Full Text for Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church (Text)

(llnurnrbiu W'Qtnlngirul flnut41y Continuing Lehre und Wehre (Vol. LXXVI) Magazin fuer Ev.-Luth. Homiletik (Vol. LIV) Theol. Quarterly (1897-1920) -Theol. Monthly (Vol. X) Vol. I November, 1930 No. 11 CONTENTS Page PIEPER, F.: Eroeffnungsrede zum neuen Studienjahr 1930-1931 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 801 FUERBRINGER, L.: Paulus in Athen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 804 ENGELDER, Th. The Active Obedience of Christ ......... 810 KRETZMANN, P. E.: Die Bekehrung ein Prozess oder eine KrisisP ................................................. 818 DALLMANN, WM.: How Peter Became Pope.. . . . ... . . . . .. 828 KRETZMANN, P. E.: Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church .......................... ~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 838 Dispositionen ueber die Eisenacher Evangelienreihe ....... 848 STREUFERT, F. C.: Pastoral Visits ....................... 857 Theological Observer. - Kirchlich-Zeitgeschichtliches. . . . .. 864 Book Review. - Literatur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 873 Ein Prediger muss nicht allein weide .. , also dass er die Schafe unterweise, wie sie rechte Ohristen sollen sein, sondern auch daneben den Woelfen wehren, dass Bie die Schafe nicht angreifen und mit falscher Lehre verfuehren und Irrtum ein· fuehren. - Luther. Es 1st kein Ding, das die Leute mehr bei der Kirche behaelt denn die gute Predigt. - Apologie, Art. 24. If the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle? 1 Oor.14, 8. Published for the ;J Ev. Luth. Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States r CONCORDIA PUBLISHING HOUSE, St. Louis, Mo. i f .A.RCHIVER 838 Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church. enthroned as anti-Pope by the kaiser. Gregory called Pope Olem- ent III "the Antichrist." Gregory called Robert Guiscard with his Normans and Saracens from Sicily, who gave Rome a terrible siege and sacking and finally burned it. Gregory feared his Roman children, fled with the N 01'- mans, and died at Salerno on May 25, 1085. "I have loved righteous" ness and hated iniquity; therefore I die in exile." "What belongs to the Pope" was laid down in 1087 by Oardinal Deusdedit in 27 short sentences, included in the state papers of Gregory VIII, and known as Dictatus G1'ego1'ii Papae. Here are a few:- 9. That all princes should kiss the feet of the Pope alone. 12. That he can depose emperors. 17. That no book can be held to be canonical without his command. 19. That he can be judged by no one. 22. That the Roman Ohurch has never erred and in all future will never err. 27. That the Pope is able to absolve subjects from their oath of fealty to wicked rulers. Berengar of Tours calls the papal chair "not apostolic, but the seat of Satan." (Ohamberlain, G1'undZagen d. XIX. Jah1'h' J p.642, note 2.) "Saint Satan," flattering tyrant, who showed mercy with the love of Nero, petted with boxing the ears; stroked with the claws of an eagle, is what Gregory was called by Oardinal St. Peter Damiani. The Oatholic Du Pin says : "No sooner was this man made Pope than he formed a design of becoming lord, spiritual and temporal, over the whole earth; the supreme judge and determiner of all affairs, both ecclesiastical and civil; ... the disposer, not only of ... eccle- siastical benefices, but also of kingdoms, states, and the revenues of particular persons." (Wylie, 73.) When Gregory was canonized in 1728, objections were raised to his praise by France, Austria, Sicily, and Venice - all Roman Oatholic. Milwaukee, Wis. WILLIAM DALLMANN. Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church. The Lutheran Ohurch has a wonderful liturgical heritage. Be- cause it is the true Ohurch of the Reformation, it did not resort to unmotivated iconoclasm, preferring, instead, to reform conditions, cus- toms, and usages, cleansing them from additional and incidental im- pure features and thus preserving the historical and liturgical con- tinuity which is bound to have at least a confessional value. Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church. 839 The Lutheran churches of this country have during the last decades remembered this liturgical heritage, There has been a de- cided effort, on the part of many congregations and even of entire Lutheran bodies, to return to the liturgical usages of the period of the Reformation, in the order of service for the Holy Oommunion, in the proper use of chancel furniture, in introducing the proper paraments, and in various related fields of liturgical endeavor. The movement has now turned to the ministerial vestments, and one hears and sees that suggestions are being offered which profess to be in keeping with the best forms of Lutheran usage in the sixteenth century. But some of the arguments used by the proponents of vestments which differ from those now in common use in the churches whose membership is largely of German descent are not nearly as cogent as they might be. If one sets out to prove too much, he may end by making no impression at all. Hence it may be of some value to present the history of the clerical vestments as used in the Lutheran Ohurch in an objective and dispassionate manner in order that our conclusions may at least rest upon the proper understanding of facts. Statements like the following have been made during the last years, some of them in the recent book by Strodach: "The black robe is indeed, as the agitators claim, of Reformed or Oalvinistic origin and was foisted by official secular decree upon the clergy of Germany and naturally found its way to America, where, particularly among the churches of German Lutheran origin and antecedents, it by usage be- came recognized as more 01' less official. , .. The blackness of the clergy in the Lutheran churches of America to-day is not only not Lutheran, but it is a remnant and constant reminder of a period of the greatest helplessness and degradation of the German Lutheran people .. " At no time did the Ohristian Ohurch vest in black until Zwingli and Oalvin went off on a tangent and a Prussian king com- pelled the Ohurch of Germany to adopt the color of ravens. , .. No matter how widely the use of the black robe has become a practise of the Ohurch or how well intrenched it may seem to be in some sections, there can be little question about the unchurchliness of this robe as a service use." Those are strong statements, and one almost involuntarily asks whether there is actually a reason for such a bitter attack on the customary black vestment. What are the principles concerned, and what are the historical facts which must come into consideration in a dispassionate inq1tiry into the liturgical use of ministerial 01' clerical vestments? In order to give due consideration to every phase of the subject, our inquiry must begin with the vestments in use at the beginning of the sixteenth century. According to Rock (The Ohurch of Our Fathers, I, 256-II, 104; cpo Kaufmann, Ohristliche Archaeologie, 840 Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church. 553-571), the vestments in use during the late Medieval Age were the following: the tunica talaris, the dalmatic, the paenula or cMula, the pallium (omophorion in the East), the stole, or orarium (epitra- chelium, peritrachelium), the maniple, and a number of minor vest- ments. He mentions one garment which is of interest for our entire discussion, namely, the cassock, or pelisse (pellicium), a cloaklike gar- ment, usually black, only doctors of divinity wearing scarlet cassocks. The absolutely necessary garments for the service of the priest are given as the amictus (humerale), the alb (camisia, in its shortened form known in Germany as Oh01'TOck, Ohorhemd, since it was used in the Ohor, or chancel, of the church), the maniple, the stola, and the chasuble (casula, planeta). Incidentally it might be mentioned that a change of colors according to liturgical usage did not take place in these garments until after the time of Oharles the Great. The list of vestments as given by Augusti (Handbuch der christ- lichen Archaeologie, III, 502 £1'.) is interesting because he gives all the synonyms of the various terms:- 1. Amictus (humerale, superhumerale, Schultertuch), eine Hals- und Schulterbekleidung von feiner weisser Leinwand. 2. Alba (alba linea, linea dalmatica, tunica dalmatica, interula, supparus, r'occus, rochetum, camisia, camisale), eigentZich die Dia- konatstracht, das spaetere Ohorhemd. 3. Oingulwn (zona, baltheus), der aus Leinen oder Kamelhaaren oder Seide ver·f61·tigte Guertel. 4. JJ1anipulus (manula, mantile, rnappula, sudarium, sindon, fanon), u1'spruenglich ein Tuch, womit man den Schweiss und Schmutz von Gesicht und Haenden abwischt>· spaeter wurde es eine blosse Binde. 5. Stola (stole, stolis), der etwa drei ZoZZ breite, ueber die Schulter' gelegte und vorn bis zu den Knien herabhaengende Streifen, als ein langes Kleid vom 4. bis zum 8. J ahrhundert, gewoehnlich unter dem N amen Omrium erwaehnt. 6. Planeta (casula, penula), Bezeichnung des eigentZichen }J!Iess- gewandes, als Insignie des Priesters gebraucht. For the sake of completeness we mention also the Oriental coun- terpart of the stoIa, namely, the orarion of the deacon and the peritrachelion of the priest. The orarium is described by Alt (D61' kirchliche Gottesdienst, 127) as "ein handbreites, langes und mit gold- gestickten Kr'euzen gesticktes Band, das, ueber der link en Schulter' getragen, vorn und hinten bis ueber die Knie herabhing," and the peritrachelium as U ein ganz aehnliches Band, das aber auf beiden SchuZtern getmgen wurde, und zwar so, dass die beiden vorn herab- haengenden Enden mit einer Reihe von Knoepfen zusammengeknoepft war'en." Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church. 841 According to Alt (Kirchl. Gttsd., 128) the Roman Missale pre- scribes the use of the priestly vestments in the following rules: - 1. In Officio Missae celebrans semper utitur Planeta super Albam. 2. Si autem sit EpiscopttS et solemniter' celebrat, super Dalmati- cam et Tunicellam. 3. Pluviali tttitur in Processionibtts et Benedictionibus, quae fiunt in Altari. 4. Quum celebrans utitur Pluviali, semper deponit Manipulam, et ubi Pluviali haberi non potest, in benedictionibus, quae fiunt ~n Alta1'i, celebrans stat sine Planeta cum Alba et Stola. 5. Dalmatica et Tunicella utuntu1' Diaconus et Subdiaconus ~n JJlissa solemni, Processionibus et Benedictionibus, quando Sacerdoti ministrant. When Luther began his reformatory labors, he was cautious and conservative almost to a fault. Although he deplored the abuse of many a fine church usage and even wrote some harsh words in his great classics of 1520 (An den christlichen Adel, Von der babyloni- schen Gefangenschaft der Kirche, Von de1' Freiheit eines Oh1'isten- menschen), yet he never lost his balance and his good co=on sense. When Oarlstadt, toward the end of the year 1521, began his icono- clastic endeavors in Wittenberg, Luther, by letter and in person, tried to stem the tide, and his well-known eight sermons after his return from the Wartburg (March 9 to 16) give abundant proof of his sane and sensible grasp of the principles involved. The same spirit is in evidence in his first ambitious attempt in the field of liturgics, his Formtda Missae of the year 1523. We read here concerning the re- tention of the clerical vestments: "Of vestments we have not yet spoken, but we hold concerning them as we do of other external features. We permit that they be used freely, only that pomp and other extravagance be avoided. For you are not more pleasing to God if you administer the Sacrament in priestly garments nor less pleas- ing if you administer it without such vestments; for the garments do not further our cause before God." ex, 2246.) And in his Deutsche M esse und Ordnung des Gottesdienstes of 1526 we read: "We permit the vestments of the Mass, the altar, and lights until they are used up or until it pleases us to make a change." (X, 235.) But while Luther was fully aware of the fact that he was dealing with adiaphora, he was careful to avoid giving offense in any manner. As early as 1525 he wrote to the Ohristians of Livonia with regard to the observance of a uniform order of service and liturgical customs: "Although the external customs and forms are free and, taking faith into account, may be changed with a good conscience in all places, at all hours, by all persons, yet, taking Ohristian love into account, you are not at liberty to make use of this freedom, but you are under obligation to mark in what manner it may please and be of value to 842 Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church. the common people; as St. Paul writes, 1 Cor. 14, 40: 'Let all things be done decently and in order,' and 1 Cor. 6, 12: 'All things are lawful unto me, but all things are not expedient,' and 1 Cor. 8, 1: 'Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth.'" (X, 260.) It was Luther's correct position in the matter of the principles governing liturgical customs which caused him to write to Propst Buchholzer, of Berlin, in 1539: "As for your complaint concerning the wearing of a Chorlcappe or Chorrock [the albJ in the procession, . . . this is my advice: If your lord, the margrave and elector, etc., will permit you to preach the Gospel of Christ pure, clear, and unadulterated, without human addition, and to administer the two Sacraments, Baptism and that of the blood of Jesus Christ, according to His institution, ... then, in God's name, join them in going around and carry a silver or golden cross and a Chorkappe or Chor- rock of velvet, silk, or linen. And if your lord, the elector is not satisfied with one Chorkappe or Chorrock, as worn by you, then put on three, as Aaron, the high priest, put on three coats, one above another, which were glorious and beautiful, whence the clerical vest- ments under Popery have been called Ornata. . .. For such matters add nothing to the Gospel nor take anything away from it, as long as the abuse is avoided; only that no one claim that they are necessary for salvation or that the conscience be bound thereby." (XIX, 1026 f.) On the other hand, the same principle is just as correctly contained in Luther's Shod Confession of the L01'd's StLpper of 1544, in which he says: "If it can be done without sin and danger and without offense, it is a fine thing if the churches come to an agreement in these external things, though they be free, even as they agree in the spirit, faith, Word, Sacrament, etc." (XX, 1790.) Luther personally acted in agreement with the principles which he so clearly laid down in various writings. All the information which we have concerning Wittenberg indicates that the vestments in use for the Mass were, in the main, retained in this city for the time being, the cassock and the amice, over which was worn the long white alb, also the shorter surplice, and over these the chasuble, together with the stole. At the same time Luther did not hesitate to intro- duce the black garment or cassock of the Augustinian friars as his vestment for preaching, but in the modified form of the academic vestment of his day, the SchatLbe, as it was worn by the learned and by the councilmen or aldermen of the cities of Germany. (See Meusel, stLb voce "Schaube".) This he first did on October 9, 1524. The tighter-fitting monastic cassock was thus exchanged for the looser garment of the learned profession. Alt remarks (lac. cit., 129) that the people had become accustomed to seeing monks in their black gar- ments, also in the pulpit, "and therefore it did not strike anyone as odd that Luther, who as an Augustinian monk had been garbed in Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church. 843 black, and likewise the other Protestant preachers used the black vestment (Talar) as the garb of office." In this connection it may be remarked that Zwingli, who at first merely wanted to eliminate the superfluous pomp of the priestly vest- ments, later declared: uBo sind Kutten, Kreuze, Hemden, Platten nieht nur weder gut noeh boes, sondern sie sind allein boes,' darum ein jeder Christ reehter tut, so er sie verlaesst, weder dass er darin steeke, wo es anders ohne Aergernis und Aufruhr gesehehen mag." (Kliefoth, Liturgisehe Abhandlungen, IV, 305 f.) His faint warning was, however, not heeded by Oarlstadt, Muenzer, and the other icono- clasts, and the Reformed churches have, in principle, rejected any and every form of priestly vestment. But they were not quite consistent in practise. Alt writes (loe. cit., 129): "The Reformed [preachers], on the contrary, partly to distinguish themselves from the Lutheran preachers, whose Tala'r seemed to them to be too much of a reminder of the monkish habit, partly because they held that a preacher of those days should not be distinguished from his fellow-citizens any more than Ohrist and the apostles had been distinguished from their fellow-men by their clothing, chose a simple black citizen's coat. But in order to distinguish it in some manner as a preaching garment, ... they wore, in the back, a strip of black cloth, whose breadth was that of two hands, ... and this took the place of the Chorhemd (alb) as used in the Oatholic Ohurch." - The Geneva garment, or robe de Calvin, which is so frequently referred to as being used in Lutheran churches, was never a Lutheran vestment. Although also derived from the French-Swiss scholar's garment, its lines have always differed from the distinctive Lutheran type of pulpit gown, notably in the fact that it was tighter-fitting and that its pleats hung from the shoulders. Good tailors, who are familiar with the various designs, will never make the mistake of selling Geneva gowns as Lutheran pulpit gowns. The principles of liturgical decorum as stated by Luther were also embodied in the Lutheran Oonfessions. In Article VII of the Augs- burg Oonfession, "Of the Ohurch," we read: "And to the true unity of the Ohurch it is enough to agree concerning the doctrine of the Gospel and the administration of the Sacraments. Not is it necessary that human traditions, that is, rites or ceremonies instituted by men, should be everywhere alike." (Cone. Trigl., 47.) This principle is further explained in the Apology, in Articles VII and VIII, where also the distinction between universal and particular rites is con- demned. (Trigl., 234. 240.) And in Article XII of the Smalcald Articles the statement is made: "This holiness [namely, that of the Ohristian Ohurch] does not consist in albs, tonsures, long gowns, and other of their ceremonies devised by them beyond Holy Scripture, but in the Word of God and true faith." (Trigl., 499.) 844 Clerical Vestmcnts in the Lutheran Church. A study of the Lutheran church orders of the sixteenth century as given by Richter, Sehling, and others throws much light on the manner in which the Evangelical party in Germany understood, and carried out, the principles stated by Luther and laid down in the early confessions of the Lutheran Ohurch. Taking those from the time be- fore Luther's death more or less at random, we find statements such as the following, Meissen and Voitland, 1533: "Item, sie [die Pfarrer J sollen auch die christliche ceremonien eintrechtiglich und gleichformig, bevor mit der messe, und die messe im mesgewand weiZ sie noch vorhanden." (Sehling, I, 190.) Freiberg and Wolkenstein, Rochlitz, 1537: "Die tumherrn [DomherrenJ, priester, prediger und andere der leirchendiener und personen soellen auch unverpflicht sein, in koerroecken zu gehen und stehen, sondern moegen sich eines ehr- lichen cleides geprauchen." (467.) Ordnung der Visitatoren, Allstedt, 1533: "Dazu soll er [der Pfarrer J in der messen almen und casulen und nicht einen schZechten corroc7e, wie bisher geschehen, gebrauchen, damit allenthalben hierinne gleichfoTmigkeit gehalden werden . ... So auch etzliche bis anher ohne alben und casulen in einem korrock, auch etzliche in schlechten kleidern mes gehalten, sollen sie furthin alben und casulen ... gebrauchen." (508. 510.) Oolditz, 1529: "N achdem auch bisanheT .. , die pfarrer keine oTnat, messgewand noch korroeclee gebraucht, sondern alleine im rock und teglicher klei- dung fur den altar getreten, . . . ist bevolen, das die obgedachten pfarrer furthin sollen reinigliche ornat gebrauchen." (545.) Leisnig, 1529: "N achdem auch bisanher fast in die sechs jare sind die papisti- schen messen des misbrauches halben abgethan, in del' kirchen zu Leisnik, auch allen umbligenden dorfern und 01'ten die pfaTTer . , . ane korrock und mesgewand schlecht im Tock consecrirt, ist eTnst- lich bevolen, das furthin alle pfarrer ... mesgewand und andere un- schedliche cerimonien brauchen." (605. 610.) Zwickau, 1529: "Die k01'rock sollen auch in massen wie mit dem pastor geredt und nicht mehr so gemein gebraucht werden," (721.) Schwarzburg, 1533: "Es sollen auch die pfarheTn, so sie in del' gemein das ampt adder testa- ment Ohristi hallen, messgewand, in teufen abel', predigen und be- graben chorTocks als ehrliche1' und unbeschwerZicher ceremonien von eTbarkeit wegen gebrauchen." (I, 2, 128.) From these orders it is evident that the principle of liturgical usages was understood, that the various sections of Germany were aware of the fact that they were dealing with adiaphora. In some places it was necessary to counteract the iconoclastic activities of the enthusiasts; in others a frank attempt was made to retain such vest- ments as might be used without objection, namely, the (white) Ohor- rock, the alb, and the chasuble. This was true in particular of the northern part of Germany, where people were not so directly con- cerned with many of the controversies which required such careful Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church. 845 handling in the southern and southwestern sections. Kliefoth is right in stating: "In N orddwtschland hielt man anfangs die herkoemm- liche M esskleidung wenigstens teiZweise noch fest,' daher 7commen die Vorschriften, dass der fungierende Pastor seinen 01'natum ecclesiasti- cum, sein Messgewand, welches er fuer die Predigt gegen den Ohor- rock 'vertauscht, beim Beginn des AbendmahZsaktes wieder anZegen, dass aber del' bei der A usteilung des Abendmahls etwa assistierende zweite Geistliche oder Diakon ntLr in seinen CgewoehnZichen Kleidern,' das heisst, im Ohm'rock, erscheinen soll." (Op. cit., V, 76.) Before full uniformity had been attained, there came the re- action of the Smalcald War and the Leipzig Interim of 1548. This document demanded in Article XI: "dass die M esse hinforder in diesen Landen mit Laeuten, Lichten und Gefaessen, Gesaengen, Kleidungen und Oeremonien gehalten werde." (Gieseler, Kirchen- geschichte, III: 1,365.) It was this demand which led to the Adiaph- oristic and Interimistic Oontroversies, which were waged, in part with great bitterness, after 1548. The defenders of Ohristian liberty, especially Flacius, pointed to the example of Paul in refusing to be entangled with the yoke of bondage. It became a matter of Lutheran confession to abstain from all ceremonies and usages that were specif- ically Oatholic. The Formula of Ooncord finally settled the question, theologically speaking; but the trouble was by this time so deep- seated that the after-effects could not very easily be eliminated. The Epitome of the Formula of Ooncord declared: "Accordingly we reject and condemn as wrong and contrary to God's Word when it is taught: 1. that human ordinances and institutions in the Ohurch should be regarded as in themselves a divine worship or part of it; 2. when such ceremonies, ordinances, and institutions are violently forced upon the congregation of God as necessary, con- trary to its Ohristian liberty which it has in external things." (TrigZ., 831.) Generally speaking, the result in Germany, with the exception of the northern part, was the gradual abolition of the vestments of the Mass. Taking some of the later church orders at random, we find the following passages. Oellische a rdnung en, 1545: aIn ubunge gotzicher ampter in der kirchen sollen die priester aZZewege ein chor- rock anhaben." (Sehling, I: 1, 302.) Ooburg, 1554/5: Zum sechsten, der choTrock soll wede1' zu den begTebnussen noch auf deT canzel noch sonsten in andeTn kiTchenampteTn, sondeTn allain ZtLT communion von deT ainigen peTson weZche das ampt heldet gebmucht weTden" (544). ETnestinisches Sachs en, 1554: "Idoch solle deT chOTrock auf del' kanzeZ zu gebrauchen in alwege und zu allen OTten durchaus abge- schafJt, abeT von dem altar untet· deT sacrament raichung noch glassen weTden." From a report by Pastor Treutel, of Henneberg, 1566: "AbeT dis und anders alles, was ich sunst von ampts wegen zu thun '846 Clerical Vestments in the Lutheran Church. habe in und ausser der kirchen, ... das thtLe ich alles in einem ge- wonlichen chorrock." Another pastor from the same neighborhood reports, in the same year: "Wann ich die sacrament dispensire, brauch ich noch ein chorkittel, weil ich mitten unter den Papisten" (331.342). An order of Johann Georg of Anhalt, 1596: "Demnach wir durch gottes gnedige eTleuchtung der warheit gottliches erkentnis so nahe kommen, das wir zu unterscheiden wissen unter rechter und un1'echter lehre und unter ceremonien, die gott geordnet und selbst gebraucht, und unter den en, die aus dem verfiuchten pabstum ... noch ubrig geblieben, darunter dann mesgewand, corroecke ... und cZergleichen gefunden werden, die wir aus tragender landesfuerstZicher obrigkeit tmd ampte genzlich abzuschaffen . ... " This attitude of the majority of the Lutheran states is borne out also by the researches of Uhlhorn (Geschichte der deutsch-lutherischen Kirche). He writes: "Der katholische Ornat, gegen den man Abneigung hatte, war, frei- lich nicht twberall, abgeschafft " einen E1"Satz dafuer hatte man lange nicht" (I, 30). "In Schwab en blieb zuletzt als einzige Frucht ,des Interims die Erhaltung des Simultangottesdienstes in einigen Staedten und in Wuedtemberg wie in Sachs en der Gebrauch des Ohort'ockes mit der Alba. JJfancherorts hielt sich auch der Gebrauch der Messgewaender, der durch das Interim neuen Halt und neue Ver- breitung gewonnen hatte, noch eine Zeitlang. So verordnet noch die Kalenberger Kirchenordnung von 1569, dass die Pastoren den kirch- lichen Ornat, 'als Alben, Kaseln und M essgewand/ trag en sollen. Der katholische Ornat machte dann der in mittleren und hoeheren Staenden tLeblichen 'Schaube' Platz, einem faltigen, den ganzen Koer- per umschliessenden lJ!Iantel, wie auch Luther und die andern Refor- matm'en ihn beim Gottesdienst getragen haben. . .. In Nuernberg fanden sich bis zum Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die katholischen Mess- gewaender, und die Alba ist noch heute in Sachsen und auch anderswo in Gebrauch" (80). Kliefoth offers similar information when he states: "Als spaeter das Interim das ausdrueckliche Gebot aussprach, dass der GeistZiche beim Abendmahl das Messgewand, das Ohorhemd, trag en solle, erzeugte dieser Versuch, aus der Amtskleidung ein Gesetz zu machen, eine schaerfM'e Opposition gegen die alte Amtstracht als bisher. Unter diesen Eindruecken geschah es, dass das eigentZiche M essgewand immer mehr verschwand UND DIE GEISTLICHEN BEIM PRE- DIGEN UND ANDERN AMTSVERRICHTUNGEN DEN SCHW ARZEN OHORROCK TRUGEN, eine Tracht, die sich halb aus dem M oenchshabit, halb aus der damals bei eht'baren Personen, wie z. B. den Ratsherren der Staedte, gewoehnlichen Tracht herausgebildet hat." (Op. cit., IV,3