Full Text for CTM Theological Observer 2-5 (Text)

(tTnurnrbiu IDqrnlngirul jlnutqly Continuing Lehre und Wehre (Vol. LXXVI) Magazin fuer Ev.-Luth. Homiletik (Vol. LIV) Theol. Quarterly (1897-1920)-Theol. Monthly (Vol. X) Vol. II May, 1931 No.5 CONTENTS Page Thesen zur kurzen Darlegung der Lehrstellung der Mis- sourisynode .......... , ................................. 321 GRAEBNER, TH.: The Modern Church Looks at Society 336 DALLMANN, WM.: How Peter Became Pope......... . . .. 343 KRETZMANN, P. E.: Suggestions Concerning Courses for Better Indoctrination... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 360 FRITZ, J. H. C.: The Sermon Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 364 Dispositionen ueber die von der Synodalkonferenz ange- nommene Serie alttestamentlicher Texte............... 368 Theological Observer. - Kirchlich-Zeitgeschichtliches. . . . .. 381 Book Review. - Literatur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 392 Ein Prediger muss nicht allein weiden, also dass er die Schafe unterweiae, wie sie rechte Christen sollen sein, sondern auch daneben den Woelfen wehren, dass si. die Schafe nicht angreifen und mit falscher Lehre verinebren und Irrtum ein- fuehren. - Luther. Es ist kein Ding, das die Leute mehr bei del" Kirche behaelt denn die gute Predigt. - Apologie, Art. !/4. If the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle f 1 Oor. ~,8. Published for the Ev. Luth. Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States CONCORDIA PUBLISHING HOUSE, St. Louis, Mo. Theological Observer. - mtd)lid)".8eit\1efd)id)tli~~. 381 Theological Observer. - ~if~li~~geitgef~i~tli~e~. 1. .2{merikll. ftlier bie ~ii~igleit, hie djriftlidje 2e~~e "forl3uliilben", aitierl bet: "Stit:djenliote" bon (.tt:e~vo, ~t:gentinien, au~ bem met:idjt be~ jilleftIidjen SDif±t:ilt~ bom ~afjt:e 1897: "jillollie fidj ein S'trii.pVel t:iifjmen, ban et: im~ ftanbe fei, ben mefUb au fjelien unb in~ IDlittelliinbifdje IDleet: au roet:fen, fo roiit:ben ttJit: lieaeidjnung~boll ben 8linget: an bie 6tim Iegen. jilliebiel gt:iinet: ift aliet: bet: jillafjnro~, roenn fidj Me gefallene menf djIidje memunft ftelli, ag 00 fie bie giittlidjen @IauOen~Iefjt:en entroicfeln unb fortOiIben lOnnte 1 IDlit bet: gefallenen memunft Me 2efjt:en bet: 6djrift aut: moll~ fommenfjeit filfjt:en au roollen, fjeint nidji~ anbet:e~ aI~ mit einet: fdjmu~igen 2atet:ne ba~ 60nnenlidjt auffjellen. SDie memunft ifi bie geoome 8leinbin bet: ~eiIigen 6djrift; ttJie follien benn ifjt:e memiifjungen um biefeIlie 2ielie~~ bienfte fein lOnnen~ jillet: bat:um bie 2efjt:en bet: ~eiIigen 6djt:ift bet: menfdjlidjen memunft aut: 8lorloiThung unb @ntttJicflung iiliet:gilit, bet:~ ±t:aut fie nidjt olon biiIIig infomVetenten, fonbem get:abeau feinblidjen ~iinben an. SDie @Iauben~Iefjt:en bet: memunft aut: 8lorlliiIbung unb lfutt~ roic'fIung iiliet:gelien, b~ fjeint nidjt~ anbet:e~ aI~ ba~ 2amm bem jillolfe aut: ~t:aiefjung unb mHbung anberlt:auen. ~a, elienforoenig roie roit: unfet:e 6iifjne lief einem 6iiufet: in bie 2efjt:e gelien, um fie aut: miidjtemfjeit au et:aiefjen, unb elienforoenig roie roit: unfet:e )tiidjiet: oei einet: ant:iidjigen ~et:fon in ben SDienft gelien, roenn roit: fie au aiidjtigen ~ungft:auen fjet:an~ aiefjen roollen: elienforoenig fiinnen ttJit: bie @Iauben~Iefjt:en bet: memunft bet: )tfjeoIogen aut: 8lorlliiIbung unb @ntroic'fIung anberlt:auen. SDet: 8lorl~ fdjritt, ben bie memunft in bet: )tfjeoIogie anauliafjnen bet:mag, ift unb faun nidjt5 anbet:e~ fein aI~ lRiicffefjt: in~ finftet:e ~eibentum. ~a, get:abe fjierin fjalien roit: ben ftiidften meroei~ filt: bie un~fVt:edjIidje mlinbfjeit unb ~ giinalidje Unbetmiigen bet: menfdjIidjen memunft, ban fie, gefallen roie fie ift, bennodj glaulit, iiliet: bie 6djt:ift einen 8lorlfdjt:itt anliafjnen au liinnen. @lie ift elien fo biiIIig lilinb unb bedefjrl, ban fie nidjt fiefjt unb gIaubt, ban fie lilinb ift, bielmefjt: meint, fie allein fefje t:edjt. jilliifjt:enb bet: Ieililidj mIinbe roenigft~ glaubt, ban et: liIinb ift, roiifjnt bet: geiftIidj mlinbe, ban ifjm nidjt5 fefjIe. ~m @eiftridjen gleidjt bet: IDlenfdj mit bet: gefallenen memunft bem jillafjnfinnigen, bet: fidj allein filt: bemiinftig, f eine !ii:t:ate unb ~f!eget: aliet: filt: in:finnig fjiiIt." 8l. ~. The Last Will and Testament of J. Pierpont Morgan. -If any person had a,ttempted to dispose of the esta,te of the elder J. Pierpont Morgan contra;ry to the provisions of his will, crimina,l proceedings would at once have been instituted. The dispositions in his will touching his property are held inviolate. But wha,t is being done with his last declara- tion concerning spiritual matte'rs? The fine testimony rega;rding "the blessed doctrine of complete atonement for sin through the blood of Jesus Christ, once offered, and through that alone," as set down in Article I of the will, made January 4, 1913, wa;rmed the heaJ:t of Christendom. Many periodicals published it. It was referred fa in many pulpits. It was also referred to by the dean of the cathedral of St. John the Divine in the sermon preached by him on the occasion of his installation last year and 382 Theological Observer. - RitdjIidj,,seitgefdjidjtrid)t!l. published in the Living Ohuroh. "I read, at the time, his will as it was printed in Hie press of the day. I was deeply impressed then, and am still, by the first a,rticle of that will, and here I thank his friend and associate, who has sent me a copy of it, which I will now read: 'Article I. I commit my soul into the hands of my Sa,vior, in full confidence that, having re- deemed and washed it in His most precious blood, He will present it fault- less before the throne of my heavenly Father; and I entrea,t my children to maintain and defend, at aU hazard and at any cost of personal sacrifice, the blessed doctrine of the complete atonement for sin through the blood of Jesus Christ, once offered, and through that alone.' I do not know the value of his monetary legacies, all the rest of the will I forgot except this one a,rticle, and I suppose this has been remembered because whatever of treasure he may have left to his family and his beneficiaries, I proclaim that I think this article is the greatest treasure of them all. 'Who by Thy cross and precious blood hast redeemed us.' " The sermon dealt with the a,tonement, the salvation ga,ined by Christ. The text was the antiphon from the Prayer-book: "0 Savior of the world, who by Thy cross and precious blood hast redeemed us, save us a,nd help us, we humbly beseech Thee, 0 Lord." And this is the salvation proclaimed by Dean Gates: "Salvation means to me only this: the bringing to its best of all tha,t is best within me. . .. There came a day in the development of humanity when heredity and environment were no longer enough, when the pupil might even be gra.duated from the college of heredity and environ- ment and might enter the great university of the Ideal, when, in other words, the evolution of man no longer should depend upon outside and parent forces, but should come from' power within. The day came when there was revealed to us the perfect man, the Man Christ Jesus, the ideal of what a, man must be. Jesus is the Savior of the world because He is the ideal of the world, and the individual men and women shall make themselves according to the pattern revealed to them on the Mount of Ca,lvary. Here is the upward path of future growth, the growth into the measure of the stature of the Man Christ Jesus." And then comes the story of the will of Mr. Morgan. The implication is tha.t the blessed doctrine of the atonement in the faith of which Mr. Morgan died is the doctrine of the atonement Dr. Ga.tes proclaims. Mr. Morgan is made to proclaim tha,t the blood of Jesus Christ saved his soul and will present it faultless before the throne of God by bringing to its best aU that was best within it. Dr. Gates does believe in the deity of Christ, but, rejecting the substitutionary atonement, he had no right to refer to Mr. Morgan's fine confession nor to use that fine antiphon as his text. We append an editorial from the Watohman-Emu,miner of January 30, 1930: "The elder J. Pierpont Morgan was widely known in the world of finance. There he exerted a tremendous influence by his knowledge of business affairs. In St. George's Episcopa,l Church in Manhattan, City of New York, he was a vestryman, and he ga.ve the same a.ttention to his church that he did to his business. If he were alive to-day, the liberalism of the present rector of that church, Dr. Karl Reiland, would break his heart. In his will he said: 'I commit my soul into the hands of my Savior ... .''' E. Theological Observer. - .Rh:d)1id)'.8eitgefd)id)tIid)e~. 383 Our Universities and the Christian Religion. - An article by Dr. Harold Paul Sloan, editor of Ohristian Faith and Life, attracted our attention when it was printed in the Lutheran Oompanion. Its heading is, "America's School System, and Can a University Be Christian?" Since he in this article offers very valuable informa.tion, presenting fa.cts which Christian ministers and parents should know, we take the liberty of setting down here some of his leading paragraphs: - "How much one wishes he could go on to point out how America's educational system is promoting the sense of moral responsibility and so undergirding and carrying forward civilization; but the opposite is the truth. The institutions of higher learning, both state universities and church-schools, are largely failing to promote this sense. Instead, they are promoting the opposite. "The head of a Methodist Wesley foundation, attached to a great church university, said to us only last week: 'I find that most college freshmen, very soon after they have arrived on this campus, throw over- board all their Christian ideas.' We asked him why this condition obtained. He gave three reasons. 'First, unbelief taught in the classrooms of the university. Second, the general atmosphere of unbelief on the campus. Third, the fact that the students, when they come here, are for the first time away from home and independent of its order. They are free from restraints, and they glorify their liberty.' "This gentleman is unquestionably correct. Behavioristic views are being taught widely in psychology, and evolutionary views are being taught in biology, sociology, ethics, philosophy, and even in such departments as history, literature, and the Bible. This teaching is undermining the sense of moral responsibility among the younger educated leaders of the country. Of our own personal knowledge we could make an imposing list of insti- tutions where such negative influences have been developed. "The report of Mr. William Jones, secretary of the League of Evan- gelical Students, concerning his last spring's tour among colleges and universities in America entirely confirms our own observations. Professor Harry Walker Hepner of the Department of Business Psychology at Syra- cuse speaks of the numbers of students he has seen come to that institution adherents of the Christian faith and then leave it four years later, their faith wrecked. He himself is one of those who is helping to wreck Chris- tian faith there. He is offering in its place the idea of so living as to carry forward the evolution of the human race. "The late Methodist Bishop Theodore Henderson is authority for the statement that fifty per cent. of the young people who go to college to train for religious vocations are diverted during their courses; and not all who lose their faith are thus turned aside. Some, having been totally confused, go on to graduate schools, taking their bewildered hearts and confused minds with them. They finally land in church pulpits and on the mission-fields, young leaders who have been robbed of their faith in the schools of the Church; men who do not believe in the Creed or in the authority of the Scriptures and who, in their turn, are spreading the disintegra.ting forces of unbelief more and more widely in the Republic. "If twenty-five per cent. of the educated youth of America are feeling the influence of these negative currents in the universities, then 25,000 384 Theological Observer. - ~irdjHdj~8eitgefdjidjtltdjts. young men and women are annually going out into positions of leadership either hostile to the Christian religion or at best with a halting faith in it. 25,000 in a year means a quarter of a million in a decade, and a quarter of a million men and women with shattered or halting faith in the leader- ship of the nation is an ominous condition. One wonders whether this situation is not the chief reason that ideals are breaking down to-day and that crime is becoming so menacing." Continuing, Dr. Sloan thinks that we need not despair of the situation. He believes the pendulum will swing the other way again. "The passionate devotion to naturalism," representing "a vague, undefined, unscientific, speculative philosophy," which at present is the corrupting force in the intellectual life of our universities, will by and by be abandoned, he holds. That may be true; but this optimism does not absolve Christian pastors and parents from the duty of exercising the highest vigilance with respect to university students for whose religious well-being they are responsible. A. ~inbdhfe bom firdjlidjen fllmerifa. Unter biefer iilierfdjrift oe:ddjtet ein beutfdjer t[u~taufdjvrofeffor in bem ~aljroudj bel' "Weuen Q:ljriftoterve" uoer bie firdjIidjen ~erljiiItniffe in unferm .2anbe. 3'ur feine ,,3'Iun~ fereien" nimmt bel' ".2utlj. SJeroIb" ben @Sdjreioer bor ben griinen 5rifdj, namentridj fur feine mefdjreioung be~ .2utljertum~ in t[me:dfa, ba~ nadj bel' @Sdjifberung "in Reine nationaIe ®ruvven aerfiim, bie fidj ljiiufig auf ba~ ljeftigfte oefeljben. S\)ogmatifdje Unterfdjiebe fviden baoei eine gro13e !RoUe". S\)aau oemedt bel' "SJeroIb": "S\)a~ fdjreiot er au~gefudjt gerabe bon bel' Iutlje:dfdjen ~irdjel ®etui13 giot e~ unter ben .2utljeranern t[me~ rifa~ nationaIe ®t:U1Jven, eoenfo tuie in ber Iutljerifdjen unb reformierten ~irdje (ifurova~. t[oer tuann ljaoen fidj biefe ®ruVVen ljeftig oefeljbeH l!Bie fiimen fie baau? '(if~ ljat ja in ber ~ergangenljeit (unb bel' ~erfaffer fdjreibt bon bel' ®egentuartl) an .~ampf unb @Streit in unferer Sl'irdje nidjt gefeljrt, aoer ba ftanben fidj nidjt national gefdjiebene ®ruVVen gegen~ iUier. ~n neuerer 3eit ljaoen tuir eigentridj nul' einmaI ein furae~ l!Bieber~ aUffIammen after t[nimofitiit erIeot in bel' (ifrinnerung an bergangene 3eiten. s\)ie nodj borljanbenen ®egenfiite unb Unftimmigfeiten oetreffen tueit tueniger Die .2eljre afS bieImeljr bie firdjIidje ~ra6g. mandjmal ljanbeIt e~ fidj nul' um grii13ere ober geringere @Strenge in bel' S\)urdj~ fuljrung bel' ~rdjenaudjt. l!Benn e~ baIiei einmaI bodommt, ba13 bel' eine ~irdjenfiirver an bem anbern ettua~ ljeroe SfrUif uot, fo ift bamit bodj nodj nidjt gefagt, ba13 fie fidj auf~ ljeftigfte oefeljben unb baf3 bog~ matifdje Unterfdjiebe eine gro13e !RoUe fViden. ®egenuoer ben erfdjut~ ternben ~amvfen, bie gegentuiirtig in anbern ~rdjen, a. m. oei ben (ifVi~ ffovaIen unb ~re~Ol)terianern, gefuljrt tuerben unb oei benen e~ fidj in bel' 5rat um funbamentale S\)ogmen ljanbeIt, ~errfdjt unter ben .2utljera~ nern t[merifa~ eine ljeraerfreuenbe (ifinmutigfdt. Unb baoei ljulbigen tuir nidjt bem @)I)nfretgm~, hJie er fdjranfenro~ a. m. unter ben Sfon~ gregationaIiften ljerrfdjt. ~on bel' angeoIidj borljanbenen 3erfvHtterung be~ .2utljertum~ in bide Heine nationale ®ruvven ljat fidj bel' ~erfaffer audj eine feljr bedeljrte ~orfteUung gemadjt. ~n l!BirfIidjfeit oefteljen in t[merifa brei gro13e Iutljerifdje Sfirdjenfiirver unb fieoen einadfteljenbe @Sl)noben, bie fidj aum 5reif nodj nidjt entfdjieben ljaIien, hJefdjem grii13eren ~eroanb fie fidj anf djIie13en miidjten." Theological Observer. - ~itd)Hd)'3eit\Jefd)id)md)e~. 385 SDiefer lBerroeis erfdjeini uns fo roidjtig, bat roil' iqn qier mit WlJfidjt roiebergeben, um insbefonbere auf aroeierId aUfmedfam au madjen. 2u~ niidjft freuen roil' uns qeraHdj iiber ben frdmiitigen lBerrods, ben ber ,,~erolb" bem @)djrdber fO freunbHdj gibt. mer bie firdjIidjen lBerqiiIt~ nitle fO fdjiIlleri, roie llies in bel' "ilCeuen (il;qriftoierpe" gefdjeqen ift, fdjiIber± fie faIfdj unb fiinlligi bJiber bas adjie @ebot unb llie djriftridje mebe. SDas ift fdjon friiqer briiben gefdjeqen, befonbers gegen Wliffouri, fo bat bort nodj qeute bieffadj ein. Wliffourier al§ @)fanllaImadjer girt. (§s ift baqer bie qodjfte 2dt, bat .2euie, llie einfadj etbJas aus ber .2ufi greifen, in bie Sfur genommen bJerben. SDaran qat ber ,,~eroIbu gana redj± geqanbert. Wudj bie 2uriinrodfung ber "qeftigen ~efeqbungU qat iqre 9tidjtigfeit; fie geqori audj in ben 9taudjqualm fIiidjtiger @)djreiber, bie iqre Wugen nidjt offenqaIten. menn manbebenft, roas bie Iutqerifdje Sfirdje in Wmerifa qai burdjfiimpfen miiffen, eqe fie baqin gefommen ift, roo fie ie~t fteqt, bann fann man fidj nul' aUfs qodjfte bariiber rounbern, roie bei aUem .2eqrfamPf bennodj bie Sfontroberfen fo fadjHdj unb aumeift friebIidj gefilqrt roorben finb. mir fdjreilJen bies, nadjbem roir gerabe bamit fertig gebJorben finb, geroiffe \lSqafen bel' .2eqrfiimpfe nodj einma! griinbHdj au ftullieren. \lSerfonIidje (§rbit±erung lonnte ia nidjt gana aus~ bIeiben; anbers gefdjieqt bas nun einmaI nidjt in bel' meIt, foIange roil' nodj im .2eibe roaUen. Wber bas \lSerfonIidje ift bennodj qinter bas eigent~ Iidje qoqe 2id auriicrgetreten. - SDas bringt uns aum abJeiten \lSunft. @)djIietIidj bIeibt es roaqr, bat bislang bie "bogmatifdjen llnterfdjiebe" im @runbe bie ~auptroUe gefpieIt qaben. @:s qanbeIte fidj re~ten @rabes nidjt um llie \lSra1;i§, fonbern um bie .2eljre. mil' mogen ben Wusbrun "bogmaiifdje llnterfdjiebe" qier nidjt unb bermeiben iqn baqer. mer aber bie Iutqerifdje Sfirdje in Wmerifa ftubieri, mut augeben, bat baS @rote, baS @:rqabene, bas ~errIidje an iqr gebJefen if±, bat fie bas ieure Iauiere @:!.1ctngeHum unfers ~eUanbei3 gefudji qat. <5ie roorrte eine ~efenntnis~ firdje fein, bei bel' bas sola Scriptura, baS sola gratia unb bas sola fide mitfami bel' gratia universalis aUes girt. @)ie bJorrte suriin sum @)ianb~ punft .2utljers unb bel' Concordia. llnb bailu qat @ott grote @nabe ge~ geben. mas roil' qeute qaben unb roas bel' ,,~erolbu fo qodj riiqmt, niimIidj bat uns bie "erfdjiitiernben Stiimpfe", roie a.~. il!Difdjen @:piffo~ palen unb \lSresbt)terianern, erfpari gebIieben finb, bat roir nidji bem " f djranfenlof en @)t)nfretismue u bel' SfongregationaIiften ljuIbigen unb bat innerljaIb bel' Iutljerifdjen ~riftenljeit Wmerifae cine fo grote, "ljera~ erfreuenbe '@:inmiitigfeit" ljerrfdjt: biefe @)egnungen berbanfen roil' ber @nabe @ottee, bie une burdj aUe Stoniroberfen in bie ~ilieI gefiiljri unb une aUf ben ~oben bel' @)djrift gefterrt qat. mil' finb als amerifanifdje (il;qriftenqcit mit biefer @)adje nodj nidjt au @:nbe gefommen. Db roil' aUe, @)'t)nobe filr @)t)nobe, auf einem unb bemfeIben @runbe in ber .2eljre fteqen, mut nodj immer aUfe neue l.iefeqen roerben. llnb ljauptfiidjIidj ljanbeIt es fidj gegenroiiriig audj um bie firdjIidje \lSra1;is. SDat roir ie~t aUe fo ljan~ befn, !Die @ottee mori es borfdjreilJt unb bJorauf audj unfer ~efenninis bring!: bat roir aUem llnionismus abfagen, furdjiIos ftrafen, roo gef±rafi roerben mut, unb babd bodj objeftib bIdben - bas aUes finb SDinge, bie uns ernfte @etuiffenefadjen fein miiffen. Wber bon dner "ljeftigen ~e~ feqbung" reben au rooUen, geqori in baS @ebie± bee llnroaljren. @)oroeit Wliffouri in ~etradjt fommt, fann bom @)djroeigen nidjt bie 9tebe fein, lJiS 25 386 Theological Observer. - .Ritd)Ud)~.3eit\lefd)id)tlid)d. ba~ .Bid bet teinen @5djtiftlefjte nnb bet tedj±en, fdjriftgemiif3en ~ta~~ eneidj± iff; abet fotoeit .\!niffonti in f8ettadj± lomm±, fjat audj niemanb in bet In±fjetifdjen Si1itdje 2rmetifa~ ein feljnIidjete~ !8etIangen aI~ eben Die .\!niffonriet, baf3 bie~ .Biel toitfIidj etteidj± toetbe, iebodj nidj± im @aIoI'I' ftiitmifdjet ftbeteiInng, tongI abet anf bem fidjeten nnb go±±getoolIten m!eg toeiteten @5tnbin~ nnb toeitetet gegenfeitiget !8etmagnnng nnb toeiteten @ebet~. .;s. ~ . .\!n. Sick with Roman Catholicism. - In an address on "The Meaning of Augsburg," published in the Lutheran Oompanion of January 31, Prof. John B. Kelso, a Presbyterian, says: "In 1929, at the canonization of one hundred and thirty-six so-called British martyrs, the Pope's address was reported. He said: 'Protestantism is getting more and more exhausted. Its own sterility is inspiring many souls with a nostalgia for Catholicism.' (I quote from the Oleveland Plain Dealer)." The Pope is right if he is referring to that type of "Protestantism" which has cast justification by faith overboard. Only, in that case he is understating the case. These pseudo-Protestants have passed beyond the stage of "nostalgia for Cathol- icism." Their case must be diagnosed as the Roman Sickness. A "Prot- estant" who has no use for the Pauline doctrine of justification is a Roman Catholic at heart. And soon the disease breaks out all over his body. Dr. W. E. Orchard, the noted Congregationalist of London, is a case in point. In his Foundations 0/ Faith, Vol. II, p.1Sl, he says: "The question of whether Christ's righteousness is imputed or imparted to us has. been a source of great dispute between Catholics and Protestants. It might be thought there was Scriptural basis for the doctrine of imputed righteous- ness, but this is denied by Catholic exegetes; and whether it is Scriptural or not, belief in it has now been almost entirely surrendered by thoughtful Protestants." And on page 191 he says: "Christ's display of His love for us wins for Him the central place in our hearts, and thus there begins to take place a close knitting to Christ through the Cross. . .. The blood of Christ, that is, His life laid down at such a price, cleanses us from sin by bringing the assurance of forgiveness, blots out the guilt of sin by the way in which He bears its sorrow on His heart and removes the effects of its stain from our minds,and brings about the remission of sins by destroying our very love for sin and taking away any further taste for it." That is, essentially, the Catholic doctrine of justification by gratia in/usa .. The Pope would be willing to receive it as equivalent to the doctrine of the Tridentine symbol: "Justification is not remission of sins merely, but also the sanctification and renewal of the inward man, through the voluntary reception of the grace and of the gifts whereby man of unjust becomes just and of an enemy a friend." "If anyone saith that men are justified either by the sole imputation of the justice of Christ or by the sole remission of sins, to the exclusion of the grace and the charity which is poured forth in their hearts by the Holy Ghost and is inherent in them, or even that the grace whereby we are justified is only the favor of God, -let him be anathema." (Sess. VI, chap. VII, and Can. XI.) Dr. Orchard himself de- clares that he is in agreement with the Catholic theology. He said re- cently: "My theological views have changed, mainly by the discovery that Catholic theology holds all that I was ever seeking." And the Pope's contempt of modern Protestantism finds food in declarations like this by Theological Observer. - .Ritd)Hd.J',8eitgefd)td)mc!)e~. 387 the Watohman-Examiner.' "Dr. Orchard is one of the half dozen men in London to-day who by his powerful preaching and urgent appeals is speak- ing to the heart and conscience of the nation." (Sept. 29, 1927.) The Watohman-Examiner is willing to view the deadly sickness as only a slight indisposition. E. The Icelandic Lutherans. - We read in the Ohristian Register: "Rev. Rognvaldur Petursson, D. D., beloved and revered leader of American Icelanders and thoroughly familiar with conditions in Iceland, tells me that eighty per cent. of the clergy of the Icelandic state church are liberals. For a century and a quarter there has been a strong and essentially Unitarian movement in the Icelandic Church, with outstanding lay and clerical leaders. . .. Last winter there was a tremendous stir in the news- papers of Iceland over one of the younger clergymen of the state church, Rev. Gunnar Benediktsson, who wrote a pamphlet, Was Jesus the Son of Joseph? and who openly calls himself a Unitarian and refuses to say the Creed. The bishop was called upon to require him to resign. It is signifi- cant that the bishop has shown no disposition to do so. . .. An interesting factor in the religious life of Iceland is Spiritualism. According to my friend Rev. Helgi Konradson all the younger clergy of Iceland are interested in Spiritualism, an interest which has been fostered particularly by one of the professors on the theological faculty of the university. Sera Helgi was rather shocked at the lukewarmness of my own interest in Spiritualism." The article in the Unitarian periodical characteristically bears the heading "Freedom of the Pulpit." We suspect that it is disseminating misinforma- tion on the extent of Liberalism and Spiritism in Iceland and herewith bring the matter to the notice of the Icelanders. We know that in one matter at least the Ohristian Register has been misinformed. The Rev. Rognvaldur Petursson is not a revered leader of the Lutheran Icelanders in America. The Icelandic Unitarian congregation in Winnipeg, of which he is in charge, does not belong to the Icelandic Synod. - The Rev. Wm. H. Luke, who is well informed on conditions in the Icelandic Synod, reports that for a time American Icelanders were disturbed by Unitarianism; but when it was learned that this meant a denial of the deity of Jesus, the movement was sloughed off, and the faithful that had been misled returned to the Icelandic Lutheran Synod; among those who were sloughed off were Rognvaldur Petursson and his followers in Winnipeg. - The Ice- landic Synod is about to decide whether it will affiliate with the United Lutheran Church or with the Norwegian Lutheran Church. E. The Attitude of Our Age toward the Authority of the Bible.- A few paragraphs on this subject in the Watohman-Examiner seem so important that they ought to be quoted. The editor of this journal writes: "A minister said to us: 'Of course, the Bible teaches the virgin birth of Christ, the vicarious death of Christ, the bodily resurrection of Christ, and the visible return of Christ, but in an honesty I must say that I do not believe in one of these things.' He then proceeded to tell us why he rejected these generaUy accepted teachings of Christianity. It is our opinion that our theological differences result not so much from conflicting interpretations of the Bible as from conflicting views of [concerning] the Bible itself. Those rejecting the teachings mentioned in the foregoing pa,ragraph faU generally into two classes. The first class claims its belief 388 Theological Observer. - ~itcljnclj~Settgefcljicljt!iclje~. in the trustworthiness of the Bible and then seeks to prove that the Bible, rightly interpreted, does not teach such doctrines. The second class readily admits that the Bible does teach such doctrines, but just as frankly de- clares tha,t for good and sufficient reasons it cannot accept these doctrines. One group of men juggles with the Bible and tries to make it teach what it evidently does not teach. The other class of men frankly says that Christ and His disciples were mistaken." The writer of the above words is correctly discerning the times. As far as we are able to observe, a real debate on what a, certain Bible-passage teaches or on the Scripturalne.ss of a, given doctrine is a rare occurrence. But what one does hear and read, day in and day out, are questions as to the credibility of the Scriptures and open attacks on the doctrine of their divine origin. Forty or fifty years ago the inspira,tion of the Bible was taken for granted with people that bore the Christian name, and to deny it, meant that one was content to be outside the Christian Church; such people were classed with Unitadans, Jews, a,theists, and agnostics. To-day there are many so-called Christian ministers who put their rejection of the doctrine of the inspira,tion of the Scriptures into their platform as one of its most important planks. It is here where the chief dange'r lies for the generation which is now growing into manhood and womanhood. How important that Christian pastors see clearly the chief peril threatening their padshioners and that they be prepared to give battle to the loud- mouthed monster - brazen unbelief! It must not be overlooked, however, that the wea,pon to rely on is not apologetics, helpful as it will prove in many a, case, but the Word of God, which liveth and abideth forever. A. Salvation Army Reorganized. -.An item from the Ghristian Gen- tury should find a place here to inform our readers of a change made in the fundamental law of thc SaIvation Army. We read: "The commis- sioners of the Salvation Army, meeting in London, have adopted a series of three proposals made by General Edward J. Higgins, pres--"'Ilt commander, which will forever make impossible the establishment of any such family or personal dynasty as the founder, General Wm. Booth, envisaged. Under the new regulations, control of the Salvation Army property in Great, BritaiIl will be' vested in a boa,rd of trustees rather than in the commanding general, a,s at present. The general will retire automatically at the age of seventy, which in the case of General Higgins will mean in 1932. And, most important change of aU, future generals will be chosen by vote of the high council of the Army rather than by choice of the former general. The high council is composed of all commissioners. Only Commissioner Ca,t,herine Booth, daughter of the late General Bramwell Booth, opposed this change." A. II. 2tu5lttnil. 2lngnftin nnb bte 2e~t:e bon bet: ®nabe. ~er oerii~mte SNrdjenle~rer unb mifdjof au ~ippo megiu~ in ~ftifa ftaro am 28. ~uguft 430; fomit waren im ~uguft 1930 1,500 ~a~re fei! feinem ~obe berfIoffen. !1lamentridj bie romifdje .\tirdje beranftartete i~m au @j~ren fogenannte ,,~uguftinjufJi~ fii:en", unb romifdje :itljeologen oetonten baliei, wie audj ein3elne eban~ geIifdje (fo .\tad ~oII, .\tad mm:t~ u. a.), baB ber auguftinifdje mcgtiff bon ber feIigmadjenben ®nabe nidjt eigentridj berjenige 2ut~er~ (,,®otte~ ~uTh Theological Observer. - .Ritd)!id)~8eitgefd)id)md)e~. 389 obet ®unf±, bie et au uns ±tiigt bei fieg fefbf±" - "benignus Dei favor erga peccatores"), fonbern butegaus bet bes sttibentinums ("caritas et gratia, quae in cordi bus hominum per Spiritum Sanctum diffunditur"; .2utljet: "bie ®nabe toetbe bem .anenfegen eingegoffen buteg eine ljcimIiege [gidung; toet baau fommen toolIe, bet miiffe teuen, beiegten unb genug~ tun"; XIII, 2078; cf. Baier III, § 2, p.4 sqq.) getoefen fei. ~n ,,€idjtift unb fEefenntnis" beleudjtet ffieftot .an. [gilIfomm~Beljlenbotf biefe iYtage unb fdjHeB± feine [jeitadjtung, namentIieg aUf ®tllnb bon (DjemnH,f ge~ nauen Untetfudjungen, mit bem folgenben iYaait: ,,~uguftin ljat in bet .2eljte bon bet fEefeljtllng bie ~Ueintoirlfamfeit bet ®nabe fef±geljaIten unb berieibig± unb fann batum toebet bon ffiom noeg bon ben mobetnen €itjnet~ giffen, au benen getabe audj f cine fEeurieiIet untet ben neueten stljeoIogen aumeif± geljoten, in ~nfptueg genommen toetben. ~n bet .2eljte bon bet ffiedj±fettigung abet lja± et ben bibIifdjen fEegtiff bet ®nabe, nadj toeIdjem fie niegts anbetes iff aIi3 bie gniibige ®efinnung ®o±±es in 0:ljtifto gegen bie €iiinbet, nidj± flat etfaf3t, ift babuteg bei feinet .2eljtbatfteUung feillft in UnfIatljeiten unb ~ettoittung getaten unb lja± ~nlaf3 bailu gegeben, baB fpii±ete ,'i'jrtIeljret bis in bie neuef±e Bei± ljinein fidj aUf iljn betufen Ionnten. €io feljt toit baljet audj mit .2u±ljet unb unfern Iutljetifegen .2eljtbiitern ~uguftin fdjii~en unb banfbat anedennen, toas ®o±± butdj iljn bet (Djtiften~ ljeit gefdjenft ljat, fo tooUen toit boeg mit .2u±ljet unb 0:ljemni~ nieg± bei ~uguftin f±eljenbleilien, fonbern au ~aurus, bem ~pof±eI, ja au 0:ljtif±o feillft, bem tedj±en fEtinget unb .2eljtet bet ®nabe, autiiclfeljten unb bon iljm aUein aUe unfete stljeologie Ietnen unb beljettlegt fein laffen. [git ljan~ beln bamit im €iinne ~uguftins feillft, bon bem .2utljet (XIV, 434) ge~ tiiljmt ljat, et fei bet etfte unb faft bet einaige, bet bon aUet ~iitet unb ,\;>eiIigen fEiidjern ungefangen unb aUein bet ,\;>eiIigen €idjtift untettootfen fein toilI." ~. st . .an. ~elit Me miffl,1urifgnobe tljel,1{ogifdi nodi im 17. ~ilfjtfjunl";eti? ~n ben ,,~aftotaillliittern", bie im ~etIag bon 0: . .2ubtoig Ungelenf, SDtesben, etfegeinen, betoffentridj± bet ,\;>etausgebet, D. t§tieg €itange (Si'affeI~ [gir~ ljeImsljolje) einen ~riHeI, tootin et einige ffieifeeinbtiicle iibet unfet .2anb untetbteite±. t§t toat niimIidj bot fUtoem in ben ~eteinigten €itaaten unb ljat fieg befonbets in ~etD g)orl aUfgeljaIten, ljat abet aueg einen fEefudj in 0:ljicago gemadjt. fEetiteIt ift bet ~rlifeI: "But tljeologifegen .2age in U. S. A." [gas et iibet bie gtoBen neuen Sl'itdjen ~eto g)l)rls oU fagen ljat, iff e±toas betIe~enb fUt bie ametifanifdje t§iteUeit, abet bieUeidjt gana ljeiIfam, toenn man aUetbings audj fagen mUB, baB, too5 fEauftiI bet ~itegen anbe±tifft, audj SDeutfeglanb bieIe tounbe €i±eUen aUfoutoeifen ljat. [gas uns in biefem ~ttifel befonbets inteteffiett, iff bas, toas D. €i±ange iibet bie Iu±ljetifege SNtdje ~metifas fagt. [git aitieten bie betteffenben ~atagtapljen : "t§igenattig unb mogIidjettoeife bebeu±fam iff in biefet .2age iibtigens bie €i±eUung bet Iutljetifdjen SHtdjen, bie uns SDeuifdjen ja bot aUem nalje~ fieljen unb mit beten iYiiljtetn idj besljalb befonbets fotgfam iYiiljlung oU getoinnen fUdjie. €iie ljaben fieg (audj toenn man bon bet iljeologifdj tooljI nodj im 17. ~aljtljunberi Iebenben .aniffoutiftjnobe abfielji) faft giinaIidj bon bet ffiationaIifietllng bes ametifanif egen Si'itdjeniums fteigeljaIten, ljaben bafiit abet aueg in bet offentIidjen ±ljeologif egen .aneinung bielfaeg bas UtieH einf±eclen miiffen, baB fie artmobifdj, tiiclftiinbig unb bebeutungslos 390 Theological Observer. - sritdjIidj~8eitgefdjidjt!idjes. fden - ein Urieil, ba£l infofern mo~I nidjt gana o~ne ®tunb mat, ag e£l i~nen nidjt gdungen ift, il)te motfdjaft in dne Ieoenbige ~u£leinanbetfetung mit bem &Jauvtftrom be£l ametifanifdjen SDenfen£l au otingen. ,,@£l fann fein, baf3 dne fiinftige @ntmicfIung be£l djtiftridjen SDenfen£l in ~metifa bem ametifanifdjen Eut~erium eine dnaigattige ®eregenl)eit fdjafft, bon bet arten tefotmatotifdjen motfdjaft au aeugen. llliill e£l lidj bafUt tiiften, bann mitb e£l fteHidj gut tun, fidj gana anbet£l aIfS oi£ll)et mit bet jungen rut~etifdjen 5tl)eoIogie SDeutfdjIanM in Q5etoinbung au feten. @£l mar bodj eigentridj ungIauoIidj, baf3 -meine meife in ben Q5eteinig±en @5taa±en - nodj baau nidjt butdj ba£l Eutl)erium ~metifa£l, fonbern butdj unfete meaiel)ungen aum djtiftridjen ~ungmiinnetmed beranIaf3t - bet etfte mefudj eine£l beutfdjen Eutl)etanet£l (im engeten @5inne be£l llliotte£l, aIfo etma au£l bem ~teife, bet mit ametifani)djem Eutl)erium im Eutl)e~ tifdjen llliertfonbem betounben ift) in bet Wadjftieg£laeit mat. llliiil)tenb anbete ametifanifdje ~teife, audj fttdjIidje unb t~eoIogifdje ()tganifationen, in ben Ietten ~a~ten eiftig oemii~t maten, fUl)tenbe beU±fdje llniinnet in unmittdoate Q5etoinbung mit bem ametifanifdjen ®eifte£lIeoen au otingen, l)at brul Eutl)crtum ~metifa£l ~iet ameiferro~ ettva£l nadjaul)oIen." @~ ift ja oefannt, me~~aIo Die ~eoIogen SDeutfdjIanM gtof3enteU~ fo iioet un~ benfen mie D. @5tange. SDaf3 mit Die Ee~ten bon bet Q5etoaI~ infVitation unb bon bet Q5etfo~nung butdj {Djtifti mIut ag oioIifdje unb batum emige lllia~t~eiten berieibigen unb ~nnal)me Diefet Ee~ten aUt conditio sine qua non bet ®rauoen~otubetfdjaft madjen, ift jenen llniin~ nern einfadj unbetftiinbHdj. @5ie fonnen e~ nidjt anbet~ etfiiiten, ag baf3 fie e£l ein Eeoen in bet Q5etgangen~eit unb uneingefdjtiinfien 5tra~ bitionaIi£lmu£l nennen. lllienn D. @5tange iiorigen~ meint, mit Iut~etifdjen ~metifanet follten me~t ag oi£l~et ~iil)Iung mit bet jungen Iut~etifdjen 5t~eorogie SDeutfdjIanM fudjen, ift e~ ba nidjt etma£l fdjmet, ein EiidjeIn au un±etbtiicfen ungefid)g bet 5tatfadje, baf3 man in SDeutfdjIanb in meiten ~teifen oeginnt, bie Iioetare 5tl)eoIogie iioet motb au metfen unb fidj mieber au Eutl)et auriid'aumenben, ba~ ~eif3t, getabe au bem @5tanbvunft, ben mit immet bettteien l)aoen~ jillatum follen mit benn Eutl)et, ben mit fdjon immet ~atten, nun etft nodj aufS SDeutfdjIanb imvottieten ~ ~. lnomB IDlifdiefjenptolilem. &Jietiioet Iefen mit in "SD. @. SD." dne l)odjft inteteffante @tottetung. SDafS mratt fdjteibt: "SDie Q5etl)dtatung dnet itaIienifdjen \lStinaeHin mit bem ~onig bon muIgatien, bet bem ottl)ob06en mefenntni£l [bet tuflifdj~fatl)oIifdjen ~itdjeJ angel)ott, l)at ben Q5atifan bot fdjmietige \lStooIeme geftellt, bie mit bet iioHdjen llnifdjelJenVta6i~ faum Io~oat maten. Wadj biden @5djmietigfeiten fam foIgenbet ~omVtomif3 l)et~ au£l: 2uniidjft fanb dne 5trauung nadj fat~oHfdjem mitu~ in bet ~tanaifSfu£l~ mafiHfa bon ~Hifi ftat±. SDiefet 5trauung£laft bot bem fatl)oHfdjen \lStieftet mutbe aoet nidjt gfddjaeitig aI£l aibUtedjtridje 5trauung unb aIfo ag ge~ niigenb angefel)en, mafS ben llliiinfdjen unb ben bon mom geiiuf3erien Q5et~ mutungen nidjt entfVradj. @£l fanb bielmelJt nodj eine 2ibiIttaUung bot llnuffoIini ag bem ~nmaIt be£l @5±aate£l ftat±. SDie btitte 5trauung, nadj oril)ob06em mitu~, Die mit gtof3em \lSomV in bet &Jeimat be~ ~onigfS ge~ feieri metben foIl, mitb ben iiuf3eten &Jo~evunfi bet ~eiern oiIben, menn~ gIeidj tomifdje Wotiaen oetu~igenb berfidjern, e~ l)anbIe fidj lJiet nidjt um eine llliiebetl)oIung bet fitdjIidjen 5ttauung, fonbern nut um einen aibU~ tedjtridjen ~ft bor bem ottl)ob06Clt ®dftridjen ag @5tanbe£loemnten. lllieni~ Theological Observer. - .Ritc9Hdh3ettgefc9ic9tIicge~. 391 get fompIiaieri aI§: biefe§: ~tauung§:betfaljten ift bie 2Uimadjung iibet Die ~inbetet3ieljung. ~ie bom tanonifdjen ffiedjt gefotberie 18etpfIidjtung bet fatljoIifdjen ~aufe unb mnbetetaieljung ift aogegeben tootben. ~a in bet bulgatifdjen 18etfaffung botgefdjtieben ift, bat bet ~iinig ortljob06en @Iau" ben£; fein mut, fo toiirbe aIfo ber ~ronfoIger fpater au£; bet fatljoIifdjen ~irdje au§:treten miiffen. @£; geniigt bem 18atifan aoet, toenn boretft bem mUdjftaIien be£; fanonifdjen ffiedjt£; @eniige getan ift. jilla£j bann fpater gefdjieljt, toitb al§ ,nodj nidji fprudjteif' oeaeidjnet. jillenn audj bet 18atifaN fdjon immer ben (Yiitftenljaufern gegeniioer feine (yorbetungen ,eIaftifdj' au geftaIien getoutt ljat, fo toitb in biefem (yall fidjer ba§: jillerben um bie (lftfirdjen ffiom§: SJaIiung toefentridj oeftimmt ljaIien." ;S. ~. IDC. !llrme§: ~nllnn nnb <;£ijinn! ~ie ,,!llIlgemeinen IDCiifion£;nadjtidjten" ±eiIen au§: bem "mudjljanbferoiirfenolatt" mit: "Unter ben 101 jilleden, bie im ;saljre 1928 au§: bem ~eutfdjen in§: ;sapanifdje iioetfe~t toorben finb, befinbet fidj nur ein einaige§: bon reIigiii£;~djriftridjem @eljaU, namIidj bie ,~adjfolge lrljrifti' be£; ~oma£j a ~empi£;. ~agegen finb nidjt toeniget aI§: 23 m3ede bon IDCat6iften unb IDCateriaIiften ben ;sapanern augangIidj ge~ madjt tootben, baruntet jilletfe bon IDCat6 unb @ngeI£; in cinet atoeioan~ bigen @efamtau£;gaIie, aaljIteidje 6djtiften bon ~au~ftJ, ~arI unb jilliIljelm Eiebfuedjt, ffiofa EU6emOUtg, mebeI unb mernftein. Untet benpljiIofoplji~ fdjen 6djriften oefinbet fidj audj bie ftoerfe~ung bon ~au~f~§: ,Utfptung be£; lrljtiftentum£;' unb eine @efamtau§gaoe bon ~ietfdje. 180n jilleden ber fdjiinen Eitetatut toutbe ,!llnatoI' bon 6djnitret unb ,~e~et bon 60ana' bon @etljatb SJauptmann al§ bet ftoetfetung toiirbig befunben. ;sn lrljina begegnet man neoen ben matetiaIiftifdjen unb mar6iftifdjen ~ampffdjriften befonbet£; @rnft SJacfeI. 60 fieljt ba£; europaifdje @eifte£;leoen im mIicffeIb be£; fern en (lften£; au£;." (Y. ~. iilier ben UmfnUll nnb bie finnni3ieUe 2nlle bentfdjer IDUfjionen ent~ neljmen toit ben ,,2rIlgemeinen 9Riffion§:nadjtidjten" bie folgenben Wngaoen: ,,@nbe 1929 atoeiteten 1,400 beutfdje IDCiffion§:leute auf 54 7 SJaupt~ ftationen. ;sljnen fteljen 9,748 oefolbeie eingeoorne IDCiffion£;frafte aUt 6eite, bie 990,583 SJeibendjtiften oetreuen, au benen 53,811 ~aufoetoetoet lommen. ;sn 3,472 niebeten unb 110 ljiiljeten 6djulen toetben 211,799 6djiiIet untettidjtet. 29 ~tantenljaufet toetben bon ber beutfdjen IDCiffion untetljaIien. ~iefe gtote Wtoeit tUljt auf einet betljaltni£;matig feljt Heinen finanaiellen mafi§:. 7,042,904 RM. an IDCiifion§:gaIien lamen au£; ~eutfdjIanb; basu lamen nodj nidjt gana anberiljalo IDCiIlionen ffieidj§:~ mad au£; bem 2fu£;lanb unb nidjt gana atoei IDCiIIionen au£; ben ljeiben~ djriftIidjen @emeinbenunb ~irdjen. ~anadj ift in biefem ;saljte Die BaljI bet IDCiifion§:leute um 99 getoadjfen, bie bet eingeoornen IDCifiion£;ftafte um 686, bie bet eingeoornen lrljriften um tUnb 43,000. mettadj±ridj ift audj bie 6teigetung bet ljiiljeten 6djulen um 26. ~ie IDCiifion£;gaoen ftiegen ungefaljt um 700,000 RM. 2foet nadj ben neueften ~adjridjten fdjeinen Die IDCiffion§:gaoen im ;saljte 1930 oei einigen @efeIlfdjaften aUtiicf~ gegangen au fein, unb Dei ben meiften erreidjen fie lange nidjt Die SJiilje be£; nottoenbigften mebarf£;, fo bat eine ganae ffieilje bon @efeIlfdjaften bon grot en ~efiaiten oeridjten mut. 2fngefidji§ bet groten IDCiifion§:~ miigIidjfeiten auf bieIen (yelbern unb ber 2fufgaIien, bie bie beutfdje IDCiffion in bet grunbfegenben Beit fiit bie @ingeoornenfitdjen gerabe ie~t au et~ fiiIlen ljat, toare e£; fataftropljal, toenn bie IDliffion§:gaoen auf Die ~auer 392 Book Review. - ~iteratUt. niCfjt