Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 3-3 (Text)

I (ttnutnrbttt (!Jl1rnlugtrul lInut41y Continuing LEHRE U_ 0 VVEHRE M.'\GAZIN FUER Ev -L TH. HOMILETIK THEOLOlJICAL QUARTERL Y -THEOLOGICAL MONTIIL Y Vol. III March, 1932 No.3 CONTENTS r MUELLER, J. T.: Lux Vent.,t 161 KRETZMANN, P E . Zwd pr,lktische Fr.\gen betretfs der hE:.ligen T .. L . . . • .. . . . . . . .. .. . 107 1 AIER. W. A.: Vag. ries o� TeJldential Exogesib as Illus- ., .d by the Interpretation of Is. 1, 18..... 175 SIHLER, E. G.: A Note on the First Christian Congrega- tion at Rome.. . 180 KRETZMANN, P. E.: Die HAuptschriften Luthers in chro- nologi::cher Reihenfol"e 185 LAETSCH, TH.: Studie tIl Hosea 1-3 . ... . . . . 187 KRETZM NN, P. E .. Th Fu:;nlH 1 .l! actor in Preaching 196 Dispositionen ueber dlf' :..welte VOll der Synodalkonferenz angenommene EV'n,,'elienreih ' . . .. .. . 202 Mi cellnn"" 213 Theologico1 0 "�rver. - KiI'chllch-Zp.itgeschichtlichE's . .. 216 Book ne"l � . - LiLt 1 �tur 233 E Pred\g(r muss nicht alletn WMdtn, n' 0 er die Schafe unterwciae, w ie ale re<:hte Chri ten 801len eeln, .. ,,,de:n Jch d. � b � den Wocfen wehren dasa 1.. I t .. � -• .lJUI t J die hr .. I der Kuche Lehaelt t! n d. gute l'redlgt. - - ApoloU!:, Arl.24. lie d' I3chafc nieht angreifeu uad mit If fhe 'rumpct rr\ve an unctrtaln sound. fais.:ber I,e!lle �·.;fuehrcn und lrrtum e1n. who " pr"Pare �Imsc'f to the battle' f'Jehren. - LulMr. 1 Cor. �. 8. I Published for the I Ev. Luth. Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other states t CONCORDIA PUllLISHING HOUSE, St- Laut • Xo. 216 Theological Observer. - mtd)lid)~8eitgefd)td)tltd)es. Theological Observer. - ~itdjlidj.geitgefdjidjtlidje~. 1. Amrrilm. ffiiid'gnulJ her ijumnniftifdjen ~ifbun!l. )fiie bet "Ir~tifmdje ~pologete" miiteirt, tutrb audj aUf bet oetfrfjmten Yale University in Bufunft ba§ @tiel'f)tfcfjc unb 2a±einifcfje nidjt mefJr borgcfcfjtiebene§ ®tubium§fadj fein. )fitr lefen: "RSom niicfjften 0afjte an tuirb bte ametifanifcfje Yale University 110n ben \![ntuiir±ern aUf einen afabemifdjen @rab bie ~enn±ni§ bet laiei. ntfcfjen unb griecfjifcfjen ®pracfje nicfjt me~r berlangen. $Diefet mefcfjlut ber griitten amerifanifcfjen Sjocfjfcfjule ift 'beaeicfjnenb fUr bie mobernen Biele be§ amerifanifdjen mUbung§fiJftem§, unb bie ®tubenten bon [Jale briicfen in ifjrem tiigIidj erfcfjeinenben Organ ifjre &enugtuung bariiOer au§, baf3 fie enbIicfj bon bem 8tuang beftett finb, ben ifjnen ,ber Unberftanb ber mOr" fafjren' aufgeatuungen fjabe. ~nbeti3 urteift bagegen ~rof. malpfj lmagofftn, ber \!Utmeifter ber naffifcfjen ®tubien an ber UnibE!t:fitiit j)letu [Jod unb ~riifibent be§ meroanbe§ ber Uaffifcfjen ~fjHoiogen. ,~cfj fjaIte e§, runb" fjerau§ gefagt, fUr ein UngIilcl", fIagt er, ,bat nacfj atueifjunbert ~afjren fJumaniftifcfjer SjodjbIilte eine unferer grof3en Uniberfitiiten dnen efntfcfjlut faf3t, in bcm bieIe ®acfjfunbige nUt ein bebauetIicfjei3 @Sinfen ifjre§ j)libeau§ au fcfjcn bennogen. $Der efntfdjlut ift bie Monfequena aui3 ber materia. Iiftifcfjen \![nfcfjauung unferer Beit. efr ift um fo bebauerIicfjer, aIi3 [Jale in unfetnt 2anbe ben @ipfel fjumaniftifcfjet mUbung bebeutete, ber Die llniiJerfttiit bot ber ~etfucfjung fcfjill.?en fDrr±e, mit bet ~op1l1atitiit au neb. iiuge1n. efi3 fjanbeIt ficfj fjiet ia nicfjt nut um ctnen @Scfjlag gegen 2aieinifcfj unb @riecfjifcfj, neiu, e§ tuirb bielmefjt bie ~16t an bie )fiUtael bet fjuma. niftifcfjen mm)Ung gelegt.''' ~. ~. lm. Chiliasm Rejected. - If all spokesmcn for the Lutheran Church of America in the past had observed the sound principles of Scripture inter- pretation voiced with respect to Rev.20 in the Lutheran Standard for January 2, 1932, Chiliasm would not have been one of the four points which formed one of the chief topics of theological debate in our Church in the sixties and seventies of the last century. The Rev. W. N. Emch writes in answer to a question pertaining to Rev. 20: "It would be much better, it seems to me, if people would cease to try to figure out 'the times or the seasons which the Father hath put in His own power,' and it certainly would be much better if people would cease to interpret the highly figura- tive and symbolic language of the Book of Revelation in a way that grossly contradicts the plain statements of the gospels and the epistles. 'Christ will come again to judge the quick and the dead.' His second coming is always associated with the final Judgmmlt of both the just and the unjust. Christ's kingdom is not of this world; it is a spiritual kingdom set up in the hearts of mcn. Just as many of the Jews misinterpreted the predictions of the Old Testament concerning the Messiah by looking for an earthly prince who would set up, and reign over, a magnificent earthly kingdom, so some now misinterpret Rev. 20 by expecting a splendid temporal thousand- year reign of Christ on earth. St. Paul says: 'If ye, then, be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. Set your affections on things above, not on things on the Theological Observer. - mtcf)lic!)~8eitgefcf)id)mcf)e~. 217 earth,' 001. 3, 1. 2. Thus we are not to look for great things in this world. We will live and triumph with Him face to face above. To that we look forward with great joy and expectation, but not to any visionary millen- nium in this world. Just how near we are to the end we do not know, and we are not anxious to know. 'Watch therefore .... Be ye also ready; for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of :11an cometh.' Here is the admonition we should heed. Nothing else is asked of us. As a thief in the night He will come; so it is not in the power of man to figure Qut the time. And when an.r one tries to predict to you times or seasons, put him down as a misguided fanatic." A. The Blindness of Modernistic Unionists. - It is almost impossible fnr a believing Ohristian to' understand the unspeakably great spiritual blindness of nul' modern unionists, of whom Prof. Wm. Lyon Phelps is an example. The Literary Digest, in a recent number, quotes him as favoring common action of Oatholics, Protestants, and .Jews against atheism and kindred evil. '1'he Litemry Digest writes: - "Instead of trying to unite, which is both impossible and undesirable, the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewisll religions 'should stand together against the common foe of atheism, indifference, materialism, and selfish- ness.' So appeals Prof. William Lyon Phelps in an address before the Free Synagog at Oarnegie Hall, New York "As it is, he points out, the three faiths 'wmship the same God. The religion of all three comes hom the same Book. All three believe in a purely spiritual worship and that this worship is indissolubly united with conduct.' Professor Phelps's point is that 'great, as are the differences that separate Jews and Catholics and Protestants, tIle things that unite them are still greater.' And just now, he believes, as he is quoted in the New York Times, there is greater need for the exercise of fellowship: - "'Nothing seems to me at once so silly and so tragic as for Catholics and Protestants to be fighting or fO'r Jews and Ohristians to be fighting. TIley arc fighting in the presence of a common foe, who is able, unscru- pulnus, and resolute as only such foes can be'. "'The army of the foe is made up of atheists, unbelievers, indifferen- tists, debauchees, behaviorists, sensualists, mnney-grubbe,rs and money- grabbers, self-lovers, and all selfish, depraved, degenerate, cruel, cocld-hearted children of this world.' " The answer to Professor Phelps's suggestion may be given by any child in the Lutheran school that has passed the primary grades. J. T. 11. The Purpose of Modernistic Church-Union Movements. - An in- teresting and illuminating article on this matter is found in the Su.nday- school Timcs, which comments Qn it as follows: "The purpose of present- day Unitarian Modernism is to infect evangelical churches, and the schemes for church unity promoted by this party are much as if a man sick Qf typhus should insist on walking down the streets of a city arm in arm with well people. In French Protestantism there nre modernist and evan- gelical groups of churches. The move for 'unity' ever comes from the former. Evangelicals are reluctant or opposed. It seems that an arrange- ment was made a generation or more ago by which both French groups were to work together along 'social and moral' lines through a commis- sion appointed for that purpose. This, it will be remembered, was the plan 218 Theological Observer. - .!titd)Hd)=,geitgefd)td)tnd)e!l. of the Stockholm conference of 1925. But the French Modernists are not satisfied. They want 'cooperation' along religious lines as well, although they know their beliefs are a flat negation of the evangelical faith. Evan- gile et Liberte, the official organ of Modernism, speaking of the last as- sembly of the French Reformed Church, says: 'Marseilles has marked an evident advance in the ideas dear to our paper. The side of the assembly which formerly denied to the Protestant Federation of France the com- petence required to deal with essentially religious questions now ask for just what they formerly refused.' "M. Vedrines traces in Le Ohretien Evangeliq'uG the course of the modernist maneuver. He notes a progressive deformation of the Commis- sion on Social Cooperation in a way acceptable to the Modernists. This has been brought about to make way for an ultimate fusion of Evan- gelicals and Modernists. He notes how evangelical pastors have been in- vited to occupy liberal pulpits and otherwise to fraternize with Mod- ernists. The methods used so successfully by Unitarians in Boston are being used upon French Evangelicals, so that one wonders whether these methods have not been commended to liberals everywhere as a plan of cam- paign. M. Vedrines is evidently aware of what is going on. He writes: 'It is true that the best means of inoculating our remaining evangelical Protestants with doctrinal skepticism, the infallible precursor of total skepticism, is the daily spectacle of these compromises which are now so customary.' "It is worth noting that numbers of devout Christians are cutting loose from the French Reformed Church simply because of these sinister union movements. The Salvation Army, which is having a remarkable advance in ]'rance, and the Brethren, with now some 160 churches, are said to be the especial beneficiaries of this revolt against 'church unity.''' J.T.M. Does It Indicate a Diseased Mind to Hold that Christianity Teaches the Only "Vay of Salvation? - Under this heading Oh1'istianity To-day takes to task the modernistic secretary of the Committee on Good Will between Jews and Christians of ille Federal Council, the Rev. E. R. Clinchy. The article reads: - "The Rev. Everet R. Clinchy, the Presbyterian minister whO' is secre- tary of the- Commit.tee. on Good 'Will between Jews and Christians of the Federal Council, seems to think that this question should be answered in the affirmative. In an article in the National Jewish Monthly (B'Nai B'Rith) he took upO'n himself as secretary of the committee just mentioned the task O'f replying to Dr. John R. Mott's pronouncemcnt to the effect that it is a Christian duty to seek to' convcrt the Jews to Christianity. Mr. Clinchy vigorously dissents from this judgment. lIe not only affirms that the Good-will movement as sponsO'red uy the Federal Council is op- pO'sed to efforts to' cO'nvert the Jews to Christianity, but in the course of his criticism of those Christian missionaries whO' feel it their duty to' a pproach the Jews says: 'The Christian missionary to' the Jews has the conviction (sO'metimes bordering on the pathological) that he has the only way of salvation.' Mr. Clinchy seems to think it surprising that any intelligent, healthy-minded person should hold that Jesus Christ is the only Savior, though, if such be not the case., the whole missionary work Theological Observer. - Stitd)lid)~,(leitgefd)id)md)eiJ. 219 of the Church has been an impertinence. In that case not only were Peter and Paul mistaken as to Christ's real significance, but the Great Commis· sian (lVIatt. 28, 19. 20) was itself a crime against humanity since it launched the Christian world upon a fool's errand, almost every step of which has dripped with wasted blood. 'We are not disposed to argue this matter. Suffice it to say that, if it is pathological to maintain that Ghrist is the only Savior, we think it a great pity that there are not more suffering from this disease. Be that as it may, those who not only call Christ Lord, but seek to do the things Omt He says will not be unmindful of tl1cir obligation to bear witness to Him as the one and only Savior. There is no reason why they should not recognize to the full all the good that is to be fonnel in other religions; but they should allow nothing to conceal from them the fact that, since Christianity is a true religion, it is the one and only true religion. For good or ill the future of Clll'istianity is bound up with the conviction that it teaches t11e only way of salvation." J.T.M. Ancient Manuscripts of the Bible. - Under this heading the Lon- don Spectator of December 5, 1931, puNished an interesting note, which Prof. E. G. Sihler, Ph. D., of New York University was so kind as to copy and to. send us for our journal. We herewith reprint the note:- "Many others besicles students of Biblical texts and ancient )l[8S. were thrilled a few days ago by the news nf the discovery of 106 nf Greek Bib- lical papyri, fragments of the Old a11(l New Testaments and a portion of the lost Book of Enoch, the apnCl'yphal work quoted in the Epistle of St. Jude. [?] Probably they were found in Egypt, but we only know that Mr. Chester Beatty, whose uollection of MSS. is known by the generous loans of his treasures, preserves them, that they were tenderly separated at Berlin, ancl that Sir Frederic Kcenyon has studied them and told us about them in the Times. Most arc of the third century, but the earliest arC' of a not late date in the second century and so' are actually the earliest known. When ignorant people airily doubt the 'authenticity of the Bible,' we wish that they could realize how far the age and wealth of Bible codices exceed anything nf the kind in classical texts which they readily accept as 'authentic.' The Times published a photograph of nne leaf, giving a passage from Rom. II, much more legible to the inexpert than many an English deed of the sixteenth century. Such treasures, witnessing to Christianity and to its scholarly treatment eighteen centuries ago, abound with romance and awe." The Ecumenical Conference of l'irethodists. - In October, 1931, the Mc,thodists of the world held their eeumcnical conference, which meds every ten years, in Atlanta, Ga. Practically all the countries of the world and all the various brands of Methodism were represented. From England Rev. J. Ryder Smith of the 'Wesleyan Methodist Church had come, likewise Prof. H. B. vV()rkman, known as a church historian. If we ask what these distinguished men accomplished, we are bound to be disappointed, provided that the re.ports of the meet.ings which have appeared hithe·rto can be trusted. What these people deliberated on is indicated by the words "war," "the liquor traffic," "capital and labor," "the dangers suggested by the term 'machine age,'" and the like. We are told that the conference went on record as favoring the outlawing of war and as supporting the pro- 220 Theological Observer. - .IUtdJlidJ=,8eitoefdJidJtlidJd. hibition cause. This seems to have been t,he main accomplishment of this World Conference. We cannot help thinking that these people assembled to voice their approval of moral platitudes. When, generally speaking, every- body is against war, they are against war, too. And that the Methodists are in favor of prohibition we have known for a long time. It mll.y be that at the meetings good testimony for the old Gospel as proclaimed in the Scriptures was given which the newspapers and religious journals have not been reporting to us. From this distance it looks as though the World Conference had been an empty, though rather expensive, gesture. A. Modern Protestantism Romeward-13ound. - In the fourth book of his series on Foundations of Faith Dr. W. E. Orchard states: "It could be claimed that it was over the question of purgatory that the Reformation took its rise, for it was Tetzel's sale of indulgences that fired the train of revolt in Luther's mind and caused the storm of indignation to burst forth which had long been gathering, with such profound consequences for subsequent history. Yet, strangely enough, it is at the point of this very same doctrine that the Reformation movement is now exhibiting a tendency to return to the Catholic faith." (E.schatological, p. 81.) The claim made both by Orchard, the Congregationalist-Catholic, and by the OathoUc En- cyclopedia that a goodly number of Protestants teach some sort of pur- gatory cannot be denied. The number of those Protestants who believe in a purgatory in the narrow sense or in a purgatory in the wider sense is "legion." And the Lutherans have contributed a strong contingent to this force. There is the Presbyterian who finally joined the Protestant Episcopal Church, C. A. Briggs, who taught a "progressive sanctification" of the be- lievers in the intermediate state and was disciplined for it. There is the Luthe'ran Kahnis, who taught: "There is certainly this truth lying at the bottom of the idea of a purgatory, that many Christians are still in need of cleansing. . .. They cannot enter paradise as they are if paradise is to remain a paradise. . .. We are thus driven to assume that in the future world purification and development is called for." (Dogmatik, II, 498.) There is the Lutheran Martensen, who taught: "As no soul leaves this present existence in a fully complete and prepared state, we must suppose that there is an intermediate state, a realm of progressive development, in which souls are prepared and matured for the final Judgment. Though the Romish doctrine of purgatory is repudiated because it is mixed up with so many crude and false positions, it nevertheless contains the truth that the intermediate state must in a purely spiritual sense be a purgatory, designed for the purifying of the soul." (Ohristian Dogmatics, p. 457. First sentence quoted in Oath. Encyol.) And there is Seeberg, who believes in "a purgatory of grace," and many others, Lutheran and Reformed. And it should give these theologians pause when they see the Catholics gleefully noting this development. For it marks a departure, not from some isolated, less important point of doctrine, but from the fundamental truth of Prot- estantism, the chief article of the Bible. Luther objected to the purgatory not so much because of the crudities with which the papists invested it, but because of the fundamental lie on which they based it: "For they deny the doctrine that faith saves and make satisfaction for sin the cause of salvation." (I, 1762.) Even so the Protestant purgatory is a denial of the free and full forgiveness of sins offered in the Gospel. Theological Observer. - .Rir~{id)~.Beitgef~i~tli~es. 221 Dr. Orchard and the Oatholic Encyclopedia might have pointed out, while they were at it, that modern Protestantism, assisted by Universalism and the other forms of Modernism, has constructed an extension of pur- gatory that is much more elaborate than anything the Catholics have essayed in this direction. This extension takes care of the infidels and heathen, at least of a great number of them, after death. Here we have hell as a remedial and purgatorial punishment, or we have Hades, the 'State of the se~ond probation. The Catholics have not devoted so much time to this matter, though Orchard, the Congregationalist-Catholic, makes the emphatic statement: "That the heathen can be saved without ever having heard of Christ at all is fortunately a doctrine tenaciously held by the Catholic Ohurch." (Eschat., p.125.) We know that some Oatholic theologians have held this view. The Jesuit Andrada, the opponent of Ohemnitz, insisted that the natural knowledge of God and the resultant moral endeavor are sufficient to save the heathen. (The Oatholio Ency- clopedia does not hold this doctrine, though it lays the groundwork for it. "The soul is natumliter Ohristia.na. . .. BeUer than Aristotle guessed, mankind [XSt u (fdo')!. . .. History shows us their [the pagans'] efforts and their failure; we thank God for the one and dare not scorn the other." [So t. 'Paganism.'] VV. Wilmers will not go any farther than this: "Wie anderswo gczeigt wnrde, ist del' Glaubc wcnigstens ebenso notwendig zur SeZigkeit als die Erfuellung der goettlichen Gebote selbst. Er muss also ebensowohl moeglich sein als diese; moeglich aber ist der uebernatuerliche Olaube nm" 1.tnter VOnLussetznng der Gnade, und folglioh wird diese allen IRGENDWIE verliehen; das heisst, allen wird entweder eine an und fuer sich uebernatuerliche Erleucht1tng und Anregung, mit der sie die etwa dar- jJebotene Of!enbarung erfassen koennen, oder doch irgendein innerer Bei- stand zuleil, der s·ie, wenn sie mitwirkten, endlich zu,m Glauben und Z1/.1' Seligkeit fuehl"en wUc.de. Dcshalb sind auoh vom Roemisohen Stuhle ent- gegenstehende Behauptt~ngen verworfen worden, unte1" andern diese, dass die Heiden, Juden und Hael"ctiker ke·inc Gnaden empfangen. . .. Kle- mens J X. vCl'warf in de?" Bulle 'Unigenitlls' folgende Sa,etze: Nnllae dantm" gratiae nisi per fidem. Fides est p1"ima gratia et fons omnium aliarum. Emtl-iJ, eoolesiam nulla conceditur gratia." (Lehrbuoh de?' Religion, IV, 90.) (Again the groundwork for tho thesis of Andrada and Orchard is laid.) Modern Protestantism. however, expends much energy on this matter. It is one of its favorite dogmas. And it is based on the Catholic doctrine of Pelagianism, the inherent goodness of man and salvation by works. Even Lutherans have taught, on Oatholic principles, the salvation of the heathen. Hofmann, for instance, taught that tho heathen may gain eternal life in virtue of their God-pleasing conduct, flowing from their natural knowledge of God. (Schriftbeweis, I, 568 f.) Modern Protestantism is Romeward- bound. The Catholics are glad to hail these men as partners in this matter. But let every man who finds these dreams alluring study the source of them. It is the Oatholic denial of salvation by grace alone, grace offered In the Gospel. - Other Lutheran and Reformed teachers provide for tho 'salvation of the unbeliever through a second opportlmity of hearing the 'Gospel in Hades. (Mellenbruch, The DOclrines of GhTistianity, p.205, treats it as an open question: "Should there be provision made for those 222 Theological Observer. - ~itd)1id) • .8ettgefd)id)tHd)e!l. unprovided for in the active Gospel progTam, God in His loving providence might or might not deem a purgatory necessary or advisable.") By the way, where do those Catholics who accept Orchard's and Andrada's thesis place the heathen who have not heard the Gospel in this life 'I It is unbelievable that the' heathen should directly enter heaven by virtue of his moral life while the best of Christians, the Popes included, must pass through purgatory. The Catholic future world has but five compartments. These heathen cannot entcr purgatory. That is reserved for the Catholics burdened with venial sins. Vnlcss thcy place them in the lirnblls patnv(J1, which is now vacant, they will have to adopt Orcharcl's expedient: "Tlw belief has grown up amongst sonw Catholic theologians, surely of great value and truth, that tlJe Particular Judgment [at the death of the individual] will be inaugurated for the soul by the vision of Christ as incarnate and crucified. . .. Surely we are entitled to believe that those souls who, while on earth, have known nothing of Christ and His Cross because they have dwelt beyond the area of Gospel light, as well as those sonls who, though they have heard, have never really seen or understood what the incarnation and crucifixion meant for them, will be presented with a full revelation of the love of God as set forth in Christ's humanity and Christ's Cross, , .. All souls shall have an opportunity of knowing tha,t the incarnate Christ is God seeking them." (P. 73 L) Or they might adopt the expedient proposed hy Kaehl8'1' and othOl' Protestants, according to which the needed opportunity will be given the unbelievers hy means of Christ's self-revelation at the pa1'o1lsi(t, at the final Judgment. In both cases they would, of course, still have an advantage over the Chris- tians, who must first pass through purgatmy. E. A :New Sport. - Wrestling-matches arc popular in certain circles. Otlwl's prefer attending the Religious Forum. It is great sport. "A pleas- ant time was had hy all," says the Christian Centm'Y of October 21, 1931. "Just how much is accomplished, we wonder, by these' fOTums, now so popular, in which representatives of the gTeat faiths and of no faith appear on a common platform to present their respective world views. There was one in Chicago a few nights agO'. Dr. John A. Lapp spoke for RO'man Catholicism, Dr. Charles "'iV. Gilkey for Protestantism, Rabbi Solomon Gold- man for Judaism, and Clarence Darrow for agnosticism. . .. Evidently the public was interested, for Orchestra Hall was filled to overflowing. But the impression is as of trains passing each other at high speed in opposite directions on parallel tracks. There is scarcely a single proposition on which any two speakers take definitely opposite positions. . .. Dr. Gilkey likes Protestantism because it is democratic and because it represents re- ligion as a. way O'f life and because it now faces the duty of opposing aU forms of social injustice. Rabhi Goldman praises Judaism because it urges the principle of social living, as the Protestants and the Pope do. . . . Mr. Darrow rests his case upon a denial of that Biblical infallibility and that burning hell in which few Protestants or Jews within reach of the discussion believe, with any intensity. So a pleasant time was had by all; but it may be doubted whether popular understanding of the great religions and irreligions was much advanced." Our modern wrestling-matches are not always bona-fide bouts. It is not intended that the best man should win. And so the opponents are Theological Observer. - .Rird){id).8eitllefd)id)md)e~. 223 vcry carefully chosen. .At the religious forums now being staged through- out .America no real clash occurs. No decision is reached. The wrestlers, cannot get a real hold. That is to say, these Catholics and Congrega- tionalists and Jews and agnostics occupy common ground, not only for the occasion of the entertainment, but in their deepest religious convictions. Rabbi Goldman describes the situation exactly: "Judaism urges the prin- ,ciple of social living, as the Protestants and the Pope do" and as the upright he'athen and the agnostic do. The men usually meeting on the mat of the religious forum are agreed that all hinges on the inherent morality of man. What are they to debate about if they are fundamentally agreed? If these affairs had been staged in Luther's days and the promoter had, for purposes of his own, sent him a pass, Luther would have returned it with the remark: "There is no sense at all in religious debates between papists and Turks .... They are possessed by the same idea: If I perform this work, God will be merciful to me; if I do not perform it, His wra,th is upon me. . .. There is no difference between a papist, a, Jew, a Turk, or a heretic. . .. They are all work-saints." (9, 521; 25, 520. ) Nor would the issue be clearly drawn if the selection of the debaters rested with the Ch1'1,stian Century. It said in its issue of December 9, 1931: "Darrow prefers to impute to his opponent a belief in hell-fire, an infallible Bible, ... and the most primitive conception of blood atonemecnt. :cifaturally it is more fun to slay this straw man than to come to grips with the cO'nceptions of religion advanced by, let us say, Bishop McConnell or Rabbi Louis Mann, both of whom have met Mr. Darrow in debate." The champions of Chris- tianity that the Christian Century would select would accordingly deny the infallibility of the Bible and the vicarious satisfaction. They would deny that sin entails eternal damnatiDn and that salvation is by grace alone. The agnostic heartily alo'Tees with that. There is not going to be a clash. But a pleasant time was had by all. It is great sport. Some indeed. do gO' because they want to hear the agnostic arguments at first hand or because, they hope to have certain dO'ubts in their minds removed. But others go because they like to hear Christianity reviled, and according to the Christian Centu1'y most of them gO' because they like to show their tolerance. "Modern religious people are, far more tolerant of others' opinions t.han in any previous time. . .. Go to any of these forums and observe the temper O'f the audience, the attitude of the other speakers, the tone of vDice of the chairman when he presents the last speaker. The psychology of the whole situation is set so as to focus the unified impulses of tolerance upon Mr. Dal'Tow. At Mr. Darrow's feet the audicnce lays its climacteric offering of magnanimity. In dDing sO', it feels that it is paying a tribute to its own tolerance more than to Mr. Darrow. In a debate re- cently held in Chicago, when the chairman finally presented 1'11'. Darrow, the exponent of the Christian Church, having just finished his own able address, arose and with both hands waved a gesture to the audience to rise and give the final speaker a grand ovation. This is not usually done for the Catholic, the Protestant, Dr the Jew. It is a tribute reserved for Mr. Darrow. True, the audience frequently begins to find the exits before 'he is done, as it becomes patently clea,r that he is not adding anything of importance to the discussion, but all go home with a feeling of virtue in 224 Theological Observer. - .\'l:ird)lid)~geitgefd)id)md)e~. having patiently - yea, and enthusiastically - demonstrated their moral capacity to allow free speech to a. man who is out to disprove their most precious convictions." So a pleasant time was had by all, particularly by thc canny promoter and the well-groomed champion of the mat. "This show of tolerance is not wholly a spontaneous expression, but is more or less cleverly prompted and exploited for commercial profit. The whole sd-up is artificial. The conception of a debate is purely fictitious. The minds of the various champions neYer meet, their arguments never lock horns. The auditor cannot ayoid tlw feeling that he has been exploited.·' (Remember this is not a description of a wrestling-match!) The plan of the promoter "is to go into a city, select a prominent Protestant" (and there is always one to agree to the conditions) and a prominent Jew, arrange with them for the date, and engage the hall. The Catholic spokesman is usually an outsider, rarely a priest, nearly always a prominent layman. The repr€"' sentative of agnosticism is alwa.ys Clarence Darrow. The first three speakers are paid what Dr. "Wright" (who served as the Protestant oppo- nent of the title-holder in two of the forums) "describes as a fair amount; what Mr. Darrow is paid is not known." (Remember this is nOot a descrip- tion of a wrestling-match!) The Gmnd Rapids Herald says: "We do not beE"ve' in capitalizing, in commercializing", in exploiting, faith in God. It is too sacred a thing to be dragged around the country for the sole pnrposb of making a fat. living for the promoters of the 'sllO'w.''' But at the next stop - these shows, unlike the wrestling-matches, are hardly ever staged in the same town twice - the promoter will find Congregationalists or Methodists ready to sign the articles. The most pleasant time of all is had by the arch-promoter. He likes to have Christianity misrepresented by the representatives of Christianity. E. An Interesting Decision of the United States Supreme Court. In Permoli vs. Municipality No.1 of the city of New Orleans, 3 Howard, 589, 11 L. ed. 739, 748, the Supreme Court of the United States says:- "The ordinances complained of must violate the Constitution or laws of the United States or some authority exercised under them; if they do not, we have no power by the 25th section of the Judiciary .Act to inter- fere. The Constitution makes no proYision for protecting the citizens of the respective States in their religious liberties; this is left to the State constitutions and laws; nor is there any inhibition imposed by the Con- stitution of the United States in this respect on the States. We must therefore look beyond the Constitution for the laws that are supposed to be violated and on which our jurisdiction can be founded; these are the fol- lowing acts of Congress." In em parte .A. H. Garland, 71 U. S. 333-399, 18 L. ed., 366, 376, Mr. Justice Miller says: - "The Federal Constitution contains but two provisions on this subject. One of these forbids Congress to make any law respecting the establish- ment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The other is that no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States. No restraint is placed by that instrument on the action of the States; but on the contrary, in the lan- Theological Observer. - Ritd)Hd)~2eitgefd)id)md)e~. 225 guage of Story, Comm. Canst. Sec. 1878, 'the whole' power over the subject of religion is left exclusively to the State governments, to be acted upon according to their own sense of justice and the State constitutions. If there ever was a case calling upon this court to exercise all the power on this sub.iect which properly belongs to it, it was the case of the Rev. B. Permoli, 3 Howard, 589.''' In 2 Hare's American Oonstit'utional Law, 555, it is said: - "The argument which has been made in the case of Cummins vs. State of Missouri that the Constitution of the United States guaranteed the freedom of religious worshir against interference by the States was not sanctioned by the Constitution. In the case of the Rev. B. Permoli, a Catholic priest who had been fined for performing the funeral services of his Church over the body of one of his parishioners in the Roman Catholic Church of St. Augustine, contrary to an ordinance of the city of New Orleans, which required that all funeral rites should take place in a public chapel, appealed from the sentence to the Supreme Court of the United States. The decision was that the Constitution containerl no clause guaranteeing religious liberty against the several States, which might make such regulations on the subject as they thought fit. The State of Missouri might therefore well provide that no priest of any Church should exercise his ministerial functions without showing by his own oath that he had been true to the State and the Union." E. E. The Knowledge of God. - "Ipsisque in homin·ibus nulla gens cst, neque tarn irnmansttcta, neque tarn fera, quae non, ei'iarn si ignoret qualem habel'e deurn deceat, tam en habendum sci[~t." (Cicero, De Legibus, I, 8.) "No people has ever been so reprobate as not to institute and observe some divine worship." (Luther, Trig!., p. 585.) "The pigmies of the Congo like all other dwarfs live in the shade of tI,e primeval forest and leave it only when they go to trade for ballanas in Negro villages. How often it happens that, when people look at photographs of the Congo pigmies, they exclaim, 'What monkey-faces!' Nevertheless the dwarfs have nothing whatever in common with monkeys. They are human beings precisely as we are, but exceedingly primitive ones; theiT daily existence is poveTty-stricken and their appearance anything but attractive. . .. Was not human flesh the most tasty? asked both the Negroes and the pigmies. For these last also, at least certain tribes of them, looked favorably on cannibalism, as they themselves admit. I shall never forget the scene in which a pigmy ex- plainecl to me, with all sorts of grimaces, how good human flesh tasted .... Only in one sense did the pigmies seem to me comparable with the dwellers in a modern metropolis. This is their attitude toward religion. I lived among them for whole weeks and found no trace of a faith. They said no prayers, there was no trace of a cult or images associated with a cult in their houses, and I had aheady decided that at last I had come upon people which had no faith and no god. But I had been in total error. At the end of about a month the veil lifted, and I learned tl1at they did know a Supreme Being in which they believed and which they prayed to when they went on the hunt or in search of honey. To this Supreme Being they always made thank-offerings. The practise of giving the first fruits and the first portion of honey and other bits as a sacrifice I found flourishing among all the tribes. Yes, gradually I also came to see something of their 15 226 Theological Observer. - .reit~li~=.8eitgef~icfltli~e!. conceptions of the soul and the hereafter, conceptions which indeed sounded very strange, but which were nevertheless present." (Paul Schebasta, in the Oommonweal, December 2, 1931.) E. Concerning the "Evolution of Religion." - Under this heading the Sunday-school Times reports the following interesting and gladdening bit of news: "In his inaugural address on the occasion of his installation to the chair of Missions in Princeton, Dr. Zwemer described how evolu- tionary theories concerning religion have lost reputation among students of that subject. He quotes Alkema and Bezemer of the University of Utrecht: 'The study of primitive religion has been altogether too much swayed by the evolutionary hypothesis, and those who wrote on the subject approached it with prejudgments.' And again: 'The fact is that the evolutionary theory as an explanation of the history of human thought is more and more being abandoned. After all, it is only a theory and has raised more dif- ficulties than it has explained. Even as a working hypothesis it is to be condemned.' So, too, Professor Huizenga, also of Utrecht, in speaking of the history of civilization, insists that 'the evolution theory has been a liability and not an asset in the scientific treatment of the history of civilization.' Dr. Zwemer believes that the tide has turned and that we have on the Continent outstanding scholars who hold fast to super- naturalism in opposition to the evolutionary hypothesis. He names the late Archbishop Soederblom, Alfred Bertholet, Edward Lehman, Alfred Blum-Ernst, Le Roy, A. C. Kruijt, and especially P. W. Schmidt, founder of the anthropological review Anthropos and professor of Ethnology and Philology in the University of Vienna. 'The exhaustive work of this Roman Catholic savant The Origin of the Idea of God is to be completed in three volumes.' Dr. Zwemer also calls attention to a volume on polytheism and fetishism in the BibUotheque Oatholique des Scienoes Religieuses. The author speaks of five elements in the religion of primitive tribes of West Africa impossible to explain save on the assumption of a primitive revela- tion. These are: .An organized family life; a name for a supreme power, sovereign and benevolent; a moral sense of truth, justice, shame, and a knowledge that there is good and evil; the idea of soul and the con- viction that this soul does not die with the body's death; and, lastly, communion with the unseen power by prayer and sacrificial rites. 'Before such considerations the hypothesis of a primitive revelation takes on every appearance of truth.''' J. T. M. The Presbyterian League of Faith . ....,... Concerning this league the Sunday-school Times writes as follows: "The Presbyterian League of Faith issued its constitution last May, with the signatures of 150 ministers of the Presbyterian Church in the United States. Its objects as stated in this constitution are: - "1. To maintain loyalty to the Bible as the Word of God in opposition to denials of its full truthfulness; "2. To maintain the Reformed, or Calvinistic, system of doctrine as it is set forth in the Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. in 1931, in opposition to all plans of church union which would either break down that system or relegate it to a secondary place; "3. To oppose changes in the historic formula of creed subscription re- quired of candidates for the ministry and the eldership; Theological Observer. - mf~lid;'8eitgef~id;tli~d. 227 "4. To oppose the attack made by the document commonly called the Auburn Affirmation upon the doctrinal pronouncement of the General As- sembly of 1923 and to insist, in opposition to that Affirmation, that the full truth of the Scriptures, the virgin birth of Christ, the substitutionary atonement, the bodily resurrection, and miracles of our Lord are essential doctrines of the 'W ord of God and our standards; "5. To warn men everywhere that salvation is to be obtained not by human merit or human effort to please God, but only through the redeem- ing work of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ as He is offered to us in the Gospel." These resolutions seem to us of most far-reaching importance. They are not only an absolute renunciation of present-day Modernism, but at the same time a restatement and reacknowledgment of the "Calvinistic system of doctrine." So much the more must Lutheranism not identify itself with Fundamentalism. J. T. M. Dr. Barnhouse to be Censured. - vVe see from our exchanges that Dr. Barnhouse, noted radio preacher, by a unanimous decision of the judi- cial commission of the Synod of Pennsylvania of the Presbyterian Church has been found guilty of the charges preferred against him, accusing him of transgressing tIle Eighth (Ninth according to Reformed reckoning) Com- mandment and of violating his ordination vows. The moderator of the Philadelphia Presbytery is instructed to rebuke him in the presence of the presbytery.· After he has been censured and admonished, his brethren will offer him their advice, and prayer will conclude the act. It will have to be seen whether the statement that the whole case has been ethical, and not doctrinal, is true. A. II . .2{.u,hm~. '!lie lInulbentuler ~J.lttfere1tcr. 2[us einem 2[rtifd in ,,6cljtift unb )Be~ fenn±ng" (6epbnft. 1931), betiteU "mufbentafer ~onferena unb miffouri", fei Ijier folgenbes mitgeteilt. ,,:0n llCr. 28 bes ,6iicljfifcljen ~ircljenbfa±±s' bom 15. :0uH 1931 bericljiet )jSfarrer ~anft tiber bie am 15. :0uni b.:0. ftatt~ gefnnbene :0aIjrIjunbertfeier ber mufbentaler Sionferena, beren morfti,}enber er if±. ~iefe Sionferena tuurbe am 15 :0uni 1831 bon einem ber namIjaf~ teften ~Ijcorogen bc~ iJorigen :0aIjrIjunberts, D. 2[. @. ~uberbaclj, gegrtinbet, um bie ~af±oren feine~ Sheifcs in IutIjerifcljer )Befenn±nistreue au ftiiden .... 60 ift es fein jffiunber, bat unter f einem @influt ba~ fonfeHionelie )Be~ tuut±fein erf±ad±e unb fomit ber fiicljfifcljen 2anbesfirclje bier 6egen 3uidl tuurbe. ~farrer ~anft fcljreib± bon biefer ~onferena, untcr beren mi±~ begrtinbern ficlj auclj bie llCamcn bes ~af±ots jffiar±Ijer in 2angencljur£;borf (bes mater£; ber unter uns befannten )Bruber ,otto ~ermann unb ~arr )JerbinanlJ jffiiIIjefm jffiartIjer) unb bes l.j5aftors ~eiJr in llCieberfroIjna fJe~ finben, unb iIjrem @influt auf bie @n±tlJicHung ber 2anbesfirclje fofgenbes: ,~ie bom llJCufben±aI aUB iIjre jffiellen fcljlagenbe (§rtuecrungslJetuegung, ber D. ~uberDaclj bon 2[nfang an einen rut~erifcljen, fircljIicljen ~Ijarafter auf~ gepriigt Ijaite, trug an iIjrem ~eH aur llCeubelebung bes firdjHcljen Eebens in 6acljfen tiberIjaupt bei, bi~ fcljHetHclj bie fiicljfifclje 2anbe~firclje au ciner betuun± in ben fogenann±en [?] urcljriftricljen nnb reformatorifdjen jffiaIjr~ Ijeiten tuuraeInben )Befenntnisfirclje tuurbe.' )Bis auf ben Ietten 6at, ber ia bem tuirtricljen 2uftanbe ber facljfifcljen 2anbesfirclje nicljt gerecljt tuirb, 228 Theological Observer. - ,!Htd)Hd)~3eitgefd)id)md)e~. ltJirb man ber Sfonferena ben muqm laWen miiffen unb ficfj beffen freuen, bat cine @:itiirrung bes fonfeHioneUen )Beluut±f cins burcfj fie erfoIgt if±. " @:s ltJirb bann lueiter bargeian, bat erne lueiterge!jenbe, bas @anae ber 52anbesfircfje umfaffenbe jillirrung au00Iieo. ,,@:iomi± fcfjltJanb freUicfj bie &joffnung, bat llie fiicfjfifcfje 52anbesfircfje nocfj einmal bas luerben ti.innte, ltJas fie in frii!jeren ZSaqr!junllerten ltJar, cine ltJirnicfj oefenntnii3treue Sfircfje, in luelcljer @ottes jillort aUein bie &jerrf cljaft !jat. @:io ift fie benn auclj ± a if ii clj Ii cfj je~t nicfjt eine SHrcfje, in ltJelcljer ,ei n t r ii cfj ±i 9 Ii clj nacfj rein em j8erftanb llas @:bangelium ge\.1rebigt unb bie @:iaframente bem gottricljen jillor± gemiit gereicljt ltJerben', luie bie0 ller 7. gfrtife! ber gfugs~ ourgifcljen Sfonfeifion forllert, fonbern, luie un0 feroft ein Ianbe0fircljIicfjer :=t!jeolog i3ugeftanb, cin ,8ltJecrberoanb' mit bon BltJecre, llie iiui3cre :Dr(\ani~ fation unb llie materielle j8erforgung lle0 borqanbenen SHrcljenltJefens 3u erqaIten. . .. WCiiffen ltJir fonaclj ller Wlulben±aler Sfonferena etltJa0 bon iqrem muljm, ltJenigftens ltJa0 ben ))on i!jr erftrebteu @:rfoIg anlangt, ne!j~ men, fo freuen ltJir uns, iqr ein mu!jmesolatt !jinaufiigen au fonnen, inbem Illir auf einen Wlann !jinlueif en, ber, aus i!jrer Wlitte qerborgegangen, bas iqr borfcfjltJebenbe 8id burcfj @oite§ @nabe IDirfliclj errcid)t ljat, nihnIiclj aUf ben f d)on ooen erluiiqnten altJeiten @:ioqn bes 2angencfjursborfer l.13af±ors jillart!jer, cr. ~. jill. jillaIt!jer, ller bafD naclj ber @riinDung bet S10nferena I.13farrer in mriiun§borf ltJurlle, nacfjllem er im @:r±ern!jaufe naclj fd)ltJerer SfwnfI)eit ficlj griinbHclj in 52ut!jers @:icfjriften bertieft !jatte unll fo ein enb fcfjloffener mefenner ber 2e!jre 2utljers geltJorllen ltJar. Cf0 ift auffiiIIig, bat lueller im mericljt nocfj auclj in llem &jau\.1tbortrag lles Lie. Sjennig lliefe0 Wlannes aU0briicfIicfj gebacfjt ltJirb." @;s ltJirb fob ann ber 9Cacfjruf mi±~ geieHt, llen llie ,,\lllIgemeine @;b.~2utq. SHrcljenaeitung" feineraei± D. jillaIt!jer 111illmete ("ber @:rfoIg feiner jillirfjamrcit ift in ber neueren @efcljiclj±e llnferer Sfirclje faft oeifpieIros" lljltJ.), unb bie @riinDe ltJerben eroded, bie mogIicfjer~ ltJeife llie SfonferClli3 beranlatt ljaoen, reinerlei 9Coti3 bon jillaItI)er unb bem @;rfoIg feiner jillirfjamfeit au neljmen. ~er gfrmeI ljat folgenbe @:icfjlut~ ltJor±e: ,,@:s finb alfo nid)± @:iepawtionsgeIiifte, ltJeIclje jillart!jer unb bie bOll i!jm geIeite±e WliffouriflJnobe in @egenf~ gegen bie fiicfjfifcfje unb anbere ficfj nodj lu±ljerifcfj nennenbe 2anbesftrcfjen ~eu±fcljlanbs georacfjt qaoen, Hnb e0 ift baqer bic \.Srage berecfjtigi, 00 nid)! bas boIIige i'toergcqen jillaI~ tI)ers unb ber Wciffourifl)nobe oei biefem ,;'Suoiliillm feinen @nmb barin !jat, bat bie je~ige ~Rulbentarer Sfonferena bas urfpriingIiclje Bier i~rcr @riin~ ber, niimIiclj bie nftrofe miicffe!jr !lur ,\hrclje ber meformation, au§ bem gfuge berloren !jat unb bem 9Ceulutljerium berfallen iff, ltJelcfje~ cine boIIige @;inigfeit in ber 2eljre, ltJie fie bie gfuguftana unb bie Si:onforbienformel forbern, fiir unmiigIicfj I)iiIt unb ficfj mit bem 9Celieneinanberoefte~en ber~ fcfjiebener micfjtungen aofinbet. . .. Wlan nennt folclje ~urbltng berfcfjie~ bener miclj±ungen ltJoljI Numeni3itiit unb qoff± babon eine Cfinigung ber SHrclje. gflier bie ltJaqre Dfumeniilitii± unb bie gotigefiiIIige @:inigung ber S'firclje oeftelj± boclj barin, bat man a r len ben en bie mrllber~anb reicfjt, bie allein @ot±eiO jillort geI±en laffen unb alle aOltJeicljenben IDceinungen ao~ ltJeifen. . .. ~a P. manft aI0 bie fUr bie gegenltJartige fircfjIiclje 2age aus Den @runbfii~en ber Si:onferenil ficlj ergelienbe \'solgerung bies oeileicfjnet, ,bat miber unb Sfircfje [~] aUein bie olijeftibe gfu±oritii± finb, nicfjt aber reIigiole @;rfa!jrung unll gliiuoige gfftibitiit', fo mocljte man gern fjoffen, bat ficfj bie Si:onferena in 8ufunft mcqr bon ber neueren @;rIe'bnistljeologie Theological Observer. - ~itc!)licf)'8eitgeicf)ic!)mcf)es. 229 aolllcnben unb aUf ®o±te15 )fiort allcin griinben Illerbe, Illie benn bie Iut1)e~ rifdje .mrdje in i!jrem Q3efenn±nii3 fag±: ,®ot±ei3 )!Bod foIl WrHfeI be15 @Iau~ ben15 f±eIIen unb fonf± niemanb, audj fein ®ngeI''' - freHidj audj bie Sj;irdje nidjt! )!Benn man a11 biefem @runbfa~ riit1!jaItIo15 fidj befennen unb banadj !janbeln hJome, fo Illiirbe bai3 ~ubHii11m au cinem fegeni3teidjen Wnfang ciner ®meurung ber SHrdje, aber: audj baau fU!jren, ba13 man )!Bart!jer15 nidjt bergii13e unb bie bon i!jm gegriinbeien unb veeinfIu13ten Sl!irdjenfiitper nidj± mit bem IDeareI be15 CSe1Jarati15mu15 oeIegte. :0amit hJiitbe audj bet hJa!jten ®inigfei± ber SHrdje am bef±en gebien±. ®. ~itt \Uel'tuoUeB DcntfdjeB WUffiottBlillltt eittgegattgett. )fiie bcr15 ,,®b.~ 2u±!j. IDeiHioni3bIat±" veridjtd, mUE ba15 tlJedboUe beuifdje IDeiHion15vlatt ,,:0ie ®bcrngeHfdjen IDeiHionen" infoIge ber ie~igen l)MIage fein ®rfdjeinen einf±eIIen. )!Bir Iefen: ,,,:3)[e ®bangeIifc!jen j))CiHionen', ba15 bon \j3rof. D. ~uliUi3 ffiidjier !jerau15gege6ene, bortreffIidj geIeiteie ~ammenOIa±±, fie!jt fidj geni.iiigt, am CSdjIuf3 feinei3 37. ZSa!jrgang15 fein '®rfdjeinen einaufierIen. :0ie Em ~a!jre 1930 eingeIeite±e SjiIf15aftion, mit ber man ba15 Illeribolle Q3lat± au re±ien !joffie, !jat letber nidjt bie fUr ben ~or±bef±anb erforber~ Iidje CSteigerung ber Q3eaie!jeraa!jI gevradjt. :0er Sjeraui3gever hJeif± in ber Dftoliemummer biejenigen, bie fidj mit ben gro13cn IDeiHion0j:JrofJIemen ve~ fdjiiftigen unb augIeidj fortIaufenb einen i16eroIicf iiber ba15 hJeIthJcite IDeif~ fioni3feIb gehJinnen hJorIen, emPfe!jIenb aUf bie ,Weue WrIgemeine IDeiffioni3~ aeitfclirift' !jin." ~. ~. IDe. lY.llrtlieitc~ett bcB djrifHidjen ~J.1djfdjllnlJefen15 in ~nbicn. )!Bie bai3 2eilJaiger ,,®b.~2ui!j. IDeiffioni3vlat±" mitteUt, !jat cine ~ommiffion in ~nbien nadj ranger, gtiinbIidjer llnterfucfjung geraten, baB bie protef±anHfdjen minion~coIIege§ in ~nbien ilJeitergefii!jri werben fomen. :0er Q3eridjt Iau±ei: n ~m IDeai 1931 ifi bie inhif dj e IDeiffioni3!jodjf djulenfommiffion nadj anf±rengenbcr WroeH in ~nbien unb Q3irma auriiCfgefe!jr±' ~!jre \l1:ufgaue Deftanb barin, au un±erfudjm, ob linD in i1Je!djen Q3a!jnen bie j:Jroteftan~ tif tf)Clt IDeiffion15coI[ege15 in ~nDien hJei±ergefii~rt hJerben Ionnien. 2hJei IDeenfdjenaItc.r ~inburdj finb bie j).nif1ioni3~odJfdjuren bie Q3a!jnvretf)er unb [5orfiimpfer bei3 !ji.i~eren CSdjuIlllef cn§ gelllef en. CSeit ber ~a!jr~unbert~ t1Jenbe jebodj ift hie 2age fdjhJierig gelllotben. :0ie ffiegierung !jat bieIe Sjotf)ic!juIen eingeritf)tct; anbere hJurben bon @emeinben, fficngioni3gemein~ fdjaften unb eingeoornen ~iirftClt erridjtet. ~cadj einge!jenber llnterfudjung an Drt unb CS±elle fam bie Si:ommiffion au ber ftveraeugung, baB ba~ djri11Iicfje SjocfJitf)ulwefen trot aller CStf)lllierigfeiten, unter benen eil arbeHe±, hJeiicroef±e!jen fome, ba fonft fUr cine au§reidjenbe reIigiiife ®ri3ic~ung ber djtiftHdjen ~ugenb nidj± geforg± ift unb e§ audj an ei:ncr angemeficnen [5orbHbung fiir ben geiftridjen CStanb fe!jIcn hJiirbe. Wur fome bie 2a!jI ber ([oI[egei3 oefdjranfi unb in jeber \j3rol1incr ein llJo!jIiioedeg±er \j3fan be15 SjodjfdjulhJefen§ burdjgefU!jrt hJerben." ~. ~. IDe. Romish Superstition Manifesting Itself in India. - A correspon- dent of the Clwistian Oentury, writing from India, speaks of the use Roman Catholics make of the body of St. Francis Xavier, the famous missionary. "Goa, one of the small territories that the Portuguese still retain in India, which was in the sixteenth century the site of the missionary labors of Francis Xavier, the famous Jesuit missionary, will witness next month a festival centering round the exposition of his body, which Roman Catho- lics claim to have been preserved miraculously. He died on the island of 230 Theological Observer. - .!Htd)Ud) • .seitoefd)id)tlid)e~. San Chan, near China, on December 2, 1552. But his body, or part of his body, is claimed to have been brought to Goa, and this has been an object of veneration for Roman Catholics all these years. Miracles of healing are reported to happen at the time of the exposition of the body of this saint, which takes place once in ten years. Roman Catholic pilgrims will pour into Goa in thousands from all parts of India and Ceylon and from foreign countries during December [1931]. Hindus also visit the shrine in con- siderable numbers and give offerings for the fulfilment of their vows and prayers. Non-Roman Christians may not be able to understand all that is behind such religious festivals which the Roman Church organizes and maintains. But the Hindus are familiar with such things in their own religion, and a large number of them make their pilgrimage to Goa in search of some physical boon or gift of health, just as they would go to one of their sacred places, like Benares or Rameswaram." Not only does this remind us of the gross superstition rampant in the Roman Catholic Church, but it ought to open the eyes of all who can see to the undeniable fact that these superstitious rites have a paganistic tinge and as a result prove espe- cially attractive to the heathen mind, steeped in idolatry. A. The Death of Bishop Gore. - Of the recent death of Bishop Charles Gore the press reports the following: "Bishop Charles Gore, former chap· lain to King George and Queen Mary, died yesterday (January 17) in a Kensington nursing home, a victim of pneumonia. He was seventy-nine years old. He was recognized as a leader of the High Church party in the Angelican communion. He was born in 1853 and was educated at Ox- ford. He was honorary chaplain to Queen Victoria from 1898 to 1900. He became chaplain in ordinary to the Queen in 1900 and served King Edward in the same capacity in 1901. Later he was Bishop of Worcester and Bishop of Birmingham, until his appointment to Oxford, in 1911. As Bishop of Oxford and an advocate of a League of Nations, Bishop Gore visited the United States in 1918. He resigned at Oxford in 1919. While in the United States, he said he came to cement the moral friendship of the British and American nations and to prove that England appreciated the utterances and aims of President Wilson. He, however, attracted wide at- tention through criticism of Bible-stories and aroused antagonism of Allied nations by begging forgiveness for Germany after the end of the World War. Widely known for his theological writings, he gave British Fundamentalists a jar in a book, Oan We Then Believe'!" in 1926. Remarking that the Bible was not intended to teach science, but accepted the science of its time, he said its spiritual teachings seemed to cry out for the theory of creation by evolution." J. T. M. ~1ld)fuI!let l5ijbediluml5. ~et ,,\lUIgemeinen @5bangeIifdj ~2utIjetifdjen SNtdjenaeitung" enineljmen roit folgenbe motia: "Bum madjfolget bel5 bet~ ftotbenen @5tabifdjofl5 bon Upfala, D. l5obetbloml5, ljat Die fdjroebifdje ffi:e~ gietung ben ~tofeffot bet ~eologie an bet Unibetfitat Bunb @5ding @5ibem emannt. ~ie motfdjlagI5Iif±e, aul5 bet bie ffi:egietung getviiljrt ljnt, entljiirt aUf:\etbem bie mamen bel5 q3tofeffotl5 bet ~eologie an bet Unibetfitiit Upfala Shtut lffiefimann unb bel5 ~tofeffotl5 bet ffi:eIigionl5gefdjidjie in llpfala ~ot \lInbtii. ~et neue @5tabifdjof bon Upfala fteljt im einunbfilnfaigf±en 2ebenl5~ jaljt. @5t ift feit bem ~aljte 1928 ~ofeffot fih: meuel5 5tef±ament an bet llnibetfitat Bunb unb IDibmet fidj ljauptfiidjIidj bet ~aurUl5fotfdjung. \lIudj an ber neuen fcljhJebifcljen j8iliemlierfe~ung !jat er mitgehJirft. WCeIjrcre @5tubienreifen fliIjrten if)n naclj ~eu±fcljlanb, ~araftina, 'iigl)pten unb @riecljen" lanb. ~IS ~rebiger unD merfaffer reltgti:ifer @5cljriften ift er roeitljin oefaunt. I§raliifcljofl§ibem geniej3t in @5cljhJeben lid ben berfcljiebenen rerigiiiien 8hclj~ tungcn ban! f eine§l tief cljriftIicljen crljarafier§l grote§l mertrmten." ~r. jlliaiJ ift'iJ mit nem IIjungen .I.lutfjcr"? D. m5erner Cfleri bon Cfrlangen pro±eftiert energifclj gegen ben WCitlirauclj, ben biele mit bem "jungen Qutljcr" treilien. Wnftatt bat man liei bem "rcifen Qutljcr" bie 5tljeologie ber 1l'te~ formation fuclj±, miicljte man ben "iungen Qutljer" aur ~utoritiit macljen. m5ie unb hJoau? D. Cflert fpricljt ficlj barUlicr in f ciner "WCorpIjologie be~ Qu±Ijertum~", @5. 7, alfo au~: ,,@ao e~ feitbem [ba~ ljeit±, in biefer 113er~ fpdtibe] alvei ~rten bon Qutljer±um, ein~, bM in ben 1Sefenntniffen, unb cin aubere~, ba~ in bcr 113rofefforentljeologie be~ 19. unb 20. ~aljrIjunberg feinen autreffenben ~ll!Jbrucf erliIicfte, fo ljat bie ahJeite \ltrt infofern neuer~ bing~ einen iYort]cljritt gemaclj±, aIS ficlj iljre 9Iorm flir bM, hJa~ Qut!jer~ fum im Urfinn ljetten f oU, hJieber beroliiefiibieri ljat. ~ief e 9Iorm ift ber ,iunge Qutljer'. I§r ift un~ l:mrclj feine in ben Ietten ~aljr3eljnten auf~ gefunbenen erften morfefungen f eljr gmalt oefannt gehJorben. g:Ur Die barin entljaIiene 5tljeologie au hJerlien, ift f eljr au~ficlj±!JbOU, roeir man baliei mit bem Sl'apital au mertrauen unb ~utoritii± recljnen fann, ba§ ftclj einft ber reife QutIjer erroorlien Ijat. ~at in jenen morlefungen noclj reclj± bid ar±frembe 5tljeologie ftecf±, Die Qu±ljer au§ ber ftlierIiefentng Ulier~ naljm, fpiHer alier mit 1Serout±fein aliftiet, ia sum .lteH mit griit±er @5djiirfe oefiimPfte, uilbe± flir biefe ~uffaffung burcljau~ fein .\)inberni~. .\)ier en±~ fcljeibet ber ~n±erpret bifia±orifclj, roa~ reformatorifclj ift unb roa§l niclj±. ~iefer Qu±ljer gef±atte± bier Ieiclj±er aIS ber fpii±ere, ber burclj feine groten meriifientricljungen gIeicljfam un±er ~ufficlj± ber Dffentlicljfeit fteljt, bat man iljn ie naclj 1Sebarf berroenbe±. mor aUem fprengie er noclj nicljt roie ber bon .ll}carliurg 1529 Die ,l§in~eigfJ;JJn± be;3 113ro±ef±anti§mU§', jintemal 8toingIi DamaIS noclj u:erbpreDtger unb Uoerljaupt noclj fein ,1l3ro±eftanti§lmu§l' ba roar. Unb bar allem fcljein± bie 5t~eorogie iencr j{3orIejungen noclj 1l'taum au lallen flir bie :itljefe, 0:'albin fei .2u±Ijer?3 ,±reuefter @5cljiiIer' geroefen. ~er Qefer roirb baliei finben, bat auclj bie Sl'ircljengef clji~±e nicljt o~ne &;1umor ift. ~enn bie molle be§l ,±reuef±en @5cljiiIer§l' Qu±~er§l rourbe einft, bon bem aUen reformierlen .\)eppe au§gerecljne±, bemjenigen augebacljt, ber augelificlj ba§ QutIjertum fcljuf, ba§l Ijeu±e mit bem iungen Qutljer auf§l .\)aup± ge~ fcljlagen roerben foU, nihnficlj - WCeIanclj±Ijon, aHerbing§l be111jenigen llJ,e~ Iancljtljon, ber bon feinen ru±~erifcljen @egnern mit bem Sl'rtjp±ocalbini§mu§l in merliinbung geliraclj± rourbe." I§. Union of Episcopalians and Greek Orthodox Christians. - Our journal before this has commented on efforts which are being made to unite the Anglican Church and the Greek Catholics. A report in the Living Church says that the first report of the joint commission of theologians of the two groups mentioned brings union a step nearer to reality. The Nicene Creed, so we are told, was accepted as a declaration of the common faith of the two communions. ·With respect to the Filioque the two parties agreed on the statement that the words "and the Son" do not imply the existence of two sources of being in the Triune Godhead. The Holy Scrip- tures, "giving us divine revelation," are defined as consisting of the canonical books of the Old and the New Testament, while the Apocrypha are re- 232 Theological Observer. - .Rit~n~=8eitgef~i~m~es. ceived as "matter to be read for instruction and edification, but not for the settlement of ecclesiastical dogmas." On the question of the relation between the Holy Scriptures and tradition a compromise paragraph was adopted, reading thus: "Everything necessary for salvation can be founded upon Holy Scripture as completed, explained, interpreted, and understood in the holy tradition by the guidance of the Spirit residing in the Church." The caution was added: "We agree with nothing contained in tradition (i. e., as the word has been defined) that is contrary to the Scriptures. Though these two may be logically defined and distinguished, yet they cannot be separated from each other or from the Church." It will be seen that here the principle for which Protestantism fought some of its mightiest battles, the supremacy of the Scriptures, is virtually surrendered. With regard to rites or customs the commission agreed on the principle that every Christian ought to follow the use of the Church to which he may belong. If this is not made a yoke, we need not take exception to it. On the number of Sacraments the Anglicans seem to have surrendered, the report saying that they readily admitted that the rites looked upon as Sacraments by Catholics besides Baptism and the Lord's Supper have the character of Sacraments and are properly so called. The Living Ohuroh jubilantly states that great progress has been made since the exchange of letters in 1869 between the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Patriarch of Constantinople, from which the modern movement toward union of the two churches is said to date. The Commission's draft of articles of agree- ment of course has to be ratified before it has binding force. A. Church-Membership in Germany. - During the last few years church-membership in Germany, more especially in Berlin, has shown a remarkable decline. The reason for this is chiefly the economic depression and the consequent poverty. The state claims 20 per cent. of the income, and the assessment papers of church-members another 10 per cent. For many this is impossible. In 1927, 36,700 members of the 3,000,000 belong- ing to the Protestant Church in Berlin laid down their membership. In 1928 the number increased to 46,000; in 1929, to 50,500; in 1930, to 59,300. In the Roman Catholic Church the figures are in proportion. Of the 400,000 Roman Catholics in Berlin 4,500 resigned membership in 1927, 5,600 in 1928, 6,600 in 1929, and 6,800 in 1930. In Berlin there aTe about 177,000 Jews, of whom about 560 break their connection with the synagog every year. During the last five years 260,700 Potestants, 30,400 Roman Catholics, and 3,410 Jews have left their respective churches. Ev. News Bureau in Holland. Egypt's Ambassador to the United States. - The recently ap- pointed ambassador of Egypt to the United States, Seostris Sideroes Pasha, is known in Egypt as the head of one of the oldest Roman Catholic families. The house of the new ambassador in Cairo contains a complete chapel, where the Mass is celebrated every day by a priest, while many of the same faith are present at the service. The new ambassador was received in audience by the Pope before his departure for America. It is somewhat remarkable that the by no means Christian Egypt should have sent so pronounced a witness of the Christian faith as its ambassador to America. Ev. New8 Bureau in Holland.