Full Text for How Peter Became Pope, part 6 (Text)

----------------------------~ Q!nurnr~iu mqtnlngirul ilnut41y Continuing Lehre und Wehre (Vol. LXXVI) Magazin fuer Ev.-Luth. Homiletik (Vol. L1V) Theol. Quarterly (l897-1920)-Theol. Monthly (Vol. X) Vol. II March, 1931 No.3 CONTENTS Page ARNDT, W.: Erasmus' Angriff auf Luther im Jahre 1524 161 KRETZlVIANN, P. E.: Das Widerstreben des Menschen und unwiderstehliche Gnade................. . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. 170 DALLlVIANN, WlVI.: How Peter Became Pope... . . . . . . . . .. 177 MUELLER, J. T.: Concerning the Doctrine of Inspiration 190 KRETZ MANN, P. E.: Testimonials for the Lutheran Po- sition in Education.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 193 LAETSCH, TH.: Study on the Eisenach Epistle-lesson for the Third Sunday in Lent............................. 204 Dispositionen ueber die von der Synodalkonferenz ange- nommene Serie alttestamentlicher Texte ............... 210 Theological Observer. - Kirchlich-Zeitgeschichtliches. . . . .. 218 Book Review. - Literatur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 232 Ein Prediger mnss nicht allein weiden, also dass er die Schafe unterwelse, wie sie rechte Christen sollen sein, Bondern auch daneben den Woelfen wehren, dass sie die Schafe nicht angreifen und mit falscher Lehre verfuehren und Irrtum ein- fnehren. - Luther. Es ist kein Ding, das die Lente mehr bei det Kirche behaelt denn die gute Predigt. - Apolouie, Art. 24. If the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle? 1001'.14,8. Published for the Ev. Luth. Synod of lVIissouri, Ohio, and Other States CONCORDIA PUBLISHING HOUSE, St. Louis, lVIo. How Peter Became Pope. 177 !miberf±reoen in ber 1Befefjrung tu e g n i m m i unb ifjnen baoei ben @fauoen fdjenft. !marum freUidj ba§ !miberfireben in bem einen tyaU unter !mirfung ber aUmiidjtigen @nabe @otte§ (@pfj. 1, 19.20; )jSfjiL 1, 29) fidj iinbet:± in ein 2fnnefjmen ber ~ergeoung ber ®unben, in bem anbern tyaU aoer tueiteroeftefji ober fidj gar au cinem ±rotigen 1Befjarren im Ungfauoen berftiirft, ba§ fann be§ IDeenfdjen @eift nidjt oegreifen. g)a§ gefjot:± au ben @efjeimniffen @otte§,2) bie tuir IDeenf djen nidjt er~ forf djen ronnen. !mir fjar±en nadj ber ®djrift feft: g)ie @nabe ift fur a rr e IDeenfdjen ern ftr i dj gemeini, aoer e§ fann ifjr tuiberftanben tuerben; baruoer fjinau§ bermogen tuir nidjt§ au fagen. S)onecfe fagt forreft: "tyreiIidj oleiOt e§ un§ ein @efjeimni§, tuie ba§ fein rann, bat ber IDeenf dj, ber bodj nur ber @nabe tuiberftreoen rann, tuenn er oefefjt:± juirb, bodj nidjt getuartf am uno burdj untuiberftefjIidje @nabe oefefjt:± tuir)), tuie bie lutfjerif dje ~irdje nadj beutIidjer .2efjre ber ®djrift oe~ fenn±. g)iefe§ @efjeimni§ fann niemanb auftriiren." (@b.~.2utfj. g)og~ matif III, 297.) g)a§ eadem culpa ber ~onforbienformel (Trigl., 1080, § 57) oleiOt oeftefjen, tueil e§ fdjriftgemiit ift. !mir fonnen nur fagen, bat bie IDeitteilung be§ @lauoen§ tr 0 t g I ei dj e r ® dj u Ib aUf feiten ber IDeenfdjen erfolgt aUf @runb ber @nabentuafjl @otte§, tuie @pfj. 1 beutIidj gefagt tuirb, bat ber @Iauoe unb bie ganae 2fu§fufjrung be§ S)eiI§rate§ @otte§ an benen, bie felig tuerben, bie tyolge ber @naben~ tuafjl @otie§ ift. Unb babei laffen tuir e§ oetuenben. "Unfer !miffen ift ®tucftuerf, unb unfer !mei§fagen ift ®tucftuerf. !menn aoer fommen tuirb ba§ ~omommene, fo tuirb ba§ ®tucftuerf auffjoren", 1 ~or. 13,9.10. )jS. @. ~retmann. How Peter Became Pope. VI. 1342-1513. Clement VI, 1342-52, said, "My predecessors did not know how to be Pope." Villari says the Oountess of J urenne was the Pope's mistress. The Pope absolved Queen Johanna of Naples for murdering her husband; the queen sold the vast Avignon to the Pope for a beggarly 80,000 florins. The Pope's table, horses, pageants, and ladies made his court look like that of a king. Of the twenty-five cardinals created by 2)mlit betmeiben babd ben musbtucf "tgeo!ogije!)es ®egeimniS lI jolDog! in bem 6inn, aIS tonne bie :tgeo!ogie, aIS mlijjenfe!)aft, bies ®egeimniSet~ Hiiten, aIS aue!) in bem 6inn, aIS !iige ber ®tunb bet 91ie!)tbefegtung in ®oU; lDie aue!) benmusbtucf 1I1Jf~e!)o!ogife!)es ®egeimniS", aIS fiige bet ®tunb fut bie l.8efegtung eines s1l1enje!)en in itgenbeiner mleife in feinem fteien mlifIen, in feinem guten obet beffeten ll3ergaUen, in jeinem 16ie!)~3ur~®nabe~6e!)icfen", aue!) mit geje!)enften ®nabenftiiften. 12 178 How Peter Became Pope. Olement twelve were relatives, who led the most scandalous lives. Olement said, "The monks behave like a herd of buns that rage against the cows of the people." Olement soon used up the immense fortune of Benedict XII and got more easy money by quickly reducing the jubilee from one hun- dred years to fifty, which brought in a flood of gold. In addition he received in the first nine years of his office 430,000 gold gulden. How? For servitia. What's that? Fees for "giving away" offices. His cardinals made the same amount in the same time. Though begotten in adultery and therefore not eligible for a church office, John of Bonn held an office in the Ohurch; according to law only one office could be held by one man, but John of Bonn held twelve. Of course, he had to pay Olement. The Dominican Henry of Herford writes: "Anybody could buy and sen anything spiritual, just as if simony were not heresy, but holy. They traded these holy things for women and concubines and diced for them." Pope John XXII, who died 1334, published a price-list of dis- pensations for various crimes. The systematic compilation of this list dates from Alexander VI. (ReaZencyc. I, 94.) Pope Victor III, 1085-87, paved the way for indulgences, and Alexander of Hales (t 1245) furnished the material by his theory of a treasury of superfluous good works earned by Ohrist, Mary, and the saints. Pope Olement VI, in 1343, sanctioned the new doctrine and reserved for the Pope the privilege of managing this new treasury. How did he manage it? From 1471 to 1820 no fewer than forty-seven impressions of the "Taxes of the Roman Ohancery" were printed; here are a few items of this price-list of sins: - £ s. d. 17. For simony or fornication of priests ...... 36 9 6 22. For keeping concubine .................. 4 5 6 28. For murder by bishop, abbot, etc. ......... 50 12 6 34. For murder of father, mother, brother, wife 4 1 6 One of the satires that will never die is aimed in Boccaccio's Decameron, 1350, at the sacerdotal corruptions of Rome. Of this Milman says: "Nothing, however, told in satire, verse, or prose against the court of Rome can equal the exquisite malice of the story of the Jew converted to Ohristianity by a visit to Rome because no religion less than divine could have triumphed over the enormous wickedness of its chief teachers, the cardinals and the Popes." (Hittel, Spirit of Papacy, p. 251.) This is no malicious invention, but it is recorded as a literal historical fact by Benvenuto da ImoIa, in his commentary on Dante, written in 1376. (Littledale, 210.) How Peter Became Pope. 179 Innocent VI, 1352-62, broke 'his election agreements with the cardinals. The kaiser told the Pope to reform his clergy before asking ten per cent. The Pope had to pay tribute to French brigands to save Avignon. He said on July 29, 1353: "It has come to our ears that some of our officials are not satisfied with their salaries, but collect a penny every week from the public women who live from the shameless traffic of their bodies." In 1357 Abbot William of Muenchen-Gladbach complains his monks frequent saloons and keep concubines; In 1359 Oharles IV, "the priest's emperor," reproached the legate of Innocent VI at Mainz with the unchecked license and vileness of the clergy, for Rome was solely occupied with seizing the fleeces of the flock and cared nothing about the salvation of the sheep. (Lea, p. X.) Urban V, 1362-70, admitted the sad condition of the Ohurch and said that the cessation of councils was to be blamed for it. (Angl. Br., 299.) About 1366 the annates of the diocese of Koeln amounted to about 2,015 gold gulden. About this time the Greek emperor John Palaeologus became a Romanist. About 1180 Alexander III put on the Pope's miter the first crown; Boniface VIII, about 1300, added the second crown; Urban V, about 1370, added the third crown. The triple crown signifies the Pope's power over heaven, earth, and hell. Gregory XI, 1370-8, was against John Wyclif. Oatherine of Siena told the Pope that she found in Avignon "the stench of infernal vices"; on his replying that she had only been there a few days, she rose majestically and said, "I dare say that in my native city I have found the stench of the sins committed in the Ouria more oppressive than it is to those who daily commit them." (Janus, 341.) The saint describes the clergy as follows: "Given to love of self, they are full of pride, covetousness, and avarice, careful about worldly things, careless about the souls in their charge, oppressive against th/;> poor, unjust toward their subjeets. They go about like worldly lords and courtiers, on proud steeds, practise usury, in saloons they gamble away the property of the Ohurch and their own souls to the devil, dress up their she-devils that come to the altar with a crowd of chil- dren or commit sins against nature t The monks, too, preach only to tickle the ears of the lay people with fables. Their god is their belly; during the night, when, according to the rules, they ought to chant psalms, they have unfortunate creatures visit them, and nuns have become public prostitutes. They that ought bring life, bring death." (Engert, II, p. 67.) Under date of 1379 Meyer in his Annals of Flanders, speaks of "the prevalence everywhere of perjuries, blasphemies, adulteries, hatreds, quarrels, brawls, murder, rapine, thievery, robbery, gambling, 180 How Peter Became Pope. whoredom, debauchery, avarice, oppression of the poor, rape, drunken- ness," etc. In the space of ten months there occurred in the territory of Ghent 1,400 murders in the brothels, gambling-houses, taverns, etc. (Prot. Treas., p. 126.) Under Edward III, who died 1377, the Pope's yearly revenue from England was five times greater than the income of the crown. A secret society of armed men was formed to punish the Pope's legates, representatives, and collectors, and they professed themselves "ready to die rather than be plundered by the Romans." (Angl. Br., 237.238.) The Ohurch actually owned about one-third of Germany, nearly one-fifth of France, the greater part of Italy, a large section of Ohris- tian Spain, about one-third of England, important regions in Scan- dinavia, Poland, and Hungary. (Flick, 574.) In Goethe's Tasso, Alphons says to Antonio:- He that has his master's interests at heart In Rome has a very hard stand; For Rome will ever take and never give; If you go there to receive, You get nothing unless you bring, And happy if you will then get something. In Faust, Goethe says: "The [Roman Oatholic] Ohurch has a good stomach, has devoured whole countries, but has never over- eaten, can alone digest unrighteous goods." The clerical chancellor wrings one concession after the other from the emperor, who at last says, "I may as well sign over my whole kingdom." Urban VI, 1378-89, was elected by Italian cardinals. Thirteen French cardinals called him Antichrist and elected Olement VII, and the Great Schism began and lasted till 1414, and the rival Popes cursed and banned one another to the great scandal of Ohristendom. Urban had five cardinals strangled in prison and the bodies covered in a horse-stable. He had the jubilee come every thirty-three years. He began the Feast of the Visitation of Mary. "Antichrist" is the title given to Olement VII by St. Oatherine of Siena. In 1389 Boniface IX became Pope and sold "expectations," the right to succeed to an office on the death of the holder. But if a man paid a larger sum, he got the "preference." If a man could not journey to Rome, he could give the price of the journey instead and get the same pardons as if he had made a personal visit. The Romans drove the Pope out, but recalled him, and he wholly destroyed the republican freedom of Rome. Pope Benedict XIV allowed as authentic the revelations of St. Bridget, 1302-73. She says: "The Pope is a murderer of souls; How Peter Became Pope. 181 he destroys the flock of Ohrist; he is more unjust than Pilate. All the Ten Oo=andments he has changed into this one, Money, Money. The Pope and his clergy are rather the forerunners of Antichrist than the servants of Ohrist; the Pope's worldly court plunders the heavenly court of Ohri~t; the clergy read no more in the Book of God, but in the book of the world; the reason of God is foolishness to them; the care for souls, a fable." Littledale, 210.) An eminent French Oatholic in the fourteenth century says of the pilgrimages: "On festival days they make pilgrimages to distant churches in order to abandon themselves to all vices of shameful im- morality; the virtue of young men and the innocence of the boys is destroyed; things go on as at the festivals of Venus and Bacchus." (Schick, 235.) A famous monastic writer of the fourteenth century testified that the laity led better lives than the clergy. . .. It became in- tolerable to them to see the Sacrament administered by the sacrile- gious hands or to let their daughters go to confession to an unclean priest. . .. They felt that the organization provided for the salvation of souls was serving for their destruction and that, the more people sought the means of grace in the manner provided, the greater risk they incurred of imbibing corruption. (Acton, Lect. Mod. Hist., p. 90.) Peter de Luna became Antipope Benedict XIII a, 1394-1417'; he broke his election promises; made new ones and broke them; was held a prisoner in his own palace at A vignon. The Oouncil of Pisa, in 1409, declared: "From the sole of the feet to the crown of the head there is no soundness in the Ohurch," and on June 5 deposed the rival Popes Gregory XII and Benedict XIII as heretics, perjurers, and schismatics and elected Alexander V. The deposed Popes would not be deposed, and now there was the "Papal Trinity" in deadly conflict. Pope Alexander was soon murdered by Pope John XXIII. The council was not able to reform the Ohurch. Innocent VII, 1404-6, broke his election promises and had to flee from Rome. Gregory XII, 1406-15, was deposed at Pisa, and he banned the council. At Oonstance he retired from the papacy. Alexander V, 1409-10, broke his promise to reform the Ohurch and dismissed the Oouncil of Pisa. He was the tool of Baldassare Oossa, who was ac- cused of murdering the Pope. On the death of Alexander V Baldassare Oossa was elected Pope John XXIII. A bull of Alexander V brings the documentary proof of a pub- licly acknowledged son and daughter of Baldassare Oossa. Dietrich of Nieheim, "the greatest journalist of the Middle Ages," says Oossa kept at Bologna a harem of two hundred girls. He seduced three hundred nuns and made them abbesses and prioresses. 182 How Peter Became Pope. Monsignor W. H. Cologan, in his outspoken essay on "The Schism in the West," in Folia Fttgitiva, p. 186, says John XXIII had been a pirate in the pay of Charles Durazzo. He "was utterly un- fitted for the sublime dignity to which he was elected"; for was he not "worldly, self-seeking, lawless, irreligious, lewd? Pirate he was, and pirate he remained to the end." (Prot. Treas., p.240.) Kaiser Sigismund, with a brilliant retinue of 1,600 horses, on October 28, 1414, rode to the Council of Constance, which he forced Pope John to call in order to reform the Church in head and members. It was composed of 29 cardinals, 183 archbishops and bishops, 134 abbots, 100 learned doctors of law and divinity - from 50,000 to 100,000 strangers. Clowns and jugglers came to entertain the holy fathers. According to a MS. journal in the library of Vienna the number of courtezans at the Council of Constance exceeded 1,500. (Lenfant, Hist. du Ooncile, tom. I, p. 50, in Pope Joan, p. 94; Van Dyke, 211.) Von del' Hardt gives the documents for the scandals among the clergy. John Gerson, Chancellor of the University of Paris, who died in 1429, said: "Though the apostle says: 'Let every soul be subject to the higher powers,' yet this is to be understood with the limitation, when such obedience does not turn out to be blasphemy against God, the Creator, or to be a slander of our faith and our Savior. But, really, can there be a greater blasphemy against the Creator than when our rulers without a difference put up the Church for sale as merchandise in the markets, for money give her over as a whore to the murderers, adulterers, criminals, - the Church, which is the glorious bride, the elect daughter of Christ, which He has of pure mercy bought with His precious blood, with His suffering and shame, finally with His death on the cross. Judas sold Christ once for thirty pieces of silver; they sell Him every day a hundred times; some- times they sell to one and, when they have his money, take it again from him in order to offer Him to another for money the next hour. Therefore I conclude that obedience to superiors ends when their works arb plainly wicked and an offense to the whole Church; when the shepherds are shearers; not sheep, but wolves; not sobel', but drunk; not prelates, giving their lives for the sheep, but Pilates, serving the passions of others; throwing out nets to catch, not souls, but money. "The present-day Church is not apostolic, but apostatic, in which one may not remain, but from which one must flee far, far!" (De Reformatione Ecclesiae in Ooncilio Univel'sali, c.24, p. 25; in Schaf's Das Prinzip des Protestantismus, pp. 21.22.) He boldly said the Papacy was founded on fraud - the pseudo- Isidorean Decretals. He is careful to include the penitentiary among How Peter Became Pope. 183 the instrumentalities by which the wholesome discipline of the Ohurch was destroyed and the Ouria, more depraved in morals than any secular court, was rendered a market-place for the sale of its spiritual wares to the highest bidder. (Lea, p. XI.) Oommissioners of the Oouncil of Oonstance charged Pope :r ohn XXIII with a schedule of crimes under seventy-two heads, afterwards reduced, "on account of the honor of the Apostolic See," to fifty-four, each said to be proved by many irreproachable witnesses. The schedule ranges from unnatural crimes down to robbing the Bolognese professors of their stipends and the sale of the head of John the Baptist to the Florentines for 500 ducats. He was described as "wicked, irreverent, unchaste, a liar, disobedient, and infected with many vices." As cardinal he was "inhuman, unjust, and cruel." He got to be Pope by "violence and fraud." As Pope he was an "op- pressor of the poor, persecutor of justice, pillar of the wicked, statue of the simoniacs, addicted to magic, the dregs of vice, . . . wholly given to sleep and carnal desires, a mirror of infamy, a profound inventor of every kind of wickedness." He sold indulgences "from sin and punishment." On May 29, 1415, "our Lord Pope John was deposed as unworthy, useless, and harmful, a receptacle of all kinds of sin." The other two Popes were also deposed. Oardinal Oddo Oolonna became Pope Martin V. On April 22, 1418, he closed the council and made the Vatican suburb the center of the administration of the See of St. Peter. For a large sum of money he made Pope John XXIII the Oardinal-bishop of Tusculum. Florence built him "a monument of sublime beauty." This is the council that condemned the memory of John Wyclif and burned John Huss and Jerome of Prague. Must we say it? There was no reform of the Ohurch, neither in head nor in members. The Oatholic Dictionary says: "Down to the Middle Ages the faithful usually received the Eucharist under both kinds." Leo I, 440, and Gelasius, 490, expelled the Manicheans from fellowship for receiving the bread only. The Oouncil of Clermont, 1095, and Paschal II, 1118, condemned it as "a human and novel institution, ... departure from what Ohrist, the Master, ordained and did." Pope Paschal II said: "In receiving the Lord's body and blood, let the Lord's tradition be observed; nor let any departure be made from what Ohrist, the Master, ordained and did. For we know that the bread was given separately and the wine given separately by the Lord Himself, which custom we therefore teach and command to be always observed in Holy Church." (Living Ohurch, April 24, 1926, p.865.) And yet the Council of Oonstance took the cup away from the 184 How Peter Became Pope. communicants, but not from the priests. The Greek Orthodox Oon- fession asks: "What answer will the superstitious Pope be able to give at the dreadful Day of Judgment for having, in evident opposi- tion to the Lord, taken away the cup of the Oommunion from the laity?" Martin V, in 1423, called another council to Pavia, but stifled it in its cradle. There was no reform. In 1430 the representative at Rome of the Knights of the Teutonic Order wrote his superior: "Dear master, send me money, for at this court all friendship ceases when the cash is gone;' and Oanon Hemmerlin of Zurich complained that "benefices were sold in Rome as publicly as pigs in the market." (Krueger, 130.138.) Eugenius IV, 1431-47, convoked the Oouncil of Basel, which he called "Satan's crowd;' which deposed him in June, 1438. It declared general councils alone are infallible, not the Pope; but it could not reform the Ohurch. Gratian's Decretum says that, as Ohrist submitted to the Law on earth, though in truth He was its Lord, so the Pope is high above all laws of the Ohurch and can dispose of them as he will, since they derive all their force from him. When King Oharles VII appealed to the laws of the Ohurch, Pope Eugenius IV, in 1439, answered it was simply ludicrous to come with such an appeal to the Pope, who remits, suspends, changes, or annuls these laws at his good pleasure. In 1443 it was written: "The Roman harlot has so many paramours drunk with the wine or ht'lr fornications that the Bride of Ohrist, the Ohurch, and the council representing her, scarcely re- ceive the loyal devotion of one among a thousand. The German emperor, in accordance with 'legendary and forged decretals; was compelled to swear obedience to the Pope." (Janus, p.338.) When the Pope made bishops, many of them made him a present. In time the Pope demanded such a present from all office-holders. In time that present was the salary of a whole year from every office- holder, called annates, or first-fruits. This abuse was ended by Gregory the Great, 590-604; it grew again and was forbidden by the Oouncil of Basel in 1435; the Popes demanded it again. Tertullian names but two Sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper. Oyprian added confirmation; the Vulgate, marriage. Rabanus Maurus (t 856) counted four; Paschasius Radbertus, two; Dionysius Areopagita, six; Peter Damiam, 1072, twelve; Hugo of St. Victor, 1141, thirty; Peter Lombard, 1164, and Thomas Aquinas, 1274, seven - officially adopted in 1439 at the Oouncil of Florence. Nicholas V, 1447-55, had his bedchamber in the Vatican decorated by Fra Giovanni of Fiesole, the Angelic. How Peter Became Pope. 185 He went into debt for manuscripts and with 9,000 volumes founded the Vatican Library. "What he doesn't know is beyond human knowledge," said Aeneas Silvius, later Pope Pius II. Nicholas surrounded himself with men like Poggio. Alfred Baudrillart, rector of the Oatholic Institute of Paris, admits that in Pope Nicholas V paganism took possession of the chair of St. Peter. About this time Lorenzo Valla proved the Donation of Oon- stantine to be a huge forgery - which made Luther stagger and stare. Oalixtus III, on the advice of Aeneas Sylvius, granted to the laity the cup in the Holy Oommunion because it was apostolic and therefore Oatholic. In 1457 the Reichstag of Frankfort drew up an indictment of the Papacy very like the one against John XXIII. When the Archbishop of Mainz complained of the concordat's being violated by the Pope, Oalixtus III answered him, in 1457, that he must know this was an attack on the authority of the Pope and that he thereby committed a flagrant crime of heresy and incurred the penalties prescribed for it by divine and human laws. (J anus, 245.246.) Oonrad, Archbishop of Usberg, apostrophized the Ouria thus: "Rejoice, 0 Vatican! All the riches of the world are open to thee; thou mayest seize upon them as thou wilt. Delight thee in the children of men, for then thou findest thy profit; thy wealth is built upon their transgressions and crimes. Sow among them discord, for it will bTing thee piles of gold. Rejoice, sing paeans of joy, fOT all mankind submits to thy rules. NeitheT Teligion nor piety, but shameful desires and depTavity have brought Tich profit to thy net. All men are subseTVient to thee, knowing that so they may commit every crime and get absolution for a little gold. If only they give thee money, thou openest to them the gates of heaven. What do I say? VeTily, fOT a little gold thou sellest to them the veTY OhTist." Alanus de Insula, Bishop of Auxerre, descTibes Rome's use of the Office of the Keys as follows: "But now those keys have become adulterous because they now no 10ngeT bind by the impulse and decTee of God, but for the love of money; they bind that which is loose, and they loose that which is bound, so that it may be said of them, What- soeveT ye bind on eaTth shall be loosed in heaven, and whatsoever ye loose on earth shall be bound in heaven." (B. WillaTd-ATcheT, pp. 67. 87.) Enea Silvio de Piccolomini was accused of unnatural vices by Filelfo and had several illegitimate children. He was a heTetic; several of his books were put on the Index. For some indecent veTses he was made poet laureate by King Frederick III and his secretary. His Ghrisis is a comedy wOTthy of acting in a brothel. In 1458 he 186 How Peter Became Pope. became Pope Pius II, taking his name from the "pius" Aeneas of Vergil. He was a simonist. He demanded 20,550 gulden for annates, and Diether von Isenberg, Archbishop of Mainz, opposed him. He denied the cup to the Bohemians, though earlier he had favored it. In his execrable bull Execrabilis he condemned all appeals to a council against the frightful papal abuses. In 1460 he had to scold cardinals for the scandal of having young women perform indecent dances for them. His nephew, Oardinal Rodrigo, openly had for his mistress Vannozza dei Oatanei, and their first child was born the same year. He said "scarcely a single prince in Italy had ,been born in wed- lock." He said: "The court of Rome permits everything for money; it sells the Holy Ghost, sacred ordinations, and sacramentals; it forgives sins of every sort to the criminal who pays." (B. Willard- Archer, p.62.) According to Platina he said: "There was cause for taking marriage from priests; there is more cause for permitting it again to them." On his death-bed he cried out, "0 Gabriel, how much better were it for thy soul's salvation, hadst thou never become cardinal and Pope!" (Janus, p.332.) Paul II, 1464--71, swore twice to observe eighteen points, broke his oath, and the cardinals never trusted him again; he gave them their purple mantles. He imprisoned Platina and others on rumor of treason. He prosecuted as heretic Georg Podiebrad for holding to both kinds, granted by Rome to Utraquists at Basel. He humiliated Kaiser Frederick III, forcing him to sit at the Pope's feet at Rome in 1468. He loved carnivals, races, banquets, luxury; he powdered himself and was immoral. Attilio Alessio of Arezzo says Pope Paul II made the papal chair into a sewer by his debaucheries. (Janus.) He took the heathen title Pontifex Maximus. When the Duke of Lueneburg and the bishop would reform a convent in 1470, the monks put them to flight. The nuns resisted with similar violence, and when the reforming bishop arrived, they sang a hymn of cursing against him. (J. F. Olarke, Ev. and Ep. in Rel. Hist., 254.) Jacob of J ueterbogk, a Oistercian and later a Oarthusian, who died 1465, says the proverb is true, "What a hardened devil is ashamed to do a monk will do without shame." (Schick, 244.) Sixtus IV, 1471-84, had Botticelli, Signorelli, Ghirlandajo, Pinturicchio, and Perugino decorate the walls of the Sistine Ohapel, named after him. He filled the Oollege of Oardinals with the most vicious men - Pietro Riario, Guiliano and Ohristofero della Rovere, Sanseverino, Giovanni Oibo, Venier, Ascanio Sforza, Battista Orsini, Savelli, Sc1afenati, Giovanni Oolonna. He sold offices and pardons, was a usurer and an assassin of Oardinal Guiliano de Medici, as he How Peter Became Pope. 187 raised the consecrated wafer in church, and killed Oolonna. Infessura accused him of unnatural vice and general wickedness. For a stiff tax he permitted several cardinals to practise im- morality with boys during the hot months. He is accused of having gotten annually 40,000 scudi for "milk tax" from houses of ill fame which he permitted to be erected. Such a "milk tax" became an episcopal institution. Bishop Weigand of Bamberg complained to the Swabian Bund of Margrave George of Bayreuth's hindering his clergy in the payment of this episcopal tax. Hugo of Landenberg, Bishop of Oonstance, had a fixed scale: For sinning with a pure virgin a priest had to pay sixteen gulden; for every child a priest had to pay four gulden, raised to five in 1522. Sixtus appointed Torquemada chief inquisitor in Spain, and from 1481 to 1498 10,220 heretics were burned alive, and 97,371 were sent to the galleys, according to Llorente. Sixtus heaped riches on his nephews, who squandered them- Pietro 12,000,000 franks in two years. In 1484 a Dominican monk, in view of the deplorable state of the Roman Ohurch, cried out: "The world cries for a council; but how can one be obtained in the present condition of the heads of the Ohurch? No human power avails any longer to reform the Ohurch through a council; God Himself must come to our aid in some way unknown to us." (Anglican Brief, p. 58.) He did. The Reformer was born the year before - Martin Luther. Giovanni Battista Oibo, in 1484, became Innocent VIn - not so very innocent. They sang cynically:- Eight boys, eight girls the Pope in sinful love Begat; thus Rome him "Father" rightly calls. That seems to be saying a little too much; only two can be proved before he was a priest. He married his children and grandchildren with great banquets in the presence of women in the Vatican. He took from Bajacet n 40,000 ducats yearly for keeping his brother Djem in prison and at the same time preached a crusade and sold indulgences against him. In 1492 the Sultan sent the Pope the spear which pierced the side of Ohrist. In 1484 he issued Summis Deside- 1'antes, the famous witchcraft bull, on the complaint of Jacob Sprenger and Henry Kramers (Institoris), which led to the Witches' Hammer, the Malleus MaZeficarum, the handbook for the trial of witchcraft, and "the most horrible book of the world's literature, which has demanded more human sacrifices than all the human butcheries of history." He confirmed Thomas Torquemada as Grand Master of the Inquisition and sent Legate Albert de Oapitaneis with 10,000 soldiers on a crusade against the Waldenses in Piedmont. He sold everything and created new offices in order to sell them. He got up the notorious Sin Taxes in twelve chapters, in which, e. g., 188 How Peter Became Pope. the murder of a father was taxed one gold gulden and twelve groschen. "God does not desire the death of the sinner, but that he live and-pay." The Norwegians had Mass without wine. Alexander Borgia was the nephew of Oalixtus III, who made him a cardinal. This position he used to amass a vast fortune, squandered on fast women. With Vanozza de Oatanei, a married woman, he had four children; with other women he had other children. Another favorite was Julia Farnese, also a married woman. Pope Pius II, in a letter of June 11, 1460, rebukes him for taking part in a most immoral banquet and sharply reprimands him for caring for nothing but every kind of immorality. "Through graft and a thousand crimes," as a contemporary writes, he became Pope Alexander VI on August 11, 1492. On a triumphal arch in honor of his inauguration was this in- scription: - Rome was great under Caesar; now she is greatest. Alexander VI reigns. The former was a man; this, a god. He kept right on in his wicked courses. His daughter Lucretia was married to John Sforza with great pomp right in the Vatican. The papal official Burkard says in 1501 the Pope gave a banquet in the Vatican on a high church festival at which fifty public women danced with the servants, first in their clothes and then naked, while the Pope, Oesare, and Lucretia looked on. Eighty new offices were created and sold for 760 ducats each. Nine cardinals were madR for 120,000 to 130,000 ducats. A current saying was:- Alexander sells the keys, the altars, even Christ Himself. Well, he bought them, so he has a right to sell them. Of this Nero of the Papacy, Savonarola said: "Alexander is no Pope; first, because he has bought the papal chair by simony; and secondly, because he has disgraced it by abominable vices." In 1496 Savonarola said in the Duomo in Florence: "The scandal begins at Rome and goes throughout the whole. They, the bishops, are worse than the Turks and Moors. They have won all their spiritual benefices by simony. The priests go for money to the choir, the vespers, and their office. They sell the benefices, they sell the Sacraments. They traffic in the Mass; in short, everything is done for money. At Rome it has become a saying, 'If you will ruin your son, make him a priest.''' (Angl. Br., 299.) Alexander had Savonarola strangled and burned in the market- place of Florence. The Pope and his son Oaesar Borgia divorced Lucretia from Sforza and married her to the Duke of Biseglia. Oaesar murdered How Peter Became Pope. 189 his brother-in-law, and the Pope excused his son by saying his son- in-law deserved his fate. By means of poison, the dagger, and force of arms, Oaesar Borgia gained principalities, and his father, Pope Alexander VI, helped him. The Pope killed Oardinal Orisini. The Pope died on August 18, 1503. For a long time it was believed he died of poison which he had intended for the rich Oardinal Hadrian. Even in modern times, Oatholics have praised this monster as a fol- lower of Ohrist. (Hauck and Pastor.) "All Rome ran with indescribable gladness to visit the corpse. Men could not satiate their eyes with feeding on the carcass of the serpent who, by his unbounded ambition and pestiferous perfidy, by every demonstration of horrible cruelty, monstrous lust, and unheard- of avarice, selling without distinction things sacred and profane, had filled the world with venom." (Guicciardini in Hare's Walks, p. 593.) Julius II turned the body of Alexander VI out of its tomb. King Oharles of France kissed the Pope's hand and foot. Ollivier praises this "Nero of the Papacy" as a true follower of Ohrist, but the Oivilta Oattolica of March 15, 1873, admits his vices. An archbishop wrote to this monster : "We shall ever regard thee as a second god on earth," writes the Roman Oatholic Lord Acton in the North British Review (Oct., 1869, p.134). This god on earth, on May 4, 1493, gave America to Spain- all lands a hundred miles west of Oape Verde and the Azores. Because the archdeacons neglected their duties, many never seeing their place of work, but spending their incomes elsewhere, they ill time lost thcir hold on the people, and in the beginning of the sixteenth century the secular dukes did the church-work. (From Dr. Lom's 17 erwaUung d. koeln. Grossarchidiakona,ts Xanten, in Theol. Literaturbericht, June, 1910, p.174.) Pius III, 1503, had twelve children, says Gregorovius. "He found the Vatican completely plundered, the apostolic treasury deep in debt," says Pastor. Pope Julius II, 1503-13, the nephew of Sixtus IV, fled from the poison and dagger of Pope Alexander VI and then spent enormous sums to buy his way into St. Peter's chair. He needed money and "made the indulgence business a financial operation," as Pastor writes. The Italian head of the Oarmelites said under Julius II all things at Rome were venal, that priests, sacrifices, and prayers were all bought and sold. Ulrich von Hutten wrote:- The tradesman Julius cheats the credulous world; He locks up heaven, which he possesses not. Sell what is thine, 0 Julius! Shameless 'tis To sell to others what thou lack'st the most. 190 Concerning the Doctrine of Inspiration. He was a cruel, bloodthirsty tyrant, who waged war and himself headed the soldiers in battle. He swore at God for giving the victory to the French troops and said, "Holy Swiss, pray for us I" (Olarke, p.248. Ev. and Ep. in Rel. Hist.) The Pope would strike a deadly blow against the hated Oouncil of Pis a and in May, 1512, called his own "reform" council, the Fifth Lateran, where the bandit heard a speech that the Pope must be "like a second god on earth." (Krueger, p.157.) He had Michelangelo decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Ohapel; he had Raffael do his deathless paintings; he had Bramante draw the plan for the new St. Peter's on the site of the old, which was built by Oonstantine the Great in Nero's circus. Despite the protests of Michelangelo, old St. Peter's was pulled down, old mosaics and venerable tombs, even that of Pius II, were carted off. On April 6, 1506, Julius laid the foundation-stone and spent 70,000 ducats on the building - finished a hundred and fifty years later. The Laocoon was dug up from the baths of Titus. The custom of kissing the Pope's toe on Good Friday had to be given up. Why ~ The Pope's master of ceremonies says the holy Father's foot was covered with sores of "the disease of the Ouria." What's that ~ Syphilis. "The terrible Pope," as the Italians called him, was thought to be at the point of death in 1511, and Kaiser Maximilian had the weird plan of taking the tiara himself and uniting the Papacy and the empire. "The old lion with the white mane," as Luther described him, died on February 20, 1513, leaving 400,000 ducats. Milwaukee, Wis. WILLIAM DALLMANN. ~ II • Concerning the Doctrine of Inspiration. Under the heading "The Place of the Holy Spirit in Biblical Inspiration" J. Huebner of Lincoln, Nebr., in the Lutheran Ohurch Quarterly, presents to his readers for renewed consideration and study the doctrine of the inspiration of the Bible. The article is clearly written and challenges the Lutheran Ohurch of to-day to express her mind on "the question of the place of the Holy Spirit in the creation of the sacred Scriptures." In spite of the author's efforts to remain conservative, the essay is somewhat imbued with the spirit of modern German theology. While space does not permit a detailed discussion of the points we take exception to, they should at least be briefly pointed out. The author writes: "Lutheranism has, strictly speaking, no dogma on the subject, although it has from the beginning recog- nized the Bible as God's Word, unique in origin and character.