Full Text for Allegory (Text)

THE SPRINGFIELDER June 1971 Volume 35, Number 1 Allegory 0 C 1: 11 11 11-115 JLOIZSISG is t~kcn from the 20th Hook of t11c Il!.itl ot tIlc ~juct I-lomcr, Ivherc we rcad as foIlo\r-5: "50 t~\ tiic I)cLii\ec( ships iiruund you, 0 son of Peleus, insatiate (if fiYilt. tllc ricii;ic.t~ns ;Irra\ed themselves for battle; and like- 11 is', tlic Iroj.ins 01-t.r against them on the rising ground of the pl'iin, Eut ivus h;icle I~hcinis SLII~~I~~O~ the gods to the place ot g,~tIicl.inq from the l~ro\\- of mrtn!--ridged Olympus; . . . Then Lc.11~ 111~' ~.f~tit for n,\selF I n.il1 sta!- Ilcrc sitting in 3 ti~lltl of O!\:,I~I~, fro111 \\hcrc.I \\-ill look 011 and Litnuse m!-sclf; 1x1: tic, \ 04 othc r, 1111 go forth till OLI colnc. among the Trojans ;in(! .\c.il;iiL!ri., .!nc\ I~cnl- 'lid to tilis siclc or that, ej-en as thi. ~iii~~rl of ~,,!c.ll r:1;1\ \\ 1\11 . . . 'Thus did thc hlcsscd gods urp oli tllc- t\to 1lo>t, to 61;1';1i in battic, ancl amid them rnadc grit.\.o~s ,~:-ifc. to I)rtv>t fc~rtll . . . Grcat \\-as the din that Ljrosc \\.hen thc I I it ti For agnit~st king Poseidon stmd Phocbuz .\pl:ollo \\it11 hi? n-inged arro~vs, and against En\.aIius thc god- cli.>>. fl:i>liing-c.! ccl .\~hcne; against Hera stooct forth the huntress of the gotc1c.n .ir.l-o\\s, nnct thc echoing chase, c\-en thc archcr .ictctnis. >i,ter of thc got1 that smites afar; against 1-cto stood fol-tll thL, ?troll: ~IC'I~C'~, Hermcs, alld against Hcphaest~~s the (:scat-, clccl?-c~clcl\ ins ri\t.r. that gods call Santhus, ant1 r11c.11 ~c.,~rli:iriclc.r. -l-Ilr;.; gods \\.cnt forth to fight \\-it21 gods." (Iliad ss) \r1cI1 ~II\IIIC J>ch,~\ior cdtllc to be thought pe~-~>lcxillg. 3t110- ph,lric.c. c 530. obtrc.r\ccl: "llotl~ Ho111c.r ancl Hchiocl lln\c. attributed to the gods all things tll,tt '11-C' \II,~II~C,~~I~ .~nd a reproach among nl,~nhind : theft, 'td~:lt~'~.\ . rllltl ill LI~LI~~ d~~cptioli.'' CFr. I I >: 1-Jic,igc.nc of I:ll~'giuiil is the first that e krlofi- of ~.ho brought .~lIc~ol-\ 11, thc iiid of tllc Hnmrric goodj. ilc \\.as a contemporary of ~;in;l~!scr, ,on of CI rus, ;lnd king of Persia 529-522. Thcagrnes ]>ad Ic;1t-nt tllc 1olli;ln Ftl~Lwr! of opposites and so \\.as al~lc to gi~e ;I rcspcct;il~lc. account of the n.arrin,o gods. It is firc that is s\,nlbolized b\- ;\ljullo. klc.1io. and Hcpl~aestus, n-hilr its opposite: n-ater, by lic 1 SI,~I~I.II~I~CI. \\'isclom. repncscntcd h! .\thenew is olqx~scct I)\- foil!-. ~-c.pl-~-sc.~ltcd h!- .Arcs, and so ;il,hr~litc, clc'sirc, and HC'rlllctr. 1-c.iiso11.- -- - Thi~ t L. ~i, ,lt,Ii:< JL.,/ (it ntrrzt schoinr. :It prr#c,rrt 11'' i\ s~rl.ing ns Dcn?~ of the ('l1:ipt-1 II~ \':rl~~:z~,;t~o L ;lit crsitj. Late in the fifth crnturj- 1\Ictrodorus of I_anlps;lr 11s 11sc.s the inethod to put theolog!. into anthrol>ology: 11c.roc.s ;Ire c.lc.~n~)r~ ts of nature while the gods are parts of man. L-\ga~nc~~li~lon rcll~-c~(~~its Aether, Achilles the SLIII, IIelen the Earth. 1-1cc:os tllc. Iloo1i. &i~ld Paris the Air. And then, the gods Denicter, l)ion\>l~s '[II~I :\l)ollo represent the liver, tlic spleen and the bile. It is inilcecl ;ilil~~\ing but it goes on a11 thr. timc. It is \\-hat Fcucrbach \\ ,I, t:~ll;in~ ;~t)oi~t when he said that tlieolog!* is ilotlling lilore than ;~nrhropolog!-. First we see here the attempt to fit the gods into thc cnlightc~i~tl pliiloso~~li~ of that centurv and to use thcn also thc categosics OF nl:ili ;is tl~iit within which all ~~lcaningful statements are to he nlatlc., ;~nrl o~~tciilc. of which categories no meaningful statements call be n~nrlc. Such curious identification e\-okcd froni Tatii~n the. ji~(ly~l~~,~l t : "3Ietrodorus of Lampsacus, in his treat isc. c.o~lci,sni tlg fIorl1c.r. has argued \.cry foolishly turning c\~r\.tIii~lg illto ;illcsor\.. 1-0s he says that ncithill- Hern, nor ~tlicnc[ nor Lcus arc. \\ilk thosc. people suppose \~ho consecrate to the111 sac rcd c'I~cIo~~II.L~~ ;i11cI gro\,cs, but parts of rlaturc 311~1 ccrtai~i ;lrriili;:enlcllth of tlic. elenicnts . . . not one of thcscb pcrsonagcs ha\ ills rc~all\ esi~r~xl. (Omtio ndi.t.r.izis (;rrzecos, ssi '; \V. Xestlt. is Inore percepti1.e : "Though this bc. 11latlnt.s~. ! c.t tll~>l.c is niethd in't."He points out that .\It.trcdor~~s is u5ing the ph!~sioIogical science of his dav as he disposcs the, gods ilito h~i~lia~l categories. The gall nas regarded as thc causc of acutc. iil~il suclc1c.n seizures, and these were tratf itionallv thc ~vork of .-\l3ollo, ''theĀ‘ god that smiles afar." From Diogcnes of r4polloniit, tlic cn0 of tlic line for Iorlian philosoph\s, 11.e 1cai-n that the tjvo 21-tcrics \vhicli su4taiii life in the bod! are the hepatic and thc splenetic. ('ilrlc~illl~. 1,. hSt':,: Further, air is tllc elementar\. matter 11-hich ntfortls possihilit\ of change. .A basic change is thilt of dr! and net' il11~1 tlic~sc' ;ire traditionallv thc rcspoiisibilit!. of ~eruvte; and I)ion!.sus r-cs1,ccti\ (:I!.. ;\letrodorus is thcn a5 accurate as thc sricncc of his tli~\ .: ;~ncl it is praise for Homer to find that he \\.as reallv sa\.in? tlic 5~irnc~ in all allegosical \\-il\-. Zeus is air, the primary' suhst;lncc \\-hic.11 is the Iife force, intilligcncc, the soul OF the ~lniiersc. \\'ith tf~~, 1ic.Ip of allegor!. c.\.cr! thing can hc fittcd into the currcn t >cicnct* ancl lliinlil~l categories, ancl picti- sliall lie down with reason:' It is tllc ilttcnipt to fit theological statcnlruts 11-ithin p1iilosopliic:~I and a~ltl~rol,ologir:il categories and so come to tcrnis with them-this untlcs the, IJressusc' of the cnlightenmcnt of that sisth centurv B.C. Credit for the cthiciil allegorizir~g of Honier is xi\-cn b\. I)iogc,l~cs Laertius to Anasagoras. "Fa\.orinus in his Jliscell;~neous Histort. s;i\ s i\n~sayoras 11 ;IS the first to maintiiin that Honier in his pocks treats \.irtuc nnct justice, and that this thesis was defended at grcater lengtl~ hv his friend lletrmlorus of lampsacus, \~ho ~v;ls thc first to IILIS~. hiirlself with Hon~er's physical doctrine." !f.ires. ii, l 1. I~ocb I, 1-11> c'~lc,pil:irlc~ qoes further than the question of the doubtful ~:i(j!..:iit\ 111 ti::. ?:;d, ,!11~f their equivalents in natural philosoyhl- and ' 1 I : i 1 i I. HC 1-t.111arks : ,'Ti!c, -ictl;:i~l?:~i~~s h.~\c gocfs 1~1th snub noses and black hair, the 1-Ilt.,ic i,;!~. I:.:). c g(~1.4 \\-ith grev . e\-cs . and red hair." (Frag. 16) "f f o1c.l: ..;~rlcl hul-~s) and lions had t1,ulds or could dra~v \vith 11;1nc!> .!rlcl crcdtt. \\.orlis of art like those made by men, horses ~t-oulrl dr.t\\- picturcs of gods Iikc horses. and asen of gods Iike oscbn. 2nd the\- \vould make bodies (of their gods'; in accord- .!IILC \\.it11 thc. form tlliit each spec.ic.s itself possesses." (Fr. 1 5)- 50 ~:iiich for ri~c prtji~bct~d gods. "Thrrc is one god," sa?s Xenophanes, ..one- .Ifilr:~ly gorib ;illcI ~iien thc greatest, not at dl like niortais in In o : I" Fr. 23, Here the uttcr repudiation of anthro- or. It't Xc~~ophrtri~s' one gmf dot's not transcend natur'll pl~ilo~ol~ll! but 5cc.1:ls t'ott~~-li~ino~~ wit11 li\-ing matter. l\l;tn is not ~i\ CII rc~ t,l;~rii)ll hilt the. \I ,I\- of cnipirical cnquirv. Even if il~an siroulcl s;~! rvhat is ~o~n~letel~ true, he wo~ild be ;na\\nrt. of it. It 11-ould be iinpo~sihlc, Sc.noyhanes seeills to suggest, to pro\-c it hv soinctliing othcr tllarl itself, il profouncl obserj-ation to be kept in r11ini1 in nni cfiscr~ssion of the arouinent of a~ldog!.. He savs, ? 7, "Opi~lion is f;~cacl b\. fate upon all thrne5. ' \\-c know no niorc' tllkll ~III IJc~ffrh rlc?;~i prz?;i, tct!lrtai. \\'e ~net't the cognate of rtokos jittlc latt'r 111 Ifo~i~, one of thc later di\-isic~ns of afle~oririn~,.. I:nliSh t lnCnt in morals and in science ad justcd the Hon~cric SOC~~ to itself it11 rhr aict of allegorv ethical and physical. I)iogcnes decIar-ccI thdt Homcr was not the author of m>.ths a~id fair\ talcs. he rnercl! used tl~crn 35 a \-chicle for telling the truth. His Zeus ivas air and nothing but air." Historical enlightenn-lent in Hecataeus and Henxtotu.; cut i1\v:t\- the supernatural. The 11 o leg was full-stretched s-hen t hc in;itrrinlisnl of n;lturaI phi:losoph\ gn\-c n-av before tlie inrrnsteri;llism of 111~1ital and moral >cience. I\-e COIIIC' b the conception of a transcendent, a trul\ tr,~nscc'ndent. In Plato's world n-here all 1-isihle things exist insofar ;is the\- imitate the forms, the ultimate ideas, we lia\.c the n~ateri~~l immaterial, finitc,/infinite, \-isibIe/invisiblc. temporal/ eternal, that furnish allegorr \\-it11 its Iargest scope, and also the inlpul~c to nlovc from the Aaterial, temporal and llistorical to the spiritunl ancl ctcrnal. For Plato to move to the higher is to leave the loiter bchincl. :lnrl in that dudit\- also 11-e should mention letter ancl %pirit, \\hi& has its nlcaning in st. Paul, 311~1 then the meaning that it \\-its (:i\cn from this Platonic background of the duality of tcmpor:tl anti etern.il. You know the great writing of St. ;iugustine that lut11c.r found so enarnlousl~ helpful and that is characteristic of thc. thcolog! of roung Luther, and it is still this Platonicall?- shaped caception of 1cttc.r 2nd spirit n.hich informs the article in the Lutheran Encyclopedia about allegory. GIoege's article operates with these two catc>cories of 1c)ttcr ,~ncl 5pirit Pl,~tonic.~li\ nrlJ~,rktoc:~l 1. :l?c.l- than Paulineh . ,-flicgor\ h,ts to h,?ic t\\v t,lctor\ to opc'r.ltc ?:II!- .:,i:c: 1'1 ,r$, I, the one rr ho qi\t.s th~ gr~Zt 1l:rttIlK c,ltcg~i-ic\ ti,:- ti:< ,ii:,hc< ,',l-~ :ii ' >,I alegorizers that \\ cnt hc t~~rc him E~c' !nocl\c%tf tl~,,.~~ 1: ,:; , -* . . ., Homer. 17 "That the stnte '~nc! conrcntlon oi the u_wIs \\,I< Inktl:_;,i:,~i i>\ Themis 2nd Zcu5 Rtrl. 3-9t ' . . . all thv iicl;rit. ot t!lc in Homer-thtx rL:ic,\ 1ilLl.t not hc ;~dnlittt~tl rn:o our- ki,!t~, whether they 'Ire ~LI~~~OSLC~ to hL1\ e :tn ,~llcgor\ I~ILCII~II~'; ,!- :I, : (Rep. 3 79~) l'lato \sill not allon- Hunlcr in his ticpirblic, t>cca~tx t.;t ti!c c!,::~, and he n-ill not ailon- the gocL to ht. r~35cuccl it-0111 urfatc n~c~lning.' ' Tlx xx.or~! ,~llc~or\ OIII? coi~~cs into usage 111 tilt. first ccntur!. B.C. btit tlit~ iitlci\i\C L14,1\;C which $1-es it currenc1 is tllrtt of Ciccro in his 11 ritinc,. (ill cir,itor\ (94). ?'he 11-ord ;tfl&ors- ale appears in phi!^. t~ut f,cft,z-c i11,it time the tvord for the >~il)lt'~t of our ~~S:L~SS~OII i.; not 'i11~'~ors I)ltr hi,porzoiu. Tate in discu>t;ing this section of thc I:c~j~rt!)lic~ tln~lh ,L threefold distinction in Pl.iti3 trcat~ilcnt. HI, r,llk. .~ho~lt TIIC Ifiyf)~ which i.c the n~rr;+ti\ t', tilc r*rlrt';tcv ~ncaniny, ;III~! tl~c*~~ :!I\' t I /Ti,,, rzo~rzos, or rfmir, \r-hicli \vta r\ oukl call the rl~ora! of' t l:c ht,)r\ . the, fh:: Duchess in Alice in \\-onciCr1ancl sa\s r\-h;~t tlic ilic!r,lf ot ~~\cr\- thing is. -P!po\ is tl~cv \\ or(] thcn, of cour.cc, tiur z.:i\c5 :hc other hernieneutical technicjut. of t\i~uic~g!-. usual cli>rh~.tion I,t.t\\c~l~ t~pology and allcsor?- is that t\polog)- dcals \I-itf~ c\c*nts .~x~tl .!IlcZor\ it r Tatc ti~lcl. in i'j~to, in thi~ sc'cond c,itcc.~-t that it 11.1> ,~r-1 'undern~eaning.' He is ic.ornfn1 of 'undcrnlt.aning3' x\ hich licx ..;I\ \ .trc supplied br the "cauntr\- bnmpkin's rrisciom" or "\ okt.l'> ir*clo~il." (Agroikuc ;is 90~1121~7 I'Jlr;~lirltz 2 29 E cf. also 129C&l ,. It 111~1\ ht: that Tatr is drawing too ~nl~ill from the passagt.. ?jut ;I thrccfoltl division is indeed a rnost r~s~ful onc for getting 11t thc .l~~c~.cllit.nt of the value of allegort-, pal-ticuI;~rl~- if subsecjucntly \vcs c,ln usc thc tllircf category as that & 11-hich thi loxvor mvaninys ,ire icft bc'hinil. sloughed off. Plato does not usc Hon1c.r for proof but as ilJustr,ltion or poiilt of departure, rather in thc nLlr- in which Jlilton u\eh thc god3 ot mythology and hjs in~ocatjorj 'of the muses arid so on. l-llj5 is poeticallr ~iablc for him :inti his use is possiblc in the n-3v that Ilc does it jbst because he doesn't helie~e in them." I'arallcl to that i\ , . tilt- \\trCltc a position which is taken \ 1 on 1- i .11!cyory i, ;~II r.nor~nurisl\. uscful technique if \.ou \\,in[ i:) ki!;i\! rir,ir JV~US \1.~35 rc-all\- ;1 politi;.al re\-olutionar)- or that . ,I . basic .iii\ !ic; \i .:, 2 L linic.tI or ps\~choloyiiaI t;o:ial n.orker; you will be .ibiL~ ?.r iicr~i-:li~tr-,ltc t'n;~t fro111 thc tt'xt n-ith the use of ;dlegorv. It t; qoc' (::I r!t.i,l;:';i 3% &:i: :hc* time. :iIthoui.h tht. iontcsrllpor,-lr\- theokqical iourn;iii.r\ I\ ll:.r ~l(i t11,it >art af thing cio not nI\\.il\s even trouble ;heir littic ~:i:~lii> :i irf~ tllc ~xcgctical task. Thi. of ,!ems Christ 5 . ... .- lil7t: \:;!I. 14 jlo?>it>!t ~>CC.~LISC he is not 11clit.~-crl ill. L.ucrt.tius is more jn>tr~i~ti$, c 11:,;11 ~'Luc:.!IAL~:. it 111.:1 -i*i is c~ju~ltcd by EZIato \\.it11 the qooct, he is then supplied .. . I\ it]: .: ii!\ 1151- .;;tl-iJ3::~c' ;~cc~c)~-c~~II~ to \\.hiill it is then possibIe to sl:ecifv rhoic :i:i!lL, .:i,ic!l .~i-c. ~~nnorth\- of gcitl. Goct is then clisnllo\v&~ ill,! ri\ ri~ i:~ <- .:;it] -i!l~c i fo~llcl- is cr! ;)~,:niis5i\ t. I'lcito reclcts cenuclr- i I : 1 I 5uch things c<)uIdn't j)ossibl\. be 50. Since 2 %, i '1: ki, c:iui~'ln't do an\-tI~ir~$ filth!- or strifcful 2s f-Ior~lcs tc.114 ::? [hiit i'ic t11c.i ~litl. Pl,ito's pui-ificcf t~~mscrndcnt ~~!;~~i~~g thc E~o:II~T~c. sods. TIx\ n.c'rt' ,US- . -, 1 \ ! 1 lC. :jflc'g(~l\ CULI~C] ill51>0~t' \\.Ilat \\ :i> I .i?)Oli~ ;I:c:t?, or more i111piirt;intlv it cc;ulrl !,ring tltc~n ir1:c: tI;c >c ci :LL (if ciii~,i (I\\ 11 phiIo>uph\-. .\ilti.tlli IICI, tilt, c(j111pani011 of Swr;it(ts. \\.honl PIato 5cornf~rlt\ c.,i ll!c~l .i "bcl;!rerl tc.,!r-r~c-r," "]ohnn\ -ccr~~r-latrli.." :~llegori/t--~t the HOII~~.YI~ siiil, III the >cr\ icc' of his o\\ 11 r;~clicl-il anti-t.stabIishme~~t I if . \ 0~1:- \cjurlg pt.opIc's groups YOU shoulcl j~~trociuct. ti : tt. Ilc sounds vc.r\ contc.tllpor'lr!-. Hc. mcl his i!iyi ipii. I)i~~c:~cb. \? h(1 ;~cc(tj>tcd the I~~C!,II;IITIC' "do~" which s;iitl the C'!llii> rhcir ~~,inlc., \lulc:ltIs i~ttiick~cl tht* popular gocis and for this pu:!x)~~' .!l!c.r!lr,nc> L!>L,, the cliitinction hc.t\\-cvn thc ~tri.\n .!ncf thc .-\lcthei~r, tilt (~pinjl):~, tilr jc~t. and thc truth. tht. real matter. iintl, of course, the if/ctllr;ici 11 f11il3 f~c. the11 finds cli5closccl. co111t'~ o~ir c1~1itc' C'\ lliccll. Zt-110 li,,r!lc~il nlr~ch from I-lntisthc.ncs ancl hi5 usc of ;tIlcgory psc>~cr\~~ci the nlornl \,tlur~ of the gods, apart front ~vtlich thcrr was little. t,lsc to tftr'l11. F01101\- thr0~1~11 tl~t 19t11 Ccntur\- ancl !ou iind TC~LI:, ~ntlin~ ul1 lrit'n little jnorc than ;I moral rafut.. It is the cthicril iinpurt,ir~c.c. of Tt'sns that is thc last thing to go un~lcr, 11s it \\-cnr, ;iil tfic tlvair 111canin5, 211d then tIic cine that fitted in with your philosophv that was the nlrctllein meaning. Sot 11 Ii;~t 11~) ~i\ \y 1~1t- what he keans! Cleanthes, Zcno's successor, "accomnloclatd the sn\-il,s5 of thi.: poets to their ~ystem."~' His successor Chrysipp~is furthc.r supl:i-i'~ccs the particularities of the gcds, who arc seen as functiorls of n:i[ yoel. the cosmic rational principle \vl~icll ordcrs all things. Tlic qi)(l\ ;LI-P desexed. This renlo\.es not only 11i~lc.h cmbarrassmtlit hut ;11w ili:i~ll of their dialectical yotenc!.. The vivid particulariti. of the T~lo111c.ric gods is lost in a pallid, ultimate rational principle, ilnd \\-1,:1!- \-<~luc remains is ethical. Although the Homcric gods ma! hai.c. bt.cl~ ~-c.lidc.~ccl i~!!i,(!t~t> t. the method bv which this ivas achieved goes marclril~~~ 011. i3\ !IT(: time a certain-~eraclitus and Crates of Alallas arc dontx tl1~1-c ii l i tt Holller left unallegorized.;" The Epicureans \\.ere gre~lt ~nockcrs of aIlet,rori/;~ t ion. ;~ntl tl~ci l- arguments may later be hearcl from Christian opponc.nts of \i.h,!t 11;icl become a nlethmi for disposing of cnlbarrassmcn ts sci~%n ti tic . I1i.- torical, philosophical and rnor~~l, or, positi~ely, for tliscIosin~ \I-fiiit was the real meaning of an ancient test, n-hich, I~oi\.c.\ cr-. f.~i~-11- consistentlv turned out to be the corrobcration or thr. ill~~st~-~!tit!~~ of the school of the man \vho \\.as operating the mcthotl. . > The hevdav-if one ma\- use a \\.ord so inapprol~i-iatcll g,~\ - the hevdav , , o'f ~t'oicism was during the first crntur~ bvfol-c ;];it1 'if'tcr Christ. Its influence in 1t.n-r\ can be seen in the \I-istlom of Soltr~~lon ancl the allegorization of the La\\- in the letter of riristcas. \\-l~ic.h purports to be an eve\\-itness account of the yrcductior~ of tlic St3p- tuagint. The septuagint puts the Old Testnnrcnt into tt~c I~IJI~II;\~C of the Greeks. \vclcome couIc1 scarcely bc espc.ctec1 amon2 tlic. Greeks," but there \\-ere those who lo\.cd the Old Tc.stamcnt nntf \\.ho therefore tried to arrange such a \velcome fol- it. Such a man was Philo (c. 20 R.C.-c. 50 A.D.). .\ICY- andrian Jew grew up in that city, \vcalthy, culturcct , sophistic~att.el, the intellectual ei.e of the I\-orld, ancl that city hiin ncclu;liri t'inuc. with the language ancl thought of Greece. Hc kncn his fl0111cl- :mil Plato and the Stoics vcm- \\-ell. .And \vith that Greck tr'1c1ition he was aIso suppIiec1 \vith a niethwl for rernoi,ing difficulties and for disclosing the true meaning of the Old Testanlent, \vhicli he \\-oultl commend to the Greek intellectuals \I-ho hat1 it no\\- a\.aiIablc to them in translation. There was r~iuch for a Greek to scoff at in thc C)ld Testament, and Philo \\-rites \\-ith great brilliance and nt ?scat 1c.ngth in showing that \\.hat one runs into in the Old T'csta~nci~t \vllicli is unworthy of God or which is historicallv, philosophically or morCllIv impossible is just nrhat thc surface meaning appears to be, but thc reaI meaning, the 'undernlcaning.' thc Iz?.potroin, he calls it atso irlte- gory, is \\-hat is redly to be understood. And so PIliIo seeks to lriltke the Old Testarnen t palatable to the intellectuals of iilc~anc-lria. Again, we find allegor\- fitting things into anthropological catcgorics. For Philo the allegoricnl meaning is the soul of the text. while the literal meaning is on?!- its hod?-, and soul arid 13ocl!- are uscd dis- innctiit,l\ ill ,; l'liitonic sort of \\-as, and \re must remember that for j'l.itl> io riic r!! thc higher is to lea\-c the lo\rer behind. \\.hen you YcilLi ' ,I,,~c ti iit i'hilo \ou feel that you haw indeed lost contact with 7. I IS, ahc io. tc a-ti-. the surfare meaning of the text. Ho\\ c'! CI-. >oti:c pcoplc took PIlilo seriousiy and said. "\l'eff. if \\-11;t~ rcnll\ ill,~ttc.r~ i> the 'undermeaning' of the test, the allegorical nlc.!!~i~q c;f rhc. ti's:. iiitsn Ict's len\c the surface meaning. the literal mi.,ini:1<, i~cshir~tf. ,id so thcra is reall!- no need for us fo keep the Snl~h~:if~ or r!.tb 11 hole business of the sacrifices and the ctietarv Ian-s." I'hilo \1;i> .tis-incrt b!- this rcsult and said. "Oh, no, no. xou inustn't do tll,it, \I-c 1I:lat.t J1 go on doing wh'lt the literal sense says." But rvhilc s,t!ing this hc sltcaks \-en- scornfull\- about the simple. ordinary, i-~iIq,~r-. \ oti k71<-)11 . rhc h,,; poiioi; for thkir de ire mu5t stick ~ith the t)t.i:i),ir! . \\ ith tilt' ~urf:tcc~, thc litcrlil meaning. but those far ;~dt-;i~>cl'rl ill k~l(i\t fi'tfyc, d11cl understanding. the philosophers, the\ lii-c not at th,it lo\\c..t Itr\\l!- Iercl of tfw test. but at the hisher Ie\-d \\-hcrc. \riu fil:c! the. !.tc!l 3ouI of the trsl. ~~11 t* shrlulcl looh orr :dl these out\\-3rd observitnces as i-esemt1li11y tllr i~o~il-; n11ci r!:cir inner meanings as resembling the soul, It folI(.)ns that, c.uctI\. as \re have to take thouglit for thc botl!-, ht*c,iu~ it is thc. .lb&k of the soul, so we 11lur;t pa!. heed to the 1c:ttc.r of thc. I,1\\-s. If n-e keep anct observe rhesc, 15-e sh;lll pain ;i c.Ic.,tri.s contt~ption of those things of .r\-hich these are the ?\nlbols: ancl hesidcs that \ye shall not incur the censure of the Inan!- and thc charges thev are sure to bring against us." 'De \li::rtztif,r.~~ L41~~-d~~~~~~i, 93. -1-oeb ir. 185 > Iil Philo \\ llii\ c. thc attempt to bring phiIosoph\- nnct theolu~ into Iliirnion\.. The\ ;ire reatlv about the sitnle thing. and PhiIo is at pains to tho\'\. ;hat \;hat 1sas &st nnrl trucst in the philosophy of the Greek, \\-;i> ojnctllillg that thev yrobablv got froin \Ioses. alri if thm clirln't sc.t it fro111 Jioses thin they pt it from God n.ho brousht thvhl 1.r knon thew thi~lp b\- \\-a\ of their philosoplll ti-hich God. h\ t11c. \\a> of his cft5'1ling uith ~srhel, had sholvn also.to the> jc,\\.s." ~llinp inimical and mutuallv esc.lusi\-c need not tscluhlc too much ;I 1~311 skillcrl in ,~lIc~or!-. and Philo was skillcct. 111 G~nc~is thc characters arc allegories of states of the soul. :Idam ;ind E'vc are 1-t'ason and scnsualit\-, \\.hich s~iggests \vh~- the Fall, ancl \\.hat is meant b~. sin in a Greek and cjuite unbit~licnl \\'a). Abel is purc piett- n.ithor;t intellectual culture, Cain is the egoist, Seth sirtlie inlbu~~cl lvith \\.isctorn and truth. The four ri\.css of Paradise arc. rhc' four- c-d~-tfin,~i ~irtuc~. Joseph it, thc t1.p of the 5tatcLsman, his coar of man\. colors intlicntes that his polic>- is intricate ancl difficult tr~ nnr,l\el. For a11 his exaltation of the allegorical 11lethod in contrast \\-it11 the 1itt.r;ll Philo Joo not rct dm\ the histor\ of the literal meaning. The lircral ~~lca~ininc;. i3 i~,l~orta"t for thc ?V'hen the test is not absiircl it ma\ be talicrl lilcl-,iI1\. ;!> ?\!~c~i we read, "God is not a man." :Stilrl. 23: 19. lic~ 5olr!t:ii\ 731::. "Keeping in i-icn. thc n-n\.s of thinking of thc cluIlc.1- i'olli" 11.c 1l;1\ t, statements of punish~ncnt, and "for the instruction of 111~ r!ian\ ." "God is like a man." (Dcut. 1 : 3 1. Q~lorl DCZIS ~JJIII;I!~~~I~III? \it, 5 3f. Loeb iii, 3 7) "Among men some arc soul lovers, somc bod\ io\ cr.. -1 flc comrades of the soul. \\.ho car1 hold con\-crsc \\'it11 ii~tclli ci hlc incorporeal natures, tfo llot comparc thc Esistcnt to ;!TI\ fi~l-111 of created things. The\- hn1.c tlissocintctl 1-Ii1;l f'roill (;\cr! category or qualit\.. for it-is onc of tile facts \\.hit11 go ro ~l~al\c His blcssednr.ss ;~hd suprenie felicit\- th~t Elis 11c.ing ih nl~pl-c- hendecl as siinplc bc,ing, \vithout other clcfinitc. clinrac tcrihtii.; and thus they do not picturt' it with form, 1111t ;iil~!li~ to rllcil- minds the co;lccption of c.sistc11cc onl! . (5 5 > Abram is first at the let-el of Hagar, "i\-ho is tllc t'clucutio~~ of' the schools . . . being an Flgyptian b!. tlcsccnt she. \\.;is clu;~li tictl to see the supremc Cause." (De So~~rlriis 240. Loeb 1' 4233 .\1!1-;111;1111 leaves the lo\\-er education, thc secular lcarning of thC ~c~l~~ol~, for Sarah \\-ho is generic and irnperishablc ~irtuc. Ha~ar is ~'ilst out \\.it11 her "son, the sophist nanlcd Ishmacl, 311~1 \.ii-tue ~I\C'S bi:-tll to happjness, that is 1saac.l iL)e Clzerzibill~ 3-8; Loc21 11, 9-13. 1 c8:~lii[ Allegoriue ii. 82. Loeb 1, 273). Sr~rah is also philosoph\ \vfiosc~ ft-[[its are firlest when "practiced for thc honor and ser\-icc of Gcxl.'' ;Ilc Cc~zgressii qzrnerelldne Erlrrlitioriis grrztia, 78-80. Locb I\-. 49: k'. ,) In the matter of the ox that mav not be niu~~1c.d l'hilo tloc's ]lot suKer by coinparison \vith St. Paul kho sn!s it \\.as ],or \vritti.n for the oxel;. tl Cot-. 9: 9; This la\\- forbids muzzlinq thc os when it trcitcl> ol~t tllc corn. It is the ox \\.ho before the clccp soil of thc lo\\ lancls rc.cci\ c.3 thc seed, cIcavcs the furrol~s and sets tht. fieltls ~-~s;~cl\ for heal-en and the husbant11n;ln. For the husbuncl~i~an that hc ]nay son- the seed in due season, for hea~en that its kinell\. gifts of rain ma)- he rccri1-rcl in thc deep holIoivs lvhich storc thcnl up and deal them out p,ut b\. part as rich nourishment to tiic crop until it brings forth first rile car and then the ~onsulnm~~tion of the \early fruit, and after that consummation the os is again ncccssarv for another scr\.icc to purge the ~bca\-~> ;~ntl sift the refuse frbm the gcnuinr ,intf ttscful material. It it a "kindl! ant1 bene\.oIcnt injunction on behalf of tllc oscn hcn treading the corn" {De l-irt~ttil~~fs, l4Sf. Loch 1-iii, 2 5 3: . When n-e come to St. Paul we hear hinl saying: "It is written in tlw Ian- of 31ost.s, vou shall not mrr/rlc thcl or 11e11 it is tl-catfins OLII the grain. IS it for oxen that God is ctrncc~rncci) Docs 11c not spcak cntirel\. for our sake7 It was 11 rittcli for OL:I- \illi~, ~CC~~LIS~ tll~ plo~~;l;a~i ~l10uld plow in hope ancl tliu tfit-eshcr thresl~ in hope of3 share in the crop. If \re ila\ c. so\\-11 hj>ii-it~1.11 SOCKI anlong !,oil, is it too much if I\-e reap !-our ~nntcrinl be~~cfits. If others share this rightful clajm upon \ OLI. ilo ]lot 11.c still most>?" l'hilo LI nclt.1-5 t oocf DCLI tcrcl~~c,n~\. as taI king about oxen. St. Paul seem5 to 5~1gyst th;it in Dcuteronomv \i-c hare the instruction that pastors alloultl hc paid. \\hilt nc hay doubt his excgtic;il mcth- c~lolog! I\C. I supljose, arc ulilikcl\- to argue \\,it11 his conclusion. Thew it is, St. I'i1111 docs it. Is it neccssiuy to bail St. Paul out, mtf gi\c si~ch n clcfirlitioli of aIlcjior!- so that he isn't guilty of it, or do ~.(~II(~c'I~II~ hi111 for it, or do \\e sn!- he can't allegorize and thcrcforc- Iic* tluc'sn't, nncl somcho\\- csplain it a\ray b!- anothcr form of allcgo~.i/,ition. I suppose, or, the apostle docs \\.hat he docs. I may not fttcl t11,lt his erc~gc~tical rnc~thotl is \vorth an ".A," hut I an1 in no po5ition to call :I fo~11 011 an apostlc. It's \\-hat he sa\-s, ant1 that \\.e all iigrcc \~itlI~. \\'hen he secms to sucrcrcst that that is n.fiat b." I)eutcrn~~o~nr is about \\-c may 1131.~ our rcscri-ation. It is not ciloug11 .I, . to sa\. \\ it11 1-lcis111ann that he sycaks "as a man from the tit!.. ." I shoultl likv to think that if \ve get to hc;l\.cn and sal to St. Paul, "'i L o\v ho\r coulc1 \otl ha\-c tlonc such tlrcadfuI rxcgeticai methodolog!- thcre in I ~'orinthians': J'ou rc.;iIly kilo\\- that in deuteron om^ it n-as a\,out oxen :~nd not ;~boet pastors getting paid," and he rvoulcl say. "Yes. of course, you fool, hut I \\.as just operating \rith this methodolog!. to sa!- sonicthing that nccdc.d to be said to the church at that ti~ne, and \\-hat b;tsic.alt\- it is is itn ariprner~t from the lesser a11d the greater an rr fortiori its ;)ur I-ortl fiimsclf uscs \\-hen hc ssvs, 'If Gocl so clothes thc grass of the ficlcl, I\-llich tocla, is ah\-c ant1 fo~;lorro\\- is thro~~n into the o\.c>t~, I\ ill 11c 11crt much morc clothe you, 0 men of little faith?' The same point 3s thc spsrro\\-s!" L.su;~ll!. n distinction is nlarIe bet\r-een the allegor, that the jc\vs got into tllc habit of thing-or perhaps Jcns is s;l!.ing too 1nuc1l- thcrc \\.as Philo and before hirn there was Aristobulus, hut Philo's methoclology hail no s\vceping succcss or popularity i1mo1lg the Jews in gencral. It had its peatest success and fruit ant1 use among the Christians. Thc distinction made is between the philonic, the Ales- andrim use of allegory, and that of Palestine. St. Paul's use of aIlcgor\. is usi~allv put -under the Plilcstinian rabbinical tradition of allegorical usage.' Some of it doesn't all quite fit into that catcgor? either, but \oil do havc in the Palestinian use of the allegory a power- ful insistci~c,e that one mar not Ica1.e the literal meaning behind for anothcr onc. You may recognize a figure or n metaphor in the Old Testamvnt but vou may not on that account come unstuck from the litcrnl iiic.;ining of it. Thcre is the great image in Scbuchadnezzar's dream; they don't deny that he had a dream, and that's \\.hat it \\.as, but they then \rere itnlxlled to try and make head or tail of it. It is in that tradition that the allcgorizinp; of St. Paul mostlr fits. Ho\v strongly the Palestinian traditioil felt about not cciniiilr: LIII~~IIC~ from the literal meaning, not floating oft' on lllatonic jdc;l\. i5 ~i;it\\-n by an injunction regarding somebody that takcs for his tc,\t. I)(.II- teronomy 22:6, "If you chance to come upon 11 bird's 11c.i: ill '!I)\ tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs. ancl tilt ~ilotl~cr sitting upon the \,oung or upon the eggs, you shall not tnLc tl~c. 11iothcr with the youno,*!-ou shall let thc ~nothcr go, but thc !.oung \o~i n:+ take to pourseif:" If an!bud!- starts quoting that tcst in ;I s\ nozoguc sermon the rabbis become apprehensive. The!- 3~1spc~ct tilcct ;In allegorizer is getting undcr \\.a!., and is likel\ to begin tillking ;rbi!ut the idea of the all-pervading. all-incIusi\-e d i;.inc nlr n\, ;,ncl nl;ll;iny that the whole of n;hat thc law or God arc about. OIIL.~ !ou'\-c got an attribute detined nicel!~ for God, then \.ou'\ c ~olnc11(1\\ got him taped and he ma!- not behave contrary tb !,our dctinitiolr t tl1c8 attribute. \17e sin\- that operating among thc Grcclis, ;~nrl ill tlic Palestinian tradition of the rabbis the!. were going to Ila\c5 11011~. of that at all, and if a man opcncd up his mouth and csclai~iicd, ''I'll\. mcrcv extends e\,en to the nest of a bird," they shoutcd, "Sit do\) 11 ;i11(1 be q;iet."!' St. Paul n-ns not rearcd in ;l contczt t11:rt grci~tl, cncour- aged allegor~; at best it was ir "llnr,,llosr Ircj~rliletisr~lrc Sl!iclr>r-ci.":' No\v I don't think we can get into St. Paul in ;In! kind 01' p~i~-tic.trl;ir detail this morning. \\-e mentioned Hagar and Sarh ant1 so oil, and the ox treading out the corn. Lct us hurricdlv folio)\. tllc :~ll~~or\ through in thc Christian tradition a little. Allegorizing saturated the syncretistic second ccn tu~.!. '~ntl c\ en its opponents used the method as lve havc in Aristidcs, jn .T;1ti:i11 and in Pseuclo-Clcment. CClsus the Gnostic descrjbc~s <'llristialr ai!c.- gorizing as a retreat of shame at the immoral stories in the* l3i blc"'- the sort of passages that you tend to skip \vhcn you arc reading tlie Bible at family de\-otions. At thc same time, tl~c Gnostics allegorirctl \vhoIesale. BY and Iargc, however, the church said no to allcgor\.. PrincipaIl!- th; spokesmen n.cre Iranarus, and then n~ost drastical1v Tertullinn who san- phiiosoph!. as the mother of 311 hrc.s!-, and n.oLll;l have no truck with it. The blossonling of Christian allegorizing was the achie\,cmt.nt of Alexandria and the school there, the school then \vhich 112s Philo behind it, Aristobulus and the Aristeas sort of things as rvc.11. Thc first man of the great school of Alexandria is Pantaenus \\-hon1 his disciple Clement called " a veritable Sicilian bee." He buucd itbout the fields gathering honey and then giving it to his students. Sicilian honey was the best there was in the ancient \\rorld, and this \\-as Clement's encomium to Pantaenus about whonl ~vc knoiv \.irtually nothing. As far as his life was concerned we do kno\~- he \vas barn a pagan and had first of all a Stoic upbringing. And rcmelnf,er the Stoics are great on ethics and on providence, the ultimate purpose and harmony in God. Providence comes from the Stoics, not froin the Bible. Pantaenus' great disciple was Clement of Alexarrdrin, c. 200. He holds that philosophy is of divine origin and hc seeks to do for Christians what Philo had sought to do for the jell-s and their Old 'I'est;tniclit. Clcniunt \\.as a profoundlv learned man but not a verv ori 1. Ilc is nl~lcli indehtcd to 'philo. You hare again ~Iatb and Stoicis~~l coli~ing through po\\.crfull!.. Ho\ve\,er, it is with the gre;~tc.st of the i!llcxorists that ive slioulrl perhaps spend a minute or tn.0, i111tf this {\.;IS Origcn, one of the greatest ~ninds of all times. l3orrl in ;ilcsaritiri;~. c. 185, died a rnal-tyr in c. 254. He is the first one to 11l:iIie C. hrist inni t\- rcalIy ncade~~iicnlIy respec table. For him all C11rizti;tn iloctrinc ukimntcll rcsts on allcgor!. The Holy Spirit uscd tllc guirc of iiistoricnl ni-iting o11l!- as a means for teaching philosuphicnl t11eoIog1-. I\-e have agnjn the principal operative of the things that 'ire un\\-orthv of gml, and he works with the anthro- pologicnl cntegories nt' flesh,' sol11 and spirit. .And flesh, of course, is thc litcral mt.;inir~g. soul is the ph\,sical allrgori-, and spirit is the cthicd ;illcgol-!. tfic highst catcgor! thvn being th ethical. You see ho\\- the t~tflici/ing in the understanding of the Gospel is operative herc ill~o. 'l'fiu three, levels of the test are matched by three classcs of I-C'IC~~Y~ , !jc l)~.i~i~,i~~iiq I \.. 1 1 >. Yo\\. i 12 suli~n1;lrv, Origcn : "Combint3tl thc unphilosophical tradition of the church with the (;nostic-_\'el\.-Platonic tendencies of the century on a higher intelIcctua1 plane and thus created a theological struc- ture of ad~niriible grandeur and completeness. But he had no feelilig for the deeper essential probienis of a trul~ Christia~l thcolog!.. For that \-ery reason his solutions met with an easy ancl apparentl!. uncontroversial success. Thev \\ere the solu- tions of a theorist of genius who constructed *realit!- from the idca. (thoroughl\. Platonic thing to do) without being mol.ed at ;I ctecp'r ~c\.el'by doubt and suffering. Such pcople do not fincl it difficult to obtain pupils and successors. (The! are accornmocl;lting the Zeitgeist of the day. These are the Inen th;lt are unfailingI!, rt.le\.ant!) It \vas on11 among the succeeding gcnvratio~~s of his follolvers that the progress of historical de\~el- opnicnt brought to light slo~r-lv but sureI\- the spiritual inade- quacics of the theolog! of Origgn."'" This is from \on Campenhausen. For such questions as the folio\\ ing Origerl finds dnsners \vith the use of allegory. "\Iv11at reasonable person nil1 belierye, for example, that the first, second and third day, evening ancl ~norning came into being without the sun, moon and stars, ancl the first clav even without the sky?" Or, "who lvould not be led to regard unch~stitv as nothing when he reads how Judah lay do\rn it a harlot or the patriarchs had several air cs simul- taneously." IDe Prizzciyiis, IV, 16). \\*here the literal meaning is unworthy of the \\isdon1 of reveiation we must look for the hyotzoin. "It is clccpI\ moving to note with what energ! and earnestness this great and de\-out scholar dedicates the work of a lifetime to fathoming the truth of this one ardently loved book, firmly con- vinced that he is on the way to penetrating ever more deeply into its content, while in fact he remains the prisoner of the assumptions of his Ylatoni~ing and Gnostici/illl_r o~~tlocll\. 111- capable even of seeing \\h:it scparatcs 1lin1 fro111 tl>t. OIL\ ,i:lrl New Testaments."' ' 1 \Vhen you ha\*e hecn to ;ilcsantlriii !.our ncst >LO!-, ~I~LI?! ,i iii .I\ 5 be Antioch. ' Their reaction to thc hcrmcncuticnl tLi.il\ i~ h;lli~~\\l!;~t parallel to that of Palestinian Jeivry to the ;iles;tnd;.iall ,~ili.~ot-i/i~~~: an ardent rejection of t21c method of alIcgory, a prL\f'c.t.c~~~c' 1'0)- :I~c use of typology for coming to terrns with the esposi!irm o!' ti>? (.)lrl Testament, and an insistence upon the historicit\. of it. But so Iong as onc is thinking in alternati1-cs, t1li.i 01- ti1,lt. OIIC is still in danger of not ha\ ing the organic \vholt.nt.ss of tllc tc\t. ihe test does not come at us at two or tl~rec altt.rnati\-c le\ csk. \\ I?;irc\ cr lev-el it comes at us 011 j1.t' takc it ancl do not go an\ \\ ht\t.c. ~,l>c hci) illti, , > above or below it. Occ;lsion311!- that le\-cl is t hc> lc\ c.1 of i~ll<~~o~.\ .-- Then the allegorical scnw is tllc sc~lslls litrrczlis, thc illtt.nci~.tl \c'll.ic.' It \\-auld be ncccwar! to folio\\- the mctllotl thr-o~rgll i!.i tri~ils- nlission into the 3fiddIc :lst.s. From Origcn comcs tllc !out-fol:! hc'11.i~~ of scripture. Tflis \\-as \\.hiit Luther was reared in. .-il\\.L~\ ~L,IIIC~II- her that Luther enterccl an rnonastvri iiriil :I\ 5uc.11 Ilc had the Platonic tradition as represented in zlug~~stinc, '111~1 in !lib earlv theologv he operates with tIie categol-ies of \-i>ii)lc. ill\-it;il>lc,, teniporal cteinal, earthl\-/hc;lvenly, letter and spirit. :l11c1 11c o111). oets there, he is onlv a I;rol~er I-i~th~ran, \\hen Ilc no lollgi..r i\ \\orl\- P lnp \\.it11 this dualit\(, hut \!-hen the \Yorcl of God is organic::lI\ \\ llolc. "The \\-ord became flesh and d~velt among us." ThV Incilt-n;!- tion o\.erthro\\-s the disjunction. Calvar! does not il1~1str;itc. an ii1c.a or e\.idcncc a princiylc. \\-hat happened thero mr~l;c.r, r11l the tiitf1.1-- encc. Tlic $ift of this ~nd thc Gi\.cr are tlierc fol- 11s. ;I> 11,: Ilns appointed, in \\.ords, the water, the \vine and the h1-cacl. On]\ in their puzzling contingent and offc~lsive cartllly lo\\.lint.s i.i hc slirc'l?, there for us; else\vhrre 1iot." It is necessary for us ar scr\.:ints of tl~c M'ord to I;no\\- a~id 11instCr the \-arious her~n~~ic~~tici~l ;1:1d c'~c~~ti~~31 tcchniqucs so rh~r \\c k110\\. /lo\\- the tcbrt has ant1 c.,ln hc. clc;l1t \\ ith, and the11 hc in a position to assess tlie \-aliclitv ancl L:S~~'L~II~C.~~ of' ;in\. one of tll~~n. \\.c ha\-(: looked at only the allegorical onc in ratlre); cursory form this morning. Having done a11 our hard c\cyc.tjcal sweat. it conlcs do\\-n finallv to being at the rc.cci\,iny entl of thc text. \\:hat it says gocs. ~hc how of the test mnv often pcrp1c.x us. but what it says, that's it. This schml has a noblc tradition of train- ing senrants of the \\-ord, men who are "under the \\'orcl," \\ ho tnkc what it saw, and don't llunt behind, over or undcr it, or in an\- \\-a\, dodge it o; rise abow it, hut tahc its or\n life-giving inll~il~t illto thrir lives and carr!- it into thc \\-orId. \lay God haw good i~sc of vou. 1. This and thc follo\\ing fragments are to bc found in h,ithlc.t.n Ercc.man's Ancillu to rlrc Prc-Sucratic PJlilosopllcrs (Osford, 1948 :, p. 22. 2. Tatian, Orrrtro ndr.erclr \ Grrrecos, ssxi. Ancilla, p. 15. Cf. Frjtr. Wchrli, Zzlr Crcschrchte dcr allcgortschen I)c'utrt~lg Horrrc~ i inz .\i:i,r-ti!~;! : I;~,l.r~;i-l.c.il,j.ig? 1926;. p. 3 5 "Da z\\.ci tlcr kalnl>fcnden Paarc 1liL.l~: ;;h\ii!,.i!iscl~ reclc-utc~rl inJ, . . . so \var das Interessc des crstcn I ~.il,i:-c-~-, .liii~t ~)~!t~~r\\.i.s~~'n~ch~ftliCh. so~lclern apoIogetisch." 7 '( 2. I It ~ILI o. 66 < 1907), pp. 503- j 10. 4. '' 'I i.i~:i;~ I:;j:tic :-\ r i:r ;~!:i~t' \\its ontL ot his dicta, ;tnd is burlesqued in the 1. 3 ~ccortlinl." 1. Eurnct, Crcck Pllilosoplr!. (London, i 9h2 . i,. i 2 3. .I tr~it11 inconirt~\.ertif>~c fnr anyone \vho has lived in . , J :~~;.~;~(i ,III(! \ A:~I.IY,I;~(I. 5. <{:1:111;1rc~ t11~ .tilc.c(,l.ir,s of thc suh-conscicncc. In :inother contest C. S. I c,\\ i, r~.ln;!r.l~,. " l hi. ob\ious parallel is nlotlcrn ps!.cho-nrlalysis and iti \i>.~~Iti\\\ IX:.~III~CIEC~~ SLIC~II as thc 'ccnsor.' r\t ;I diffcrent le\.cl, it nijght 1,~ .i~-<~ic,tI :];.it :I,c ,~l?plic;~tinn of ps!choloxical terms at nll to the un- cor~,c.iouc is ;t4cjt' r! s~~ccies of allcgor!.. ;is Passions i~ccon~c Pcoplc for ttit. ;iIl~.qori4t. 1 .ill the :I~IC~OI~SC~OU~> hcconlr,s Passions for thc anal!-st; (1:- .!t Ic,a>t Ile. c'rrl t:t:li of thcnt on]\ as if they \\err 'cl~sir~~s,' kc.--la qttnlc c r;\,t \< : rJllLi., lid : ( i ;tiitlc. C' j~ll~ri. .-IS the first celitur!. dived to the ps!.cllo- I(.sic..!l !)I th:. ,iici 1.1' I'c~r~rrnific;~tir~r~ thc t\\-entic-th dives to thc sub-soul i!\ :I)(., ,I it! tvi' .l'.~\~i(:~ti!ic~~tion.' 7.11~ :\iic :. 0 i . h. "\l~,tl.l:~lo:.~~>' tlt(:~.~ii~ll~~i!l~ nilturnlisrn rcall!. rn:idc. Homer rc.Iigio~~sl\- ~rr-cl~~ ,!:It. I't r.i~,llib ii c.c;lrlti 1x3 collcc! :i l\rt.~-n;lturt, s\-l~thc.sis of sricncc . 7.. iill~i ! C,L~CII~I:. I:. 11. (I~.<\III, TI1r J~ttc,~- iij~il ~IZC .Spirit , 17. 4. 7. 111:. !I,!) see, 1;tri:crt j{~-[:(:kc\' !!C,L~I.~>II. I;. J r.! "1 t~c, ~:cl<.t (10cx 1lcri im;~g~r?c that it js thc god who contril-cs c~\ils for i;l.tnl,int!, hut I>\ tfic rii~nic hc. rightl!. implies the conipclling force of cir-c1rili.!;~nc.c.4." '2 1111' ':. . See 19E. Psl-~~clo-L'Iut;~rch on the. rhcornacl~y, Dc l'itn rt Pvrsi Iforncl-i, 107. 9. < t'. -1~. G,~lii~i'~-t/. Ci.c:c,k 7'llilzk~r.j. Trans. I.. .\Jagnus (Lonclon, 1949), I, 3-5. 1'. 455: *'l-l?c, transf'ercr~cc of t!~c conception of suhstancc from th[. rrl.~tL.~-i,rl \\(~,~lil. its rlrigi11:rl hornc., hacl not >ct taken p1;lc.c. 1:). !. -1 ,!tt., "l'!r~to r!~i~I :iI!~'goricaI 1nti.1-prctatinn," Clnssicrrl Qrirzrtr~l!, 23 ' 1929 , i42-ii4. 1). 145. 11. < f. C'. 3. l-t,\\i,. 013. ci!, 12 83 12. kI. o11 .irnirn. \!~iic~cjt~~l~rr ~ctc*l-zrnr frlrgn~critir (I.eipzig), ( 1905;, 1. 539. oc:<,t~,~l I)! I;. I). I. F1'1nznn. Tlrc Ic.ttcr- l~irll tltr Spit-tt :London. 19 57) - TI. ;. 13. Jr:.r~;:~.r~s ol~c,l~s his 1rlout11 for the dunlb and the blind in r\~l~.c-r-slts JIJC.;.L ! iL (I\ I, 9, 4. <:f. 11. 11. Gritnt, I.~L, JJI!~,I.JJ~-~-~L~I~O?~ of t11cs Eliblc or11 I. . 5-12. Therc is an out of the \\.a). essay on this ll~.r-,rcli:[~~ in 5ornl~ic.rlatfl's Frstschrift, Bckc~tr~rt~tis zur- KircJ~c (Berlin, lC)hO;, I'P. 9- 14: "1)c.r Hon~crdeutcr Hcraklcjtos," b!- J. Lcipoltlt. 1-1. (;I.,III~, 17. -52. ".Inti among thc Christian intc1ligcntsi;l of tllc second ccntitt-\. re\~~lsicji~ f'rc>m the Old Tcstamcnt must hi\\-c bccn \vidcsprcacl. It \\;I>, tu ;111 t,cluc;itc.d Grc.c.L, an unpleasant hook. Its legislation sccmcd triii.11, arltl 3iirnc. irf its moralit!. was clcarl!. imnioral. The God \vho sp(tLc. to Isr-,~i.i \\;IS ~rn\\-orthy of the respect of philosophers. Cf. Paul I4cinisch. 1)c.r F influsr I'hilos auf dic altcsti~ christlichc Escgcsc (Sliinstcr, 1907:.. pp. 3 & 23. 1-5. lf~.iniscil> 11. lh. ''llii. I'liilnsophic solltc. ihncn c.in .\littcl zum bcsscren \crst,i~~ilnih il~rcr Iicligiorl win. Dasz sir \on1 Glauf>cn tlcr \'liter nh\\ic-!ic,ri. intlt,n~ 5ics 1.chrsitzc dcr ~c.rsc.11jcclenstt.n philosophischcn S!.stc nlc. clic. oft gcnug rnit dcm 0ffcnbarungsgl;lubcn ~~nvcrcinbar lvarcn, \\.ic (!it J.c.l~rc- \on rlcr PrSc~sistcnr dcr Scclc, tlic Idccnlchrc, die Lchre \on tler Horhit tfcr Jlatrtric., als schcinhar schriftgcmasz annah~ncn, tl'~r;rrl d:~cLtcn ~ic nicht. Sic hiclten sic,h \ic.lmchr gerltdc fiir cifrige J[rclc,n, (la sic ;In c1c.r Obcrflfchc dcr Schrift nicht \cr\rciltcn, sorldcrn in ihre Tiefe eindrangen.= Legzun Allegoriae I, 108, Loeb, I, 2 10; Qlris Rerum 214, Loeb IV, 389. Celsus, of course, said it was thc othc,r ?\'a!- round. Contra Celsli~n, 1, 19-20; IV, 11, 42, 79. 16. A. Deismann, Paulus, 2nd ed, translated by W. E. IYjlson (lt~!!ltlr.~rl. 1926), p. 103. 17. H. L. Strack and P. BilIcrbeck, Konlnzcntar zu7n xi'[l~~l TC'.C~LI)IICI:~, 4th ed. (Munich, 1965), 111. 398f. 18. Strack-Billerbeck 111, 393. 19. Contra Celsurn IV, 38; I. 1'7; XV, 48-50, 89. 20. H. von Campenhausen, The Fathers of thc Grrck Cllltrch (Lo~?tlon, 1957), p. 55f. 21. Campenhausen, p. 49. 22. V, Taylor, The Gospel L4ccording to Illark (London, 19S3>, p. 7 10. "The shade of JiiIicher must not affright us from admitting ailcgor!. when we see it." Cf. J. D. Smart, The Intcrpretatiolz of Scr-iptur-t :]'hila- delphia, 19611, pp. 93-133. 23. Cf. Divino aflante Syiritzc; Denzinger, 2293. I-. :I. IS. 456,7: g{.r- manum scripturae sensum. TIT, 652, 24-27. 24. Cf. Luther's recoiling from a heavenly Christ at Alarhurg. Cf. :I. Oepkc, GescJzichtliche zind iibcrgcschichtliche Schriftnlislcgzrng (Giitcrs!oh, 1931) p. 8.