal Characteristics of More and Less Effective Ministers," q. cit., 7-8. 50. Jackson, op. cit., 64-65. Also Philip J. Allen, "Childhooci Backgrounds of Success in a Profession," American Sociological Review, 10, 1955, 188- 189. 5 1. Allen, op. cit., 188-1 89. Also Dyble, 017. cit., 15. 52. Dyble, ope cit., 15. 53. Ashbrook, op. cit., 19. 54. Nauss, "The 1970 RlIinisterial Research Project," op. cit. 55. Allen, op. cit., 188-189. 56. Dyble, op. cit., 16. 57. Benson and Tatara, 01.7. cit., 12. Also Allen, op. cit., 188. 58. Benson and Tatara, op. cit., 12. 59. Allen, op. cit., 188. 60. Dyble, op. cit., 16, 61. Douglas,op,cit.,49. 62. Ham, op. cit., 7-8. 63. Nauss, "The Effectiveness of R4issoul-i Synoci Pastors," op. cit., 10. 64. Ham, 011. cit., 5. 65. Nauss, "Toward ExcclIence in the Ministry," op. cit,, 23. 66. Douglas, op. cit., 49. 67. Benson and Tatara, op. cit., 11. 68. Allen Nauss, "The Nature of Ministerial Effectiveness," Concordia Seminary Studies, 72-1, 1972, '7. 69. Nauss, "Toward Excellence in the Ministry," op. cit., 5-9. 70. Nauss, "Perceptual Characteristics of More and Less Effective Ministers," op. cit., 10. 71. Ashbrook, op. cit., 27-39. 72. Nauss, "The Effectiveness of Missouri Synod Pastors," op. cit,, 6. 73. Benson and Tatara, op. cit., 11. AIso Breimeier, 017. cit., 5. 74. Ashbrook, op. cit., 24. 75. Nauss, "Perceptual Characteristics of Morc and Less Effective Ministers, op. cit., 7-8. Editor's Note: Dr. I\rauss has been receiving increasingly Inore attention from all circles, in.cluding Christianity Today for his personality studies in connection with the pnstoral ministry. This article should speak to a wide au(lience in connection with professional excellence.