Full Text for Book Reviews (Text)

THE SPRINGFIELDER EDITORIAL COMMITTEE ERICH H. HEINTZEN, Editor ~ ~ A Y M O N D F. SURBURG, Book Review Editw Davm P. SCAER, Associate Editor JOHN D. FRITZ, Associate Editor PRESIDENT J . A. 0. PREUS, ex officio Contents EDITORIAL LOUIS H. BET0 IvlEMORIAL LECTURE RICHARD R. NIEBURR, Professor of Divinity, Harvard University C. A. GAERTNER, Zion Lutheran Church, Dallas, T Indexed in INDEX TO RELIGIOUS ~ O D I C A L L r r ~ ~ ~ l ~ a a , American Theological Librmy Association, Speer Library, logical Seminary, Princeton, New Jersey. of address should be sent to the Business Manager of The Sprhr rflrclii~ I'h~nlogical Seminary, Springfield, Illinois 62702. Address communications to the Editor, Erich H. Heintzen, logical Seminary, Sprin&eld, Illinois 62702. Book Reviews T H E ZONDERVAN EXPANDED CONCORDANCE. Zondervan Publish- ing House, Grand Rapids, 1968. 1848 pages. Cloth. $14.95. One of the interesting developnlents of our times is the great interest manifested by the Christian public in modern speech trans!ations of the Scripture. At no time in church history have so many different transla- tions been available to the modern student of Holy Writ. However, as Dr. Charles Conn stated in the foreword to the Concordance: The availability of these translations, however, has created some con- fusion in the mind of the Bible student, especially in a n effort to remeniber just what translation gives a particularly helpful rendition of some specific passage. T h e Zondervan Expanded Concordance is a n attempt to aid the Bibli- cal student in making available the results of various modern speech translations. The following translations have been incorporated in this Concordance: T h e Amplified Bible , The Berlceley Version of the Bible, The Nezcj Tcsla?nent i n Modern English by J.B. Phillips; T h e Revised Standurd Version, l'he New English Bible, T h e English Revised, The King Jnnzes Version (including new words from the Scotield Reference ISible). The volume has 1848 pages of text with more than 250,000 references printed on glare-free paper. The reader will find that key word headings stand out clearly and a re printed in bo:d face type for easy location. The word headings a r e centered in columns so that words and passages may easily be located. The key word in each passage is in italics. Each entry will be found to have a Biblical entry. Many words accompanied by inodifiers a re separated according to alphahetizing of the modifiers. As a n example: According to all. After clll. Before all, For 0 1 1 , From all, etc. The inclusion of synonynlous terms under specific headings is a very helpful featurc of the Concordance. According to the publisher's blurb churchmen like Doctors Ockenga, Richard Ilalverson, Wayne Ward, Sherwood Wirt, Charles Conn, Oswald Hoffmann have all been favorably inlpressed with this new tool for Biblical study. Dr. Hoffmann, the Lutheran Hour Speaker, is listed as having given the following endorsement: Th.e Zonderva?~ Gxpanded Go?fcordance is a valuable work of reference for pastors, teachers, and all stildents of the Bible. For teachers of the Bible a t any level it may prove to be invaluable, informing the t e s t with meaning as i t guides the user to the path that he is seeking or to cross references in word study of the Scriptures. .- Book Reviews 4 1 - HISTORICAL SURVEY O F THE OLD TESTAMENT. BY Eugene H. Memill. Craig Press, Nutley, N. J., 1966. 322 pages. Cloth, $5.95. (Pape r , $4.50). In th is ten-chapter book t h e aut,hor presents a text-book covering. the s tory a n d l i terature of t h e Old Testament for the conservative fresh- an a n d sophomore student. I n the preface Dr. RIerrill wrote: Being firmly ccmmitted to the conservative school of thought, he h a s had to eliminate work, which because of their critical historical a n d theological biases, were colnpletely unacceptable for t he conser- vat ive freshman o r sophomore student w11o is in t!le rudililentary s tages of Old Testament study. And yet illally of the conservative books ei ther have not t he depth of scholarship necessary for a collcjie approach o r have gone beyond the ability of the beginning student in t h e i r details and presuppositions. i\'Ioreover, many of them are re- s t r ic ted to too narrow a n approach, such as an emphasis on content, his torical background, doctrine. o r other specific areas (p. viii). In chapter 1, Introduction, the author sets forth the presilppositions h a t Control h i s approach to the Old Tes ta~ncnt . He accepts thc iner- ancY of Scr ip ture and states t ha t "where the Old Testamelit does speak listorically, it has yet to fie proven in error7* (11. 19 ) . Dr. hlerrill evai- a n d rejects the higher critical a1)l)roach to the Old Testament, vhich was fostered and influenced by rationalism and naturalism. Higher : r i t ic ism, h e believes, has conipletely demo!ished the integrity of the jc r ip tures in this respect, fo r it claims thiit all kinds of alleged nnhis- ,or ical o r llonhistorical Biblical references had been uncovered (p. 19). I n t h e author's ol)inion higher critical scholars cannot do justice to 111 t h e da tes of the Old Testament because of their ar~tisu~)errlatllralistic bi;ls which of necessity rejects the concept of direct revelation fronl God to mar l in t e rms of propositional stat,enients, r1:pudiates tht! mirndes of t h e Old Testament and will not allow for t rue propher y. With the advent of 1l1odt8r.11 sc.ic,lt isln thcrc. 2 1 ~ 0 nn :~.;s;rult on the scientific acc:uracY and re1iill)ility of thc! Old Test.ament. Tllr~s he wrote: T h e sillne ratioua1ist.i~ spirit which at.tc~r~l)ted 1.0 onderniine the au tho r i ty of t.he Word of God in matters historical is also the genius behind tlie "Bible-Science" conflict. This should conli! as no surprise. f o r if t h e Old Tes tan~ent can he proven invalid in ont: of thesc areas, t he re is likelihood tha t it will be proven to he so in others as well (11. 2 3 ) . Dr. Sfel-rill divides his history of t h e Old 'I'estarnel~t jrrto ninr major periods. H e cor~cludes his presentation with the J'ersian period, during w h i c h t h e last. canonical books were written and t h e canon of the Old T e s t a m e n t was completed. While the reviewer finds hir~lself in basic agreement with the over a l l position taken by the author, there a r e statements here and t.here w i t h which he disagrees. However. those int.erested in a conservative in terpre ta t ion of the literature of the Old Covenant will find this a serv- iceable volume. I t will be useable in college, or as a reference book for Sunday School and Bible Class teachers. Thosc pastors, teachers, and lay- men who would like material to suppleine~it A. TV. Klinck, Old Testan~ent History, one of the volumes in the Concordin Leclde?-shill Trclining Pro- gv-ant, will find the viewpoint of Merrill's book similar to that in Dr. Klinck's. I t would be a good volume to place in the congregational library. EXPOSITORY SERMONS ON THE BOOK O F DANIEL. Vol. 1. By TV. A. Criswell. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1968. 123 pages. Cloth. Dr. W. A. Criswell is pastor of one of the largest Baptist churches i n the world. He has a filled auditorium (seating about 4000) nearly in every service. The volume of ten sernlons represents one in a series of books of ser- 111ons on Daniel. The sermons are for the niost part apologetic. I n view of the virulent and bitter attacks on the part of alillost all higher critics this can be understood and ought to be appreciated. A man's faith in Christ of the Scriptures and consequently his acceptance of the Holy Scriptures that bring us Christ becomes most evident when he is challenged to choose between scholarly wisdom and biblical knowledge. Not that such a choice is ever truly necessary, but the total claini of ~nan ' s fallen reason forces the Christian to turn to Him who makes all wisdonl of man foolish- ness. Dr. Criswell is not unaware of the arguments raised against the authenticity of Daniel by heretics froni Porphyry to whatever eniineut critic to-day denies, ridicules, and disbelieves the I3ook of Daniel. For pastor and student and for ally laymail these sermons will present this Rook of the Prophet in simple and clear arguments. If the word mil- lennial occurs Dr. Criswell, who has written another volume on Our I-Ionle in Heaven, does not in this book particularly present a doctrine of a n~illenniunl. As an iiltroduction to the Book of Daniel these ten ser- iilons could well be the basis for a nuniber of Bible studies in a congre- gation. Jf. J. Maunf,nnn ONCE UPON A LIFETIME. Ry Sylvan D. Schwartzman. Union ot American Hebrew Congrcgations, New York, 1965. 134 pages. Cloth. -1Yell. S o price ,' The editor's introducation calls this a textbook that will enable chil- dren of the Liberal Reform Jewish homes cherish those Jewish observ- ances tha t occur Once Upon A Lifetime. As a textbook for children i t is very well done in every respect. For anyone who would like to know what the various holidays and observances of the Jews are all about this is an introduction to the main events in the life of a Jewish family. The family is of course fictional and its ex- Book Reviews 4 3 zriences bring in all the events that come once in a lifetime. There 'e many pen and ink illnstrations. Some of them picture items connected ith the rituals. T ~ P Chair of Elijah caught our eye as almost like the le we had bought as second h a n d shortly before seeing this book. Every ~ap te r h a s a motto taken fronl some prayer fo r the occasion discussed ld printed in the margins in Hebrew and in English. Any Pastor o r teacher of the Christian churcli should have a little llume l ike this enabling h im not only to know and understand the life f the Jews in his community but also to illustrate Old Testament stories One reads about a circumcision; a B a r Mitzvah; a confirmation ( a t Se 1 6 ) , a list of s tatements of the purpose of confirn~ation-; a wedding 'ith t h e marginal quote f rom a prayer: "who makes his people holy ?rough marriage"; a funeral service in described, we learn what the :addish is and we hear the rabbi say: "Our bodies return to the earth, ut o u r souls returr, to God for they can never die." 15f. J . hT(l 117n 071 71 'EHSONALITIES AROUND D A V I ~ . BY lIolnles Rolston. John Krlox Press. Richmond. 1952. 1 4 4 gages. Paper. $2.15. Holmes Rolston is editor i n chief of the Board of Christian Education, 'resbyterian Church U.S. T h e au thor gives a portrai t of 22 Inen and women whose lives were iometimes very much sometinles less involved with the life and career )f K i n g David. The last two chapters discuss David and Christ. An- )ther series of studies tha t will serve well in Bible Classes. T h e abiding interest, arid relevancy of the story of David and the personaiities around him rest not only j:n the fact that l)aridJs life snd his tory point to David's greater Son, but xiso l ~ e s in the down to earth repor ts of holy writer and Scriptures' deep knowledge of the inner workings of the heart of man. The first chapter stresses the Age of David as be ing relevant to-day. -%I. b. Srrlimtrnn THE INFALLIBLE WORD. By the members of the faculty of \Vest min i s t e r Theological Seminary. Preshyteriarl and Reforrned Publish- i n g Co., Philadelphia. 1967. 308 pages. Paper. $3.35. T h e repr in t ing of these essays is evidence ellough for the hook's c.011- t i nu ing importance as a valuable apologetic for the article on Scripture. Chr is t ians have always known that Scripture represents a unique conjunc- t ion of divine and human agencies. Hut because of the human elelnerlt ser ious threa ts have perennially been launched against the fully divine. inspired, inerrant character of Holy Writ. I t is in order to esprrss some basic ground rules here. If the human factor inevitably precludes an infal l ible Scripture, then ob~ ious ly i t is impossible to assert Scripttrrc's inerrancy. Moreover, if Scripture itself does not assert inerrancy for itself, then we have no r ight to do ~ t . On the other hand, if it is Pound t h a t t h e Scriptures do not only not adversely criticize themselves in any way bu t consistently and throughout attest with a great deal of evidence to their divine origin, inspiration, authority, infallibility, then i t falls upon t h e church and i ts members to support Scripture's testimony faith- fully. The significance of Scripture's "it is written" is, after all, very plain: What Scripture says is what God has said, because it is His Word; i t is God's Word because i t is Scripture; and it is Scripture, because it was given by His divine inspiration. The circle here is unreasonable to unbelief only. "If the testimony of Scripture on the doctrine of Scripture is not authentic and trustworthy," writes John Murray in an excellent. first chapter, "then we must not think that the finality of Christ remains unim- paired even if the finality of Scripture is sacrificed. The rejection of the inerrancy of Scripture means the rejection of Christ's own witness to Scripture" (p. 41). This corresponds exactly to the considered opinion of J. Gresham Machen, the leading figure in the founding of Westminster Seminary, "that in the modern attack on the historical foundations of Christianity (he was referring to the Word of Scripture) nothing less is a t s t ake than Christianity itself and the Christian gospel" (p. 239 f ) . E. J. Young, in the second chapter, attests eloquently for the fact that "the O:d Testament books claim to have been spoken by the Lord" (p. 84). In similar vein, in the third chapter, N. B. Stonehouse shows con- v inc ing :~ that the New Testament authority is not something superim- posed but derives from "an authority which the books possessed from the very moment of their origin" (p. 93) . John H. Skilton's chapter on the "Transmission of the Scriptures" delves into the question whether a present-day Christian can be assured that the Bible he has in his hand is God's Word, or, to put i t another way, whether in the Greek and Hebrew editions of the Bible the Biblical scholar has substantially the autographic text. A helpful chapter on Scripture's relevancy is contributed by the editor of the third revised printing of this book, Paul Wooley; and equally useful t o the preacher is R. B. Kuiper's chapter on Scriptural preaching. "Nature and Scripture" is the final chapter. Cornelius Van Til, with close reference to the Westniinster Confession, gives the reality, meaning and scope of natural or general revelation, also tracing in helpful summaries the subject of natural theology in the main theological systems of the past. I n this connection he shows the debt which 13arth and Brunner, et a2.; owe to the philosophical phenomenalism or existentialism of K ie rke gaard and Heidegger. Having referred to Barth, one should also state that there is timely, incisive critique of the Swiss theologian's theology of the Word inter- spersed throughout the book. Murray, for example, shows correctly that for Barth Holy Scripture is never and can never be "an existing corpus of t ru th given by God to man by a process of revelation and inspiration in past history," that the Scripture therefore can never be thought of as possessing "binding and ruling authority by reason of what i t is objec- tively, inherently and qualitatively," and that i t is a t most a unique record and medium of witness to the revelation God has given in the past, a thing that presently "makes i t the fit medium for t he ever-recurring act of divine revelation" (p. 43 f ) . If i t is "to be revelation i t must be a Book Reviews -- -. 4 5 lo men tar^, contemporaneous, divine act," (p. 104) according to Barthian nderstanding of the nature of revelation, Stonehouse points out. He no oubt has his colleagues' full agreement in concluding that "the Barthian h e o l o g ~ of the Word is basically as antithetical to the historic Christian .octrine of the canonicity of Scripture as the Ritschlian" and that it sustains a f a r larger measure of continuity with that thought than it lees with traditional orthodoxy" (p. 104). Here is a good book with which to fly through the eye of the wild heological hurricane which threatens to wipe out conservative Christian hinking on t h e important article of Scripture, and with it the very (30s- Jel itself! Lutheran circles, af ter all, have not escaped the "Barthian in- Tuence'' on the Word, a s various writers, whether wittingly or naively and unconsciously, have a t ten~pted to sell this theology t o the church. There is a solemn word of caution expressed in the book's foreword which is worth t ak ing to heart: "It is part of the indifferentist attitude and fostered and encouraged by ecunienical thinking of s wrong sort, \r-lli('ll. ill sonic. places fellowship before truth, and bonhomie and intel- lectual respectability before integrity--and in others allows the 'problem Of coRlmunication' so to occupy their attelltion that they forget that that is the Prerogative of the Holy Spirit, and that our task is to be faithflll to ' the t ru th once and for ever delivered to the Saints' " (11. x i ) . OI''FENUARIJI\;G SCHKIFT KIRCHE. Dokumentarband der deotsch- skandinavischen Theologentagung zu Sittensell 21. bis 25. Februar 1968, herausgegeben van pastor Peter Hartig. R. Urockhaus Verlag. Wuupertal. Verlag Stelten & Co., Bremen. 1968. 213 pages. Paper. $4.00. This is a most significant discussion of tt~eological issues arllong today, a paperback report on the meeting of the "no other gas- pel" movements in G e r ~ l ~ a n provincial and the Scandinavian state churches. The meeting of these conservative evangelical cIen~ents in L u t h e r a n Europe was held a t Sitt,enseri near Hamburg on Feb. 21-35, 1968. T h e circumstances a re paradoxical when viewed fro111 .%merica. b u t nlOSt instructive. These Lutherans are all in the broad but uneasy fel lowship of the Lutheran World Federation. They a r e C O ~ I S C ~ O U ~ of t h e serious breakdown of church life because of liberalisnl and theological laxity. The report here published shows that. these concerned Christians can no longer endure the bypassing of the issues which the Chrjstian must f a c e in t h e twentieth cent.ury. They form protest and study organizations, n o t fearing the displeasure of the bishops of the churches: they meet f o r mutual study and strengthening and publish their payers and decisions. Among the essayists there are such names as Dr. Walter Kuenneth, professor a t Erlangen, Prof. Dr. Martin Wittenberg of Neuendettelsau, Prof . Dr. Joachim Heubach of Kiel, Prof. Dr. Karl H. Rengstort of illeunster, Uishop Ro Giertz of Goeteborg. Prof. Dr. Regin Prenter of Aarhus, Denmark, Prof. Dr. Sverre Aalen of Oslo, and the list of other speakers and participants is impressive. The various theological issues arc grouped around the key words: Revelation-Scripture-Church. There is no diplomatic evasion of the issues which have so long corrupted the confessional fellowship of Euro- pean Lutheranism, in fact, there is a hunger for the Word, for the balm in Gilead, which is the only hope for churches long in the slump of a dead liberalism. The Lutherans in America should not fail to exanline this record of a nonconfessional fellowship, against which a broad protest has arisen in Europe. I11 addition to the theological essays there a re most interesting re- ports on the Scandinavian churches, suggestions for further work, greet- ings from the various groups-a vital report on an important event in Lutheranism. I t would be interesting to l~ronlote such a meeting among the conser- vative Lutherans in America, from which one might expect a report of the issues to be considered in America. Is i t possible that the members of American synods are less free than the members of state-related churches in Europe? Is the American churchman in his affluence less ready to take the risk, which his European brother takes? Lutherans in America cannot afford to be uninfornied on devolop- rrlents in the world of Luthera~lism elsewhere. O t t o E'. Stuitlke - -- BY OATH CONSIGNED. By Meredith '. Kline. Willia~il B. Eerdnlans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. 1968. 110 pages. Cloth. $3.75. The author, a scholar in Semitics, applies a wealth of Old Testament background in presenting the doctrine of Baptism in a way totally com- patible with the tenets of Reformed theology. The major thesis of the Scriptures, which is then also applied to the understanding of Baptism, is that Cod enters into a covenant with people. Within this covenant God distributes mercy or judgment according to His people's faithfullless or the lack of it. Of course this is iln~nediately recognized as the tradi- tional covenant theology of the Reformed. Though this reviewer will take issne with the covenarit theology in the lines below, he must salute tlle author in using the suzerain-vassal relationship of the ancient Middle East in explaining God's relationship to His people. The Abrahamic and Mosaic covenants can certainly be better understood in thc light of arche- ological evidence. These covenants with oaths, pron~ises, and curses fit the typical scheme of political treaties. However, does the coveriant theology actually meet the Biblical data? Obvious as i t might seem, it is right on the matter of the Law and Gospel that Lutheran and Refornled theologies part. Reformed theology sees the Law as a requirement which God places on His people from Adam, to Noah, to Abraham and then finally to the New Testament church. To break the covenant is to bring the judgment of the covenant down on Book Reviews -- -- 47 -- head. Baptism, as did circumcision, ushers a person into a situation : God dispenses covenantal judgment and mercy. God's election is ssociated with the covenant itse!f or the entrance into it, but how ldividual acts after h e has entered the covenant. I n keeping with juridical activities within the covenant, circumcision is seen as lg under the knife of Cod's judgiiient and the water of Baptism :sts t h e ordeal by water. The author pushes and peddles God's judg- on every page. The morbid synibolisrn of the knife nr circumcision .he destructive waters of the Flood in connect~on with Baptism mili- against individual pericopes a s well as the entire intent of God's :llling love a n d grace. This is after all the I?ible's central nlessage. au thor interprets John's Baptism as an oplmrtunity to flee to God's went instead of f ~ o n ~ it. [f anything is clear from t h e writings of Paal , it i s this, that the nant of God with Abrahani was one solely of promise and was a differ- l a t u r e than t h e Sinaitir. one. Raptism. as \vas circumcision, is a sign ad's continual promise of grace. l:aptisni, and not nly action, is the of m y election. To join oneself to Christ is to be put under His grace not covenant judgment. No, i t is not exactly fair for a Lutheran to criticize a conlribution a Reformed theologian especially on a matter like Baptism, s i i~ce Keforrlled view t.he entire Scripture from a different perspective 1 do tI10 Lutherans. For then1 it is thc! concept of the covenai~t and for .t is the Law-Gospel. But sonie ohvioos exegetical strictures 111ust be ie. Tile Pauline phrase "circunicision of Christ" (Col. 3 : 11) hardly :rs to Christ's own circumcision. As Par11 does not us~lnlly mention cific events in the life of Jesus, as do the Gospel writt!r-s, the sugges- 1 seems absurd. Another possible ~near i i~ ig pui forth by the author is t t h e ~ h r a s t : refers to Chr.istia.n experience. The best inlergretation t refer r ing t o Baptism is not even suggested. The phrase "circrumcision Christ" is better biblical evidence for t h e baptism of infants than the .her's atternl>t t.o link it to suzerain-vasscl treaties of the ancient world. e a u t h o r c l a i ~ n s that as the t.reaty of Esarhaddon wit11 Ramataia horl~ld : sons and grandsons, even the unborn. so Uaptis~il, a symbol of the ienant relatio~lship, obligates families and desrendeots. If this al-gu- :11t were yushed, then any descendent. no ~tlat ter how Car removed. ruld be p f ~ sc entitled to Baptism. Absurd! The pclVicopes of the gar- t s bringing their childl.en is disniisscd in a few words a s referring to sus' allproval of parents who esercised t.heir authority in bringing em to .lesus. Even form cri t icisn~ wooltl propose tha t these words sug- s t a tirile in the early church where children were being ext.lucled frorn e i r rightful piace in the kingdom. This reviewer sees Inore vallie in e se pericopes in esl,lainirig infant Uaptjsm than i n the t.rcaty of Esar- ~ d d o n . Dr. Kline has been very resourcefnl in s h n r i n ~ ul, the ~ e f o r n l e d Ivenant doctrine of Baptism with the evidence of the most recent archae- ogical finds. However, Lutheran and Reformed theologicans are going to ,n t inue to interpret the Riblical data differently. D a ~ i r l P . Scacl- T I I E SOURCES 0 1 ~ I I )OCTRI~ES xSI) THE FALL OF ORICIXXL SIN. By F- R. T e n n a n t . Schockell Books, Inc.. Xew York, 1968. 390 Pages. Paper. $2.45 F- R. T e n n n n t . is probably best remeinbered for his two volunle Philo- -9op7&i(!ai The02oyY. H, also published three hooks on the general subject of s in - T h e t h i r d i s t he book ullder review. After presentinf; ;in exegesis a n d a l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s in of the Fall--story, in which he makes reference the "crude n a i v e t . ~ of J 'S delineation of J. a h veh" the author offers R r a t h e r d e t a i l e d s t u d y of the et.hnologica1 origin and relations of the Genesis a c c o u n t . f-Te derives eleniellts of the biblical record froin the early Hebrew r e l i g i o n a n d points to parallels in Phoenician, Egyptian, Babylon- ian, Greek, and India11 ;~ccounts. Ile "that the material is too scanty t o enable us to reconstruct Israel's religious s ta te a n d legendary ~ o s s e s s i o ~ l s w i t h a n y degree of colu~bletelless l>re\-iollsly t o the l l a t i o l l~ ent rance into C a n a a n . " In his discussioas of t.he ~)sycholog.ical origin of t h e n a r r a t i v e of t . l ~ e Fall Tennant declares t ha t whether a corrupt s ta le of h m a n nature preceded by a n incorru1)l s ta te or not, this is the most vivid a n d n a t . u r a l \vay of exhibiting the t ruth tha t in God's primary purllose n l a n w-as incorrugt so that evil niight be regarded as having a secondary c k l a l ' a c t e r . Not limiting his t reatment of Original Sin to t he bib- lical a c c o u n t s a l o n e , the author carefully examines the teachings of Ec- c l e s i a s t i c ~ ~ , the Oracles , Philo, ihe Rnhbirlical l i terature of Judaism, and t h e P s e u d e p i g - r a p h i c literatiire. then tilrns to the teachings of St. Paul , t h e pos t -Augus t . i n i a n Fathers , and concludes that t he development of the highly con1plic:it.ed doclrille of Original S in \\-as Icss t he outcome of a s t r i c t e x e g e t i c a l p u r s u i t t.han the exercise of speculation. H e grants tha t t he speculation wa.s guided by t.he Scriptnrczs; hut i t was also infllier~ced by mater ia l s a f f o r d e d by contelnporary science and philosophy. A provocative s tudy of t h e c o l ~ c t e l l t of death as int.roducc?d by Ben Sirach and the t reat- men t of P h i l o ' s m e t h o d of cornhilling Hebrew exegesis a n d Greek philo- sophy a r e i l l u n l i l l a t i n g to any st l ide~lt of the inter-testamental period. I11 h e r i n t r o d u c t i o n bI;iry Frances Thelen observes tha t teachers in t h e major l i b e r a l s e m i n a r i e s dur ing the first third of t he twentieth century concerned t . h e ~ n s e l v e s very litt le with the subject of sin. Thei r work was done in n a t n l - a 1 theology and in metaphysics; they had litt le t ime for t h e rnore s p e c i a l q u e s t i o ~ l s of revealed theology. Professor Tennant broke th i s s i l e ~ l c e on the subject of sin and man a s the s inner when he produced t h i s work. An i n d e x of authors and sllbjects is fortunately included in t h e text. .John F. Jolinson T H E E N C O ~ , ! N T E R BETIVEES CTIRISTIASITY A N D SCIENCE. By R i c h a r d Bube. 15'111. B. Eerdnlans Publishing Conlpany, Grand Rapids, 1968. 315 p a g e s . Cloth. $5.95 T h i s s y n ~ y o s i u l l l volume is intended for those individuals who a r e confrol l ted by w h a t they believe a re apparent conflicts between traditional Chr is t ian d o c t . r i n e and the clainls of modern scientific research. Th i s book i s a i l r l e d espec ia l ly a t those whose Christian fai th is threatened by Book Reviews 49 td questions tha t have been raised by their use of the scientific 1 the areas of biology, astroncmy, geology, the social sciences and ;y. xichard R. Bube, professor of Materials Science and Electrical ing a t Stanford University, has edited this volume with the help 'wen Gingerich, F. Donald Eckelniann, Walter R. Hearn, Stanley uist and David 0. Moberg. Concerning the illen who wrote the s m ~ r i s i n g th is volume the editor stated in his preface: "This i been written by men who profess to be servants, disciples, and of Jesus Christ. They acknowledge Him a s the Savior and Lord lives. They a r e a t the same time recognized in the scientific com- 1s responsible contributors to the varioas fields of scielitific knowl- 'our of the contributors a r e listed as n1enlhel.s of The American *filiation, a n organization comprised of Christian scientists ~logians. E n c o u n t ~ l betzcecn (Ihrist i trnity trnrl Rciet~cc is organized into ten 3 and begins with a basic disctlssion of the nature of science and of lnity so t h a t the terliis of the sl~bject matter will bc apparellt to der fro111 the outset of the presentation. This is then followed by iption of. lilethods for unders t~nd ing both thc liatural world and lical record and an attempt is made to show that each has its own !e and no conflict should result bet.\veen the two areas of revela- 'he last six chapters present the relation of the sciences of astron- he Physical sciences, the biological sciences. ps.vc.hology arid the jciellces to Christianity. ch contrihutol- has concluded his chapter \vith a bibliogral>hy for research. An indes of sllhjects and of nawes of theologians and s t s Quoted comglete the symposium. le Dosition taken by Dr. Bube and his colleguee is to the effect that ible has no answers to give to questions raisc:d by the sciences. ling to these men the purpose of the Bible is to set. forth the g.osl)el us Christ. t o tell sinners how to be saved and the Scril~tui'es do not r t to give information on such sciences as astronorn!', cosl~lo!oC3'. Y, the social sciences, ~)sychologg or on any phase of human exist- which call be investigated by the mind of m;in. our of the ten chapters of this synlposium have bee11 written by the of tlle book. Dr. Bube, who in 1955 published through the Moody , the book: '1'0 fit,ery -3fwn i,ins~r:e?.,: i Gl/.stewl.atic Gtuliy o? 1 1 1 1 . ( 1 1 BCL.Y~S of Ch.,-,j.stic~.n Doctrine. Although the latter volume does a y 111uch about God as Creator or describe the crc:alion of the first Dr. Ilube does accept the statement of St . I'aul that -4dam was the man, that he sillncd arid as a result of Adam's fall sin has passed all Illen. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r , in T h e Enccju,ltel. Belzcrcn Chris t iani ty and Bllbe is willing to accept organic evolutioll as as the : of Inan fl-olll some form of animal life. The co-authors of the 3ym- l m all assume the of the interpretations of science and where a r e ill direct collflict with the Bible. the clear Sc r i~ tu ra l statements have to be reinterpreted. Dr. Bube correctly has that the jict between the Bible and the sciences i e a matter of interpretation a n d I.hus in chapter 4 h e devotes a nurnbt~r of ).)ages t.0 a disc.ussi0n of t h e r u l e s of Biblical i ~ l t e ~ - ~ ) ~ ~ t a t i o n . The pr imary sense of t h e is the l i t e r : t l . a rule Rube does not, conveniently s tate . 1)r. LSube does not corn- I > l . e h e n d t ha t a nunlher of signiticr,n~ doctrinal int,or~l.etntiolls Of the New T €!st x m e n t rest on a litel-al, nat a s y n ~ b o l i ~ o l r allegorical in te rpre ta t ion of t h e first three chapters of Genesis. T h a t there is a differellce betweell s c i e n c e and sciclntism is a fact tha t Euhe does not take il l to considerat ion. T h e assulupt ion o f t he c?ditor and his colleazues is that. t h e inter l j re tat ions of s c i e n c e arc, correct, even though scientific views :ire c o l ~ s t i ~ ~ l t l ~ chang- in^. I n t.heir hiblio:raphies 1.he cont r ib~i lors l ist only t hose sciellt ists and t h e o l o g i a l l s who atlvocate and suppol-t their position. T h a t t he r e a r e s c i e n t i s t s and t,heologial1s who dis;lgree \vith t he I ~ a s i c p r c s~ l l j~os i t i o r l s Un d e r l yin; t Ile ap1)ro;tch of the aut.hors of th i s hook to sc ience a n d religion, n o r e a d e r ~vollid susi)r:cr. f rom the wading of this volume. T H E C;OSIbEL OF LIAPTIS31 fiy Ricli:trd .lungkuntz. Cancord ia Publish- Ing Jlorlbe. S t . Louis . 137 p:ljirs. I 'al)e~- y3.50 3111ch of rr:crnt diseussioll and research is 11ow ~n t tde ava i lab le t o t he l a i t y i l l this ver r rcxduble ])al)c:rbac:k by the esec :~~t ive secl 'etary of t he ?AI issour i Synod's Conin~ission O I I Theo!ojiy. Thcrc h a s been i n recent > - e a r s i1 resurxence of irit.erest in th(+ sacrenlents, especial ly Raptism. T h e a u t ~ h o ~ . osc-\s 1)ihlical i n l a ~ e r y in a vc.1-y creative s t y l e a n d analysis. I31s f i r s t c1ia1)ter is :t \ .erg cl.t!ative and i ~ i ~ z g i n a t i v e honlily on t h e signifi- c a n c e of water i n I.hc Itible t h ro~ lzh wliic11 the au thor l i n k s creat ion and r e d e l l i p t i o n . Use is made o f t h ~ recent Qun1ral-l firids ill descr ibing t he b a p t . i s r n s o f .lolrn a n d . I ~ S I I S . Thi: au tho r is al. his theological best in thaw ch:iptcra which t i c Cal)tis:t~ togcth(:r with t he resur rec t ion a n d t he w h o l e nf Christian life. ,L\ chapter 011 hnl!tismal ceremonies will m a k e th i s t.>ook itn ideal xif t for the adult convert o r the ~ ) :~ re i i t s of bapt ized infants. T H E S1IOIITE:R C.L\TECHISRl ILLUSTRATED. By J o h n Whitecross. Thcl 13iiri1ier of T r u t h Trust . London. 196s. 1 7 1 pages. Cloth. $2.50. fJu blishcd first i n lR2S. Tlr c 811v).tc). (*(rtct,l~.isnl. I l1?~st l -r1becl is n cate- chis111 for Pltritans w i th the Iiible ljassages replaced by s h o r t i l lustrat ive s t o r i e s . The preface is correct in i ts reninrk t ha t even t h e general reader x v i l l no t find the lnater ial unintt.resl.ing. The Lu the ran g a s t o r will find m a n y of thesc anccdotes, in spi te of the i r captivating conten t . l i t t le 111ore t h n r i succinct e sa~ l lp l e s of ljioos ~nora l iz ing . F o r e l i a n l ~ l e , u n d e r t he com- m a n d m e n t dealills w i th adultery the vir tues of a s lave s h i p cap ta in a r e e s t o l l e d who fasted while he was t ransport ing female s l aves i n order to keep himsclf moral ly pure. U~itler baptism there is men t ion of a minis ter who r e f l ~ s e s l o bailtize t he dying child of parents descr ibed as "depraved." In refus ing to adminis te r the ba l~ t i sm and in calling d o w n t h e bereaved p n r e n t . ~ . the ~ n i n i s t r r i s pictured heroic. The Puritanic;al approach seenls Book Reviews 5 1 .hat fo r the glory of God, i t is necessary to awaken fear in people's hearts. i f t e r fear has been awakened in the heart, then the people should strive ifter great works of religious piety. This is for the Calvinist way of ;hinking, a sign of God's grace. I t is no wonder that the Lutheran -'lergyman, whose theology centers in the cross as the expression of God's love and forgiving grace rather than in the awesome glory of G-od, will find t h e material strange and himself feeling a little uncomfortable. With these warnings, and they a r e solely Lutheran in character, a qualified endoresenlent can still be given to the The Shorter Ccrtechism Illustrc~,ted as a type of religious Readers Digest-frequently not profound, but always very interesting. Jus t the reading of it gives the feeling that the reader is somewhere on the craggy, cold damp coast of Great Britian, huddled in a n English peasant's hut, as he strives to know the law of God and fulfill i t in the fashion of the English free Protestants. Dtr?.~id P . Sccrer THE MARK O F CAIN. By Stuart Barton Rabbage. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, 1966. Paper. 157 pages. 6/-net. MAN: THE NEW HUMANISM. By Roger Lincoln Shinn. Vol. VI in New Directions in Theology Today. Westminster Press. Philadelphia. 1968. 207 pages. Paper. $2.25. UKFINTSHED MAN AND THE IILIAGINATION. BY Ray L. Hart. Herder & Herder, New York, 1968. 118 pages. Cloth. $9.50. Man is his own favorite. subject, sonlethi~ig these three hooks have in ComnlOn. But there the sinlilarity ceases. Babbage adinirable depicts man ' s plight, as well as his hope, with a sprightly overview of the poets, as Aristotle called all literary men. Shinn, a s rlsrlal crisp and clear, de- ta i l s the new humanism currelltly sweeping through theology as well as through society. Hart's effort, lrlucli nlore aiiibitious, digs at the roots a n d ontology of revelation, man's problern of knowing himself, God, and t.hings in general. T h e great merit of Habbagc's book (as also his earlier iTInn i n 3'atu.r~ and GI-uce) is that he is able not only to trace ~ h t fact of man's sin. its gravi ty , its acconlpanying zingst and alie~iation, its ineradicability, its close connection with the terrifying enigma of death-illustrating this a l l with pertinent references to the best in current I i tcrature-but then goes on to nail dowu this "serious business of heaven," as C!. S. Lewis p u t s i t , of how God in Christ is our exceeding joy. The book is bound 1) to afford the ~reac l i e r with 3 lot of good. ready-made illrlstrations f r o m recent literatore: and 2 ) goad him on to a little more reading on h i s own, i r ~ order to keep aBrc:lst of what his jleople, especially his high school and college students, are reading. Shinn begins with the truism that "man is constalitly struggling to unders tand hi~nself." Neo-orthodoxy had stressed anew for our time the s inful depravity of man, hut, as Shinn shows, a retooled humanism is the rlew mood in theology, an optimism about man and his potential. Stimu- la ted by such factors as the new technology, urbanization, social erigi11r:er- ing, mass communications, etc., the new humanism throbs with 1 ) pro- found appreciation for and celebration of the secular; and 2 ) ceaseless quest for identity and meaning on the part of the individual who finds himself in a world that , on the one hand, threatens him with obliteration, and, on the other, with alienation from his fellows. In his second part Shinn surveys happenings in the dialog between theology and the other disciplines on the problem of man, specifically the new biology, the chang- ing realm of psychology, the always volatile social sciences, and finally the very conteniporary philosophies of life like existentialism afid Marx- ism. His third and concluding section is an attempt to bring theology up to date aiid thus, hopefully, to help the church speak more relevantly to the times. The danger as "the conte~nporary Christian doctrine of man opts for the open future rather than for a fixed nature of man" (p. 137) is, a s Shinn correctly warns, that "sometimes i t forgets that inan is a crea- ture." (P. 153) When the new humanism thus raises a flag for man, i t does so with naive sort of optimism about human perfectibility and with the old tendency of acting a s God. Over against this , says Shinn, "it is the Christian faith that in Jesus Christ men have seen a new revelation of divine love and human possibilities" (p. 179) and Christian huiilanism of t h e right sort is that "the man Jesus has the compelling grace that calls out of others the recognition of God and of thei r brothers" and in so doing of "self-recognition." (p. 181) This, we can say, is a great and pious hope, but, a s Luther showed the theological world so convincingly in his great C'o?~~?nentnry on Gtalatiuns. it inakes the mistake of Augustine, which has plagued the church ever since, of mixing sanctification and justifi- cation by speaking of faith a s formed and adorned by charity, good works, o r sanctifying grace-or whatever other name it is given--instead of the reverse: Charity, love, good works, sanctification, being formed and adorned by faith which alone justifies and which, like a fecund mother, brings all the rest with it. "Perhaps not since John Henry Newman's Anglican study . . . has a theological treatise been so significant in its import, so sophisticated in i t s argument, so learned and so literate." is the prediction of the sumiilary on the jacket of Hart 's book. Those are broad claims which this reviewer has no mind to debate; but one thing is sure, Har t weaves an almost incredibly difficult and intricate pattern---largely the result of a heavy, educationist sort of jargon-as he probes the problenl of nian's self-under- standing, and the meaning and significance of re\-elat.ion. I t leaves the work solnewhat long on linguistic analysis and short on clearly delivered content. A writer has a perfect right to make his readers stretch their mental inuscles to the limit, but, in turn, the readers have a need t o stop short of mental hernia. Har t seems to be a t his best when he s i f t s between tradition and imaginative discourse in the theological task. Also his "Appendices," which occupy the last hundred pages, a re considerably more transparent and accessible. With his rejection of Neo-orthodoxy's theology of crisis ( I t is "now in a state of terminal illness," along wi th existentialistic theology, according to Har t ) , a s well as conservative Biblical theology, he seems to opt for a kind of Schleiermacher redivivus, a revival currently going on in theological circles. Hart's foreword indi- Book Reviews cates tha t h is work is t he frui t of his teaching a t Vanderbilt's divinity school, though much of i t took shape during pleasant summers in a cabin nea r Polebridge, on the North Fork of the Flathead, in Montana. This is g rea t country, with the towering peaks of Glacier P a r k lying just t o t h e east. Having read the charming tale of reminiscence by Chet Iiuntley (The Generous Yeurs), w h o is a native Montanan, s imul t aneous l~ with Hart 's production, the thought inevitably crossed my mind that the la t te r would have benefited immeasurably by having absorbed a little more of t h e honiespun and down-to-earth sagacity of the B ig Sky Country's citizens and some of the piercing, pointed clarity with which Glacier's lofty peaks penetrate the heavens, all of which make living in the Flat- head one of life's greatest experiences ( t h e "seven fat years" in this reviewer's ministry) . E. F. h-lz1y RUDOLF BULTMANN IN CATHOLIC THOUGHT. By Thomas F . O'hleara and Donald M. Weisser. Herder and Herder, New YOI-k. 1968. 254 Pages- Cloth. $5.95. R ~ ~ c l o l f 6 u l t ) n n ~ ~ n in Catholic TAolcyht does not present anything new o r astonishing in the way of Rult?nnnnio. An expression of gratitude f rom the Marburg theologian appears in t h e forward, but unlike Walther Schmithals ' The Theology of R~idolf B~tl tmann, recently published in Engl ish translation by Augsburg, it does share the rrihil ob.vtat of the IXeat theologian himself. While Schmithals attempted t o remain neutral d u r i n g t h e autopsy, the Catholic theologians have vivisect,ed th r corpse wi thout fearing to identify diseased and healthy organs. In reviewing t h i s kind of a book, this reviewer is continually amazed a t the vitality a n d the vivaciousness with which the Catholic theologians are attacking theology. You might even say that their attitude is downright Protes- t a n t ! Since Bultmann is not one of their 'boys', they can view the whole scene wi th a n attitude of aloofness withoat incri~ilinating themselves with a self-styled objectivity. The re are ten contributors, all with impeccable credentials, if their views had to be summarized into one sentence. it would be this. Bultnlann h a s seen a valid thrust of the text in reading it for the existential an- alysis , but this one thrust certainly does not exhaust all what the Bihlt? in t ends to convey. All of the chapters are weil written and the reader can look forward to some delightful theological treats. Some of the usual anti-Bultmannian things a re said here again. Typical examples include: W h y doesn't Rultmann demythologize Christ o i ~ t of religion? Isn't Bult- m a n n a Karltian after al l? Hasn't Bultinann made all theology nierely anthropology? I n addition, there are sorne contributions not previo~lsly found in the Bultmann analysis books. A chapter on "Demythologizing in t h e School of Alexandria'' studies a very early precursor of the Marburg theologian. While Bultmann saw reality and myth throughout the Bible. the Alexandrians considered the Old Testament myth and the S e w Testa- m e n t reality. Schnackenburg's chapter on "Form-Criticism and the Gos- pels" is one of the sanest contribution in this field. If t h e method can be divorced fro111 Eultmann's virtually agnostic view to past history and events, it actually begins to open the meaning of the I t sees so much value in a word, it call actually be called the "proof word" method and builds a strong foundation beneath the doctrinal folllldation of the church. The most critical essay is offered by Josef Blank in "Bultmann and the Gospel According to John." Eultmann is justly chastised for his non-historica] view which in the end limits the incarr:ation to a "that" and destroys the very fiber of John's Gospel. A chapter entitled "The Sacraments in Bultmann's Theology" is not unexpected in a Catholic book. Aside from the fact that Rultnlann lllight he dead wrong in attach- ing the sacranleilts in Hellenisln instead of Qumran, the author sees a Prominent contribution in that the church is now regarding the sacra- ments not as magic but as preaching. The concludingr chapter by the editor, O'JIeara, gives an overview of theology in the wake of Bultmann. Short descriptions of Eheling. Fuchs, Metz and bloltmann-are given. This is the kind of book that makes even the most general type of reader feel like an espert a t completion. Highly recommended for all who want to know more about what the fight is all about. David P. Scner ROYCE A S D HOCKlSG AMERICAN IDEALISTS. BY D. S. Robinson. The Chris toph~r Publishing I-Iouse, Boston, 196s. 175 Pages. Cloth. $5.00. Josiah Royce and IVilliam Ernest Hocking a re recognized as the founders of a distirictly Anierica~i school of idealism. In his book Dr. Robinson has provided ;1 series of essays on the philosophy of both men. The essays deal mainly wit.h the logical and metaphysical coilcepts of the two inen. although their ideas concrriling God, goliticaI philosophy, and education also treated. In part 111 of his book the author oEers a numher of letters of both Royce aiid Hocking. Bibliographies of both nien a re appended. One of the most. helpful essays in the book deals with Royce on the origin and developnient of philosopl~ical terminology. Royce contributed articles to the I_)i.clionclry of Philo.$oph.!j n?id P s y c l ~ o l o g y on Greek, Latin, Scho:;~stic. Icant's, and Hegel's ternlinology. The author summarizes Royce's conclusions on the development of Greek terminology by distin- guishing a pre-critical slage in which philosophers rliodified common terms. a critical stage. in which philosophical terms were deliberately correlated with philosophical systems, and a post-Aristotelian Hellenistic stage in which philosophical terminology was considerably enriched. He a:so shows how Royce stresses the influence of Aristotle on the Scholastics, going back to the commentaries of Boethius and tracing the development of the medieval scholast.icism identified with Thomas. Royce notes that "the central chal-actel. of the whole scholastic vocabulary remains its elaborate use of distinctions. The method of distinctions had already beell carried forth by Aristotle. . . Scholasticism made the method of distinc- tions niore and more an ideal" (p. 39). The author also shows how Locke Book Reviews 5 5 injected caprice in the use of terms, thus bringing about a certain dis- organization of technical language. H e finds in Kant a great lover of analysis and synthesis and points to the oft evaluated question of the influence of Kant upon the later terminology of Hegel. In his essay on Hegel Royce pointed out what stu- dents of philosophy often have to learn the hard way, namely, that a superficial knowledge of the terminology employed by Hegel can be extremely misleading. I t i s necessary, says Royce, to summarize the whole of Hegel's Logik in order to restate his definition accurately. Hocking, a student of Royce a t Harvard, is recognized as the leading representative of absolutistic personalism in the United States. His magnunt opus, entitled the ,&feclning of God in Hunmn Kzpsrience (1912) , sought to relate personal experience to a reality which is beyond physical nature a s well a s beyond the separate minds of others, a reality which can be described as a being with whom a personal conlmunication is pos- sible. T h a t ultimate reality is of course, God; because we can know this "other mind" we can also know "other nlinds." The fact. of God in human experience, says Mocking, makes possible not only the developn~ent of self- consciousness but also social consciousness. Sooner or later in their phil- osophizing idealists get back to the ontological argument. Hocking sum- marizes i t this way: I have an idea of God, therefore I have an experience of God. Reality dwells in the self, in nature, or in another mind; God in- cludes these three. For Hocking God is the all-inclusive being who unites self, other minds, and nature in a colnlnunal spiritual reality that is ineff- able, but known in the n~ystical experiences of mer.. God is ~~letaphysically real even though his essence might surpass the powers of hunian compre- hension. While philosophical idealism inight not. be one of the burning issues of our day (either in philosophy or theology) this reviewer feels that some sor t of idealistic-intuitive interpretation of reality might become the "ism" t o creep into the vacuum caused by the demise of t.he death of God theology and the growing impatience with an anti-metaphysical analytical philosophy. Ijertrand Russell once opined that every philosopher is soine- t ime o r other haunted by the idealist lurking deep within his soul. ,John F'. Johnson INCLUDE M E OUT. Confessions of an Ecclesiastical Coward. By Collin Morris. Abingdon Press, Nashville and New York, 1968. 99 pages. Paper. $1.25. Morris cuts the theological air like a hot knife cuts through butter. T h e obvious iconoclastic intent of the author could be dismissed except t h a t Dr. Morris has been the president of the United Church of Zambia. T h e au thor was driven to this scathing critique of the conitemporary church from a n obvious feeling of imyatie~lce with the church's much ta lking and little doing. This reviewer found hin~self falling into the sin of giving Dr. Morris a theological classification and rating, e. g. funda- mentalist , old time liberal, Tillichian, ctc. But t.o state this here would destroy the author's intent and prejudice the reader. Stones a re tossed in every direction, so the reader should not feel prematurely safe. Christianity is a bread and butter issue. Whoever brings hoine the bacon, carries the ball and stands up to be counted a t the critical time can be called Christian. Fitting into this category a r e Catholic and Bible be- lieving missionaries, massacred in Africa, as well as a Unitarian who rowed his boat into a nuclear blast area. The culprits are negotiators for t he Anglican-Methodist Union and the theologians with their long volu- monous productions and seemingly self-contradictory statements. Such issues as the choice between fermented and unfermented beverages or between ordination, re-ordination, or com~nissioning become small issues i n comparison to paganism and starvation in Africa. Though not immune to modern theological thought, Dr. Morris throws some of his .iibes in that direction. Is the world that rejected the traditional God going to accept the 'God beyond God' ala' Tillich and Robinson? Cut to the core are those whose acquaintance with the theological giants is limited only to the cult of devotion and name dropping. Bonhoeffer's Letters and Barth's Commen- tary on the Ronzuns are "venerated by all and read only by those looking for a suitable Ph. D. subject." Morris's words on church assemblies, with their traditional dictums on international problems is well worth the modest price of this paperback. Someone has to have the gall and the guts to tell the king about his non-existent new clothing. Dr. Morris has done this for the church-like it or not. Dn17irZ P . Scner THE THESES WERE NOT POSTED. By Erwin Iserloh. Translated by Jared Wicks. Beacon Press, Boston, 1968. 116 pages. Cloth. If this title suggests a negative view on the Reformation, the author, professor of medieval and modern church history a t the University of Muenster, and a Roman Catholic, readily removes any such thought with his concluding chapter on "But the Reformation Began on October 31, 1517." Iserloh, who studied under Joseph Lortz (often credited with initiating a Inore accurate and fa i r appraisal of Luther in Roinan Catholic scholarship), is concerned merely to prove a theory, which has been bandied about in Germany for the last few years, that the dramatic nail- ing of the 95 Theses on the church door at Wittenberg never really took place, but that Luther, following accepted scholarly procedure, mailed his missile, which was destined to shake the world like i t had never been shaken before, to the proper officials, like Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz, on that date, October 31. Only later did the Theses become public, accord- ing to Iserloh. I t is one of history's interesting propositions, some 450 years later, and Iserloh argues for it in considerable detail; but, after all the firing, the traditional view seems still to be left unshaken, because some of his evidence is tenuous a t best. In the process, however, Iserloh goes over events and material connected with the beginning of the Reformation in a sympathetic and objective manner. Luther is given generally fair treatment, as is the church of that day, too, which desperately needed Book Reviews 5 7 reform. Iserloh closes t h e argument for his position with the thought, that, only if t he posting of the 95 Theses is understood a s a legend, will we see "to what extent t h e theological and pastoral failures of the bishops set t h e scene for Lu the r to begin t h e divisive Reformation we know, instead of bringing reform from within t h e church" (p. 110). The aP0- dosis of his conclusion seems to be grounded in some fact and validity, but t h e condition he sets down in the protasis of his argument, of the post- ing of t h e Theses being understood as a legend, seems unwarranted. B. F. Klr4y PRESBYTERIAN WORSHIP I N AMERICA. BY Julius Melton. Johll Knox Press. Richmond, 1967. 173 pages. Cloth. $5.75- Tension between freedom and order in worship has always existed among American Christians. In this book, the first fully documented his- torical survey of American Presbyterial1 worship from the tinle of the Revolution to date, Professor Melton shows how Presbpterialls have dealt w i th t h e problem of free versus formal prayer, unifor~rlity versr~s diversity, the use of the old prayer fornis versus the creation of new forms. Frorn t h e f irs t , Presbyterianism has stressed Word-centered liturgies, eillploying i n worship only that which was comrnalided by the \Vord of God. But such l i turg ies have also been influenced by the Anglican approach to worship as well a s by the approach to worship of groups sten~nling from the "radical Reformation." Depel~ding on the sitr~ation a t the tirne they set sai l , Presbyterians arr ived in the new \vol.ld with varying worship at t i - tudes. T h e result was a large degree of tolprance ill coloilial Presbyterian- ism. T h e author shows how through the succeeding decades Presbyterians reshaped their worship and its theory to fit their changing views and their nation's changing cultilre. He sets forth t.hc ideas and practices of Xorth a n d South , Old School and Sets- School. pro-liturgical and anti-liturgical vicars. clergy arid laymen. T h e interaction between Presbylerinriisni and the camp lneeting t n e of service on the American frontier is detailed in delightful fashion ( p . 44ff.). T h e "new measilres" of Charles G . Finncy were seen as llecessary by t h e New School Presbyterians who ~ n a d e evangelistic effectivelless the cr i te r ion of proper worship. The author presents the worship vit.ws of nlen l ike Charles W. Raird, Charles and A. 4. Hodge. Levi A. Ward, and Char les i V . Shields. Princeton Selninary's Clharles Nodge desired a "wide a n d safe liliddle ground" between Puri tan and Anglican prac t ice-nanre l~ . " the optional use of the liturgy. or forrn of public service. havilll: t h e sarlc- t ion of the church." Ilodge's most iriiportant contribution. according t o Melton, was his suggestion that the denomination prod~lcr an officially approved llrayer hook ( p . 751. T h e keen interest some wid-lgth cel~turj ' American la~l l len took ill m a t t e r s of worship is e>;e~ilp[i[ied h y the actions of Lt:vi A. Ward, a weal thy and pronlinent insurance broker and member of one of the pioneer faillilies of Rochester. Neb-$- York. had constructed in 1553. opposite h i s family's estate. a presbyterian church which became u n i q ~ e llot only becallse of its handsome Rolnanesque building but. hecnuse 01 its liturgical service. Ward wanted Presbyterian services to afford more opportunity for congregational participation. He desired both a n impressive setting and expressive worship (p. 94). The ferment during the second half of the 19th century in matters touching upon worship forms led to the publication in 1906 of the first book of common worship among American Presbyterians. The features of this officially sanctioned pattern of worship, which has continued to the present day, are: the union of Word and Sacrament as the normal diet of worship, readings from both testaments on a regular systematic basis, considerable congregational participation, inclusion of each of the familiar elements of adoration, confession, thanksgiving, supplication, and inter- cession, and the provision of a lectionary built around the Christian year. Melton's concise, well-researched, and well-written book will be valu- able for students of American religious history as well a s for pastors and laymen responsible for guiding the worship of their congregations. Gerhard Aho GROWTH AND LIFE IN THE LOCAL CHURCH. By H. Boone Porter, Jr., The Seabury Press, New York, 1968. 1 2 4 pages. Paper. $2.50. This is still one more book added to the massive renewal literature. I t is a very practical book. I t does not attack the viability of the parish form of the church, but assumes it. The author begins with the assumption that the churches must grow. A church which continues statically has suffered a shift of motivation. I t loses sight of its professed objectives and continues for reasons other than that for which it was founded. The author attempts to provide some solutions. The discussion which this reviewer found most fruitful and interesting revolved about the prob- lem of manpower. The author looks a t the many small parishes which can't get anywhere because of lack of clergy leadership. He points out that some small, rural churches deliberately seek out uninspiring, incompetent pastors because they know that is the only kind of man they can hold. In offering practical solutions for church growth, Porter suggests that we ought to remember that people often join churches for seemingly in- adequate reasons. Rather than rage against this, we should accept it and use these people who are the "new edge" of being in the church a s those who can most effectively communicate with those outside the church. Older members may, indeed, develop nlotivations which are too complex and too theological to appeal to the unchurched. As for the manpower problem, Porter offers two suggestions which merit attention. The first is the use of men of limited education and train- ing who can adequately serve the many small churches. He suggests that they be given "crash courses" and then ordained. This limited ordination would not make them available to all positions in the church, but for a restricted ministry. He envisions these men as remaining in their secular jobs until retirement. The second solution to the manpower shortage is to have married men of the parishes ordained to the diaconate as a lifelong position. TO this Book Reviews 5 9 reviewer, this suggestion has real interest. The process of electing men as "elders" or "deacons" for short periods of time with little or no train- ing leaves much to be desired. Porter refers to the growing number of capable men who have retired early in good health. He feels that a speci- fic call and some training would permit these men to serve capably to aug- ment the professional ministry. These two solutions are not original with Porter, but he does hold a good brief for them. A large part of the book is taken up with a detailed report of a parish renewal project in Evansville, Indiana. This report gets tiresome, es- pecially in view of the fact that so many similar reports are being pub- lished. The book has several bright spots. It seems too lorig and too expen- sive for the number of ideas. R,ichurd J . Rchaltz SEX AND THE SINGLE EYE. Ey Letha Scanzoni. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1968. 1-12 pages. Cloth. $3.95. This i s a very good book about the Christian l~hilosophy of sex. The reviewer makes this judglnent on the basis of a n u ~ i ~ b e r of premises. The book is honest. I t is honest about what "the new morality" Says about sexual behavior. The writer does not engage in ill-considered gen- eralizations or misquotations. She gives credit where credit is due. She carefully distinguishes humanism, hedonism and the riew morality. She is honest also in reporting thc folly of the church in promulgating an un- biblical and frightful view of sex life. Above all, she is bluntly hotlest in stating again and again that only those who have "the single eye." that is, sincere acceptance of Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, can hope to agree with or live by the Christian philosophy of sex. The book is courageous. Mrs. Scanzoni comes down hard. with both feet, on the propositioll that there is a matter of ol)etlience t o God involved i n this matter of sex behavior. While patiently considering all sides of an issue, the writer does not hesitate to operate with the principle that the word of God is decisive for a Christian. The book i s inforined and scholarly. Mrs. Scanzoni's husband is a professor of sociology a t Indiana University. She indicates her debt to his scholarship in chapters relating the anthropological and sociological implications of sex and marriage. Beyond this, howe~~er , she displays sound scholarship in handling the Bible. There is some excellent exegesis in this book. The contextual meaning of the Greek noun pornetrt is thor- oughly explored. Many other passages relating to sex in both the Old Testament and New Testamerit are carefully studied. The book i s readable. Mrs. Scanzoni addresses herself to educated young adults. She is thinking primarily of college students. Despite the depth of scholarship, the writer displays a straightforward, delightful style. When the going gets rough, she resorts to a directly catechetical style to make sure her points get across. The book is helpful. It recognizes the dilemmas of young people. It sympathizes with them. It takes up, one after another, t h e answers which people today a re t ry ing t o give to sexual morality. The person reading the book will quite readily find his own problems treated. The book is evangelical. The explanation of the Song of Songs is beautiful. T h e Postscript elucidates very clearly the forgiveness which we have in Christ and the possibility of start ing over after offense. The writer displays a bright and abounding faith in the Gospel. In the face of questions which a r e being asked of the church she says, " . . . if one is really confident of God's revelation of Himself through Jesus Christ, if one is really sure of moral guidance He has given us in t h e Scriptures, if one is really convinced tha t God does have something to say to us in this matter, is there any reason t o fear that the entire Christian faith will be toppled because some honest questions are being raised?" COMMUNICATION-LEARNING FOR CHURCHMEN. Vol. I. Communi- cation for Churchmen Series. B. F. Jackson, Jr., edit.or, Abingdon Press, Nashville, 1968. Cloth. 303 pages. $5.95. This is the first volume in a projected four-volume series designed to give a basic knowledge of the media available for church use. Future volumes, which will focus on Television-Radio-Film for Churchmen, Audio-visual Facilities a n d Equipment for Churchmen, and Creative Coni- nlunication Skills for Churchmen, will point out the strengths and weak- nesses of each medium and consider the effectiveness of specific media in varied communication situations. The reason for this series is stated by the editor in the introduction to Volume I: "Many employed and volun- teer leaders in the three major faiths in the United States believe the fu- ture of the church depends on its ability and willingness to make better use of the processes of communication and learning." Surely the church needs to examine i ts teaching methods and patterns of comnlunication with a view to up-dating i t s use of these processes and employing then1 to greater advantage. In a day when we are experiencing a revolution in technology and coinmunications, this four-volume series is indeed welcome. Volume I contains a discussion by four separate authors of the mean- ing of communication i n t h e church, the learning situation, and the use of printed and audiovisual resources. William F. Fore, the writer of the comiilunication section, avers that completely successful communication is impossible, and tha t t.herefore the problem is how t o reduce the probability that we will be misunderstood. H e describes the process of communication, using the Shannon and Weaver communication model (source, encoding, signal, decoding, destination). H e also explains t h e communication principles ~f redundancy, feedback, retro-active inhibition, t h e sleeper effect, and selective perception. The formal teaching methods which the church has used for the past few hundred years a r e inadequate in terms of good conlmunication, says Fore. Not only have these methods failed to take communication principles sum- Book Reviews 6 1 ently into account, but they have failed to relate the church's message to the real world of the person in the pew. But Fore himself fails to support some of the assertions he makes in Chapter VIII, "A Theological View of Communication," and in Chapter IX. "The Church's Comn~unication Task." For example, he writes: "Communication becomes distorted when the Bible is substituted for God as the object of ultimate loyalty and faith" (p. 83), but he does not cite a single instance of such adulation of the Bible. Again, he says: "The vocab- ulary which was once used to express the Christian faith to the world has almost totally lost its power to communicate" (p. 89) . I t is certain that the Christian vocabulary fails to communicate to many people. But can w e be certain that the Christian vocabulary is more outmoded today than it was in the days of the apostles? I t appears that terms like justification, sanctification, sin, righteousness were just a s incomprehensible in the Greco-Roman world a s they are today. Jesus and the apostles continually sharpened for their hearers the meanings of religious terms. And so must we. Fore disregards the uniqueness of the Bible as a revealer of God. He understands the Word of God to-include every revelation of God in history, P ~ e S e n t events, ar t , and symbols (p. 81). He goes so fa r a s to say: "When t h e Bible and the Word of God are interchangeable, we no longer affirm something about either" (p. 98). On the contrary, by such an identification w e affirm a great deal, both about the nature of the Bible and the nature of the Word of God. Fore operates with the assumption that there is n o objective truth, that revelation is in no sense a communication of in- formation, and that doctrinal statements a re somehow fatal of faith and fa i l to communicate. This is a Kierkegaardian view which is not necessar- i l y supported by the results of communication research. If one cannot really communicate the uncommunicable (God), why bother to write a book about communication in the church? How do the views of Marshall McLuhan fit into the church's com- munication task? According to Fore, the great contribution of McLuhan is t h a t he has succeeded in placing the question of the effects of media into a total cultural context (p. 49). McLuhan's insight, that the type of information conveyed is not so important as the medium by which it is conveyed, applied t o the church, would mean that essentiaIly the message of the Christian church is communicated by its own life and witness. I n this sense the church itself is a ~nedium of communication (P. 98). The section on Learning and the Church, by Howard W. Ham, discusses the four major theories currently being advanced a s explanations of what i t means to learn and what happens when one learns-theories propounded chiefly by Edward C. Tolman, B. F. Skinner, Clark Hull, and Rober t M. Gagne. Ham goes on to show how these theories can be em- ployed in the church's educational task, depending on what the church is t rying to accomplish. The discussion of motivation. perception, evalua- t i o n and timing in relation to learning should be extremely helpful to the person who must engage in teaching in the church. The qualities of a good teacher a r e listed, and the relation of teaching to learning is pointed up. The sections on Pr int as a Resource for Learning, by B. F. Jackson, Jr., and on Using Audiovisual Resources, by James C. Campbell, give excel- lent guidelines for the use of these media in the church. On the whole, this is a fine book. I ts value, for this reviewer, is less- ened by some of the assumptions and conclusions expressed in chapters VII I and IX. Gerhard Aho -- T H E MANIPULATOR AND THE CHURCH. By Maxie D. Dunnam, Gary J. Herbertson, and Everett L. Shostrom. Abingdon Press, Nashville, 1968. 176 pages. Cloth. $3.50. Manipulation and actualization are the key words in this volume. The manipulator is "one who exploits, uses, and/or controls himself and others as things or objects" (p. 2 ) . The actualizer "is a n individual who appreciates himself and others as possessors of unique worth and poten- tial'' (p. 23). I t is one of the contentions of this book that out of the raw clay of the nlanipulator may be molded the actualizer, and a congregation bound in the fetters of manipulation may break forth into the freedom of actualization (p. 24). Both congregation members and pastors can function a t the low level of manipulation. Church members t ry to manipulate the congregation and the pastor by such devices as concealing the pledge, withdrawing from participation, creating dissension, etc. Ministers, too, can attempt to use people as pawns by appealing to the power of their profession, the weight of their authority, or the degree of their training. To move from manipulation to actualization, it is imperative that congregations and pastors allow people to be persons, that they appreciate individual differences, and that there be a healthy ministry-laity relation- ship, the pastor serving as playercoach. An actualization-centered chnrch will foster worship which permits shared meaning koinonia which affords people the freedom to be honest, and dialconin which gives opportunity for authentic service. The purpose of life together in the church is to help people become authentic individuals who are aware of themselves, of others, and of God. When we know that through Christ we are loved of God, we can love our- selves and others. What would happen if you discussed this volunle a t your next church council meeting? My guess is that plenty couId happen. Henry J . Eggold T H E BITTER ROAD. By John H. Baumgaertner. Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, 1969. 104 pages. Paper. $1.95. "From the ecstasy of heaven to the agony of upraised timbers on a blood soaked hill-this is the bitter road" (p. 13). In this volume of ten Lenten sermons, the author, pastor of Capital Book Reviews 6 3 Drive Lutheran Church, Milwaukee, takes us on a journey that began in t ime for Christ in Bethlehem and ended in the garden beyond the wall. With a deft touch both for scenes and human emotions, the author takes us to Bethlehem, Egypt, Nazareth, Jericho, Bethany, Gethsemane, Jerusalem, Calvary, and the garden; but with crushing realism he con- f ron t s US with our world, torn and bleeding, a world for which Christ died a n d in which we a re to be little Christs. One example will suffice: Hardly has the blood of the Holy Innocents begun to dry before: . . . we who ourselves ought to be willing martyrs for Christ are impos- ing on others the martyrdom of a painful and deadly neglect. We who have been so proud to be undeserving recipients of the forgiving love of God in Christ have consigned the less fortunate among Our brothers and sisters in the race of man to a life that is starving for love and demonstrates the synlptons of its hunger and its sickness in rebellion and violence and crime (pp. 29 f . ) . Diagnosis is generally followed by helpful prescription, but a t times t h e Gospel's answer to man's malady could have come through more sharp1 y. For directness, compelling style. and relevancy. these sermons Prove to be helpful reading. Hela?-y J. EqgoZd AWAY WITH COMPLAINING. By Betty Carlson. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1968. 62 pages. Paper. $1.00. Constructive thinking, a forward-looking view of life, is 1lot to0 common, but it is abundantly available in d ~ r r r y W i t h Gomplnining. In twenty-seven inspirational devotions for women, Betty Carlson lllaintains that chronic complainers a re looki~lg through the wrong end of the binocu- l a r s , and she lightly but surely leads the reader awpy from the wrong end-heads her toward constructive views, and enlarges the proper aspect. The fulcrum for the change is a loving-trusting relationship with God, our Savior. One of my favorite essays, number twenty-three, relates t h e joy of the snlall congregation at finally dedicating u lovely pipe organ. Shor t ly thereafter the organist marries and moves away. " . . And so all w i n t e r long . . . you would hear someone in our comnlunity pray, 'Dear L o r d , we hate to keep bothering You, but it worlld meal1 a lot to us to have a n organist. Thank You.' Let me warn you. Go easy when you p r a y with miracle-minded people. . . We now have six organists, all excellent musicians, and the seventh arrives next week. Annoyances and frustrations enter our lives constantly, and we each know someone who is a chronic complainer. Indeed, if we are honest, we m u s t also acknowledge times when such frustrations have brought out the wors t in us. Rut with Betty Carlson we can keep or regain perspective; refresh our memories a s to the destructive power of cornplainers--who once shouted, "Crucify Him!"; but, best of all, when we find ourselves complaining, look to see what with God's help roe can do to remedy the problem-and then do it-and away with complaining! Dnniel G . Reuning T H E MISSIONARY BETWEEN THE TIMES. By R. Pierce Beaver. Doubleday and Company, Inc., Garden City, New York, 1968. 196 pages. Cloth. In the course of writing this review, I received some observations of a newly sent missionary from overseas that contained this statement: "First of all throw away any materials or books older than five years. The mission field has changed tre~nendously in the last decade." He was writing to seminary students who are interested in world missions. The changed and changing situation in other lands a s well a s ours comes to our attention again. But has anything come from the printer to replace the books that we might discard? In the last decade a number of authoritative and helpful books on mission, missions and the missionary have been published. This past year R. Pierce Beaver has added an excel- lent treatment of one of the most popular mission subjects-the missionary himself. With obvious understanding Beaver analyzes the changed role of the missionary as he finds himself "between the age of the separate histories of peoples and regions, on the one hand, and of world history, on the other; of European or Western hegemony over most of the earth and the emergence of some new order; of agrarian and urban industrial societies; of unilateral sending nlission from a geographic Christendom and the entire secular-partially religious world being a new mission field approached from a base of Christian churches and communities diffused throughout the entire earth; of revolution in mission and in the world." In such a time a s this he answers questions that everyone is asking: Why send missionaries? Who should go? How do others see the nlission- a ry? Why the vocational? He goes on to say that "a renewal of mission is urgent. Not fewer missionaries, but more--more than ever were sent before-are required by the magnitude of the challenge." On the basis of the Scriptural theology of the apostolate of the Church that h e outlines a t the beginning of his book. Beaver stresses again and again that the lending of personnel and subsidy to sister churches overseas is only part of the apostolate and does not excuse Western churches from sending missionaries. "Neither can the young churches of Asia, Africa, the Pacific, and Latin America be excused from sending nlissionaries on t he plea that the local evangelistic task is gigantic and the resources small." Nowhere in the world and a t no time is the necessity of sending missionaries eliminated. The great Christian Imperative to go still stands for all Christians in the world, the West included. Beaver thinks that dialogue would be the best means of communi- cating the Gospel in our times, and "is now even an evangelistic necessity." His thoughts on the relationships of the missionary with the indigenous church in other lands and his home church a re lasered in on today's Book Reviaus 6 5 problems. His insights into the development of the indigenous church a r e enhanced by his vast knowledge of church history and history of missions. There a r e a few statements in his book that raise questions in my mind. But on the whole Beaver has some very pertinent, Scriptural and wise things t o say about the missionary between the times. His treatment of t h e subject is not exhaustive, but what he says is exceptionally helpful. He writes in his foreward that tbe book grew out of lectures given to newly appointed and furloughed missionaries, to members of mission boards, and to conference audiences of laymen and ministers. This re- viewer recommends this easily readable volume to all missionaries. mission executives and to all others mentioned above. Mission educa- t ionists a t all levels in our Synod would do well to update their under- s tanding of the missionary and his task with this book. Otto C. Hintze BOOI. Doe8 Inspircitiorr 1)crnund Ijicrruncy? ISy Stewart Custcr. The Craig I'ress. Sutley, Sew .Icrsry, 1968. 120 llnges. l'iiprr. $:<.>I). Jntroduclu~-?I Strcdien WL Contempcrng-y Theoloyjj. Iiy I iol~crt 1,. R~yliiond. I'rcs- bytcrian and Reforlired Publishing Company, Philadelphia, l!)OS. 242 pages. 1'al)t.r. $4.50. !I'7rcoln!~icnl Dit tlontr#-!l of 7'lrc .\ cvr Tcntament. Grrhard I'ric.drich, ctditor. Erigli.;h trwrislixtor and c~li tor . (;eoffrcly IV. Bronlilt~y. Win. B. Errdrnans Yahlishiiig Com]~nrig. l!MiS. Vnlliine V. 1O:;l pagcas. Cloth. $23.50. Rcbell~on i s 7'hr. 1V~Edcrnm.u. I:y (;csorge I:. .Coats. . \ l)i~>pdon 1'res.r. Srsw York aud Stlshvillc.. >Nib. 2HS pages. ('Loth. $b.50. ?'he h'nu>rlr&fe of Cod in I?tcrt-~rt I.umc1. I?y 1iol)ert C. Drutan. The Seabury I'rqhss, Sew \Fork. I!)tiS. 27.4 pagc.s. $i..?O. lino~r.irr.f~ 7'Ite I,ccr,c!f Cotl. l?g llarolcl I ~ - F h l l i l ~ s . 'L'he Wtlrnrr Press. -4nderso1i. I n t l i a ~ ~ a . l!)tiS. 12s I)iigcb\. l 'aprr. $1. r .). Philosophical hfoven~cnts n%d l'heologiccrl Trends. By J o h n F. Johnson. Concordia Serrlinary I'rintshop, Springfield, Illinois, 1968. 157 pages. Paper. $3.70. Wornf1n.s Mi.?.yinn To Humanit.zy. By WiIn~on IIeliry Sheldon. l 'he Christopher Pub- lishiuf Ilouse, Boston, Mass., 196H. 92 pages Cloth. $3.95. Luther's IVorPs: Lectures on Tatus, Philemon, and Hehrctcis. Vol. 29. Tr : Jaroslav Pelikan, Walter A. Hansen. Concordia I'uhlishing House, St. Louis, 1968. 266 pages. Cloth. $6.00. T'he I'luce CaElcd CaIrar?/. B y Marcus IA. Loane. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Itapids, 196s. IS!) pages. I'tipcr. I'ricc not glven. Repenl(tnc~c--The JO!J Filled Life. 1:y 31. Basilea Sclllink. Zondrrvan Publishing IIousc, (;rand Kapids, 1905. 63 pages. Paper . $1.50. J v r ~ m scic3)tce to l 'hcolog~. l i y Georges Crespy. Abiugdon Press, Nashville, 1968. Cloth. 174 pages. $4.00. C!llrcr?zetic.u and the Iatuge of Man. By IIarold E. Hat t . lb ingdon Press, Nashville. 196s. 304 pages. Cloth. 85-95. Eugene tnnesco and fldlcsrd .-tlhee: .I Critical E:ssal}. By X ~ l v i n Vos. Wrn. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Itapids, 1965. 48 pages. Paper. 85e. Philip Iiotk nlrd Bernard Yclamud: d Critical Essag. By Glenn Meeter. Wm. B. Eerdmans IDiiblishing Co., Grand Rapids, 1968. 45 pages. Paper. 85d. Par Lagerk~.ist: -1 Criticc~l Eskal~. B y Winston Weathers. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publish- i ng Co., Grand Hapids, 1968. 4'7 pages. Paper. BT,f. Willinm Styron: A Critical Essay. B y Robert II. Fossum. W1n. B. Eerdlnans Publish- ing Co., Grand Rapids, 1968. 48 pages. Paper. YBc. Un>nisked Man and the Imagination. By Ray L Har t . I-Ierder and IIerder , New York, 1'36s. 418 pages. Cloth. $9.50. Kapitene of the Costgo Stcamship Lapslry. By Arch C. McKinnon and Treusur-68 of Ilorkness. By Fannie W. AIcKinnon. The Chris topher Publisliing IIouse, Boston. 1968. 295 pages. Cloth. $4.35. Mentul Health Thr-ough Will-Training. B y Abraham A. Low, M.D. The Chris topher Publishing House, Boston, 1966. 393 pagcS. Cloth. $5.00. Books Received 3'he Will to Win: Faith in .Action in tire Lil:cs o j dthZete8. Dy James C. I l e f l e~ . Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1966. 106 pages. Cloth. $2.95. Welcome Home Gara. By William It. Bushong. The Christopher Publishing House, Boston, 1968. 557 pages. Cloth. $4.85. Comnau?licatio~t-~earnin~ for Ckurchmttl. R y y. F . Jackson, Jr., General Editor. Abingdon Press, Nashville, Tpnnessec, 1!)6S. .dl3 pages. Cloth. $5.95. God Reigns: Ezpository Studies in the Prophecg oj Isaiah. By James I&o Green. Broadman Press, Nashville, 1966. 178 pagcs. Cloth. $4.50. T h e Nunga iny Dark. By Frederick Ruechner. The SeaDury Press, New York, 1969. 125 pages. Cloth. $3.95. JustiPcation of the IJngodly. By Wilhelm nnntine. Concordia Publishing House, St. h u i s , 1968. 173 pages. Cloth. $535. E~IJer iencex i n communitp: Should Reliyiol's T,,ife Burtiive? Rg Gabriel Moran and Maria Harris. Herder and Herder, iiew L'ork, 19G6. 205 pages. Cloth. $4.95- rsaiah: .4 S t n d ~ , Guidr. Uy D. llnvid (;arland. Zoudervan Publishing Co.. G ~ u d Rapids, 196s. 11.3 ptages. Paper. !)st. K n o w i n g the T,irinn God . By Haro],l r,.--Phillips. The Warner Press, Anderson. Indiana, 1968. 126 pages. Paper. $l.r 2. T h e New American Reralution. Andrew J. nuehner, Fklitor. Lutheran Academy for Scholarship, St. Louis, 1968. 89 pages. Paper. y'he Church and the Visual Arts. Andrew J . Ruehner, Editor. T l ~ e Lutheran Academy for Scholarship, St. Louis, 19612. IS9 pnges. Paper. the H o l ~ nag8 and H01jdn.g~. Sermons and Sermon Ideas for Erery Day of the Year. By Herbert Lockyer. Zondervan Publishing Ilouse, Grand Waplds. 196s- 283 pages. Cloth. $4.95. Books Received A Short L i fe of C'hfiyt. B y Everett F. Ilarrisotl. Km. I3. Eerdrnans Pul)lishin,rr Company, Grand Rapids. 1~f j8 . 2 S i Daeps. Cloth. 65.95. . <. Jesus atad The Y'ce11:e. 1 % ~ Robert P. Jlege. Wnl. E. &rdmans Publishiug Company, Grand Rapids, 1969. 257 pages. Cloth. $4.95. Contmporary fllia?tg~lical 'I 'hotc~itt. Carl F. H. Ilcnry, editor. Baker Rook House. Grand Rapids, 1966. 320 naaes. Pal)er. 33.95. - .> -i Church Tru ly C'utkolic. By J;lnies K. XIi~thpws. .ibingdon Press, Sasbvillc, 1869. 160 pages. Paper. $2.43. The Saciour's 8er:nz h'taten~entx pq-on, The Gross. By Iiollrrt (;. Lee. Grand Zia~>ids, Zondcrvan Publishing Iloust., 191;8. 146 1)ngrs. C'lotl~. $2.30. The )'oundat~onx of Sock~l Order. cy iiousas John Rushdoony. Presbyterian a n d Ikfornied Publishing Con~ganp, l!)GS. '1:2 pages. Cloth. $4.75. Jc~us-l!u~rittn rind Dicivie. ~ { y 1-1. D. JIclIonald. B o n d c r v ; ~ ~ ~ ub l i sb i l l g House, (;rand Itapids, 3965. 144 pagrs. Cloth. $:3.:).3. Sourcc,booX- of IDoetr-y. Colllpiled I)y .\I Bryant. Z o n d ~ r r a n Publishing Ilc)lls(>, Grand Itapids, 196s. 767 pages. Cloth. $'3.!)>. T h o s e IVho L u r e Il im. By nas i l ra 11. Ychlink. %ondrrvan Prll)Iisliin:: Ilouae. (:rand Rapids, 1969. 96 pages. IBa[)er. 1;l.X). M a r k The E L unyel is t . E y Will 3 i a r ~ a r n . .\ l)i n~ .dc~u I 'rcss, Snzhville, 1 !W. 222 Pages. Cloth. $5.50. Is The C'-h'.A. in Prophcc!yt Ey S. Frankliu 1,ogsdon. Zondcrvan Publishing I I o u ~ e , Graud Iiayids, 196s. 6.4 gages. I?~';lper. $0.92. -4udimcr: C'riticism und 'I'he Historiccrl J t *......u.~. L;y J . . \ r thu t B;~ird. T l ~ r \\Tert~llillstcr Press, I'hiladelphia, 1969. 20s payea. Cloth. PI:.SO. How The World Il'ill End: Guide to s1trr.irc11. I:?. S:~lcrn Kirban. Salvnl K i r l~ :~n , Inc., Huntingdon Valley, Pa., I!)CS. 27s paytS*. I'npcsr. $1.!)5. Love Looks Deep. By W. Sorrnan I'ittrngcr. .I. Ii. Jlobray & Co., Ltd., London, lgti!). 101 pages. Palwr. ](I?; T,Clg. I r I h c Cht-istian B n c o u n t e r ~ Crime. i n .Irnericc13~ soc ic t !~ . By I:icl~:~rcl Gnudtc'n. Con- cordir-2 Publis l~ing House, St. 1.ouis. 1!)6!). 1x5 pages. L'ir11er. $1.2.2. The L ~ s f C'hr-i.yt .-I Lost J V O , . ~ ~ . ~y ~ ; o u d 811;i\v. Tlw Cllristophrr l 'u[~l ishing Ilousct. 1;oston. 1969. IS:! pages. Cloth. $3.95. T h e Lot l r r r Sou,-t:cbook. Icy Dr. Herbert I~>c)r>-<>r. %ondvrvnn 1'ul)lishitl~ l lousr . I Ino pagcba. c l o t 11. $4.95. Prolest nrbd I'olilicrs: Christioprit!, otrd C'utrtrrti/,c,t.u,.!, .-I J1,rir.v. I:?. Itol~crC i;. C ! O U S ~ e t al---editors. The . i t t i c Press. Grec~~)vc~~c,il. South Curolir~:~. 196s. 5 1 Ij;lKW. t.'lot11. $.>.!EI. A Putin!/ Il'hinyj H~nppmrcd on Y'hc Il'n!, to Jltrrr.r.tr. I.:!. l1i111 11:1rr11;1r1. \V;~r~lt'r Prc.s*, . \ ~ ~ d e r s o n , l r ~ ~ i i ; ~ n i ~ , I!II;!). 112 11:1g~s. ~ ' ; I~) I , I . . $1.75. Go, -1fitn <;o! ]q~bk Ilo~rsc, I : ~ ; I I I I ~ Itapid2;. I!)(;*. -- I a pages. Paper. $1.95. T h e Books of S a h u t n and Zephania. E y 'I'. Z1ilc.s I;i .n~v~tt. 1;:ikcr 1:octk I I ~ ~ L I s ~ . (;rtir~d Itnpids, 1968. 1l!J pages. I'a[~cr. $1 .!t5. N o d e m Wnr and 'I'he Clr,-istiat~. 1;). 1:alph I,. Jfo~hllcril~g. f\ugh!jt~rg l'ul~lisl1ing House, 3linncapolis. 1!)6!>. 94 pages. I'u11c.r. $2.5*1. li Victc- I ~ o m y'he pelt-. l (y Ilnn.ard I'aris . I ' I I+& 'iY:~rr!~br l 'r~.. ,~. \ r~l l r . rsr~l~, ~ r l f l i a 1 1 ~ ~ J'Jrj~4. Pages not uun>\,orc:d. I'a1t1.r. 61.111). Cir.il 1)i.sobcdic.rlc~ gplri 7'hc Chri.r.ti~ltr. 1;y I!;IIII( '~ 1;. S t < - ! i ( . k . T~IIC ~tsl1!l1lr~ r r l 3 5 ~ . J:)C;9. 23 1 &IY~I , .? . Clotb. f ,; !).-,. fje,~,-~~,~ of y7hp Jvovd. 1 ; ~ Karl 1iai1ur.r. lIc~r111 r : I I I I I l l ~ ~ r ~ l ~ ~ r , S6.w jerk, l ! b l ; ! j . IS0 11;lgt'S. Clotll. Oii.51!. Cjitlts kvl-0m 1 .liinistct-',v Z . I ~ ~ - I I ~ ) I . I:? l!'ill~ur 31. S I I I I ~ ~ I . I1)k II(GII.I-*, (;rr111d , 1 , 2 ; : I 1 $"!*A. up J . , ~ ( ; l ' o l t , , m . v r,,t I ; v L . , J ! - ~ J . ~ I . 1 I r ~ i l ! ! ~ I k \ I l i t T h e ~ L , : l ~ l ~ l r y lmr , t~5 . s p , ~ ycvrk. l!lf;!l 141; i>tig*,s, l .~ l f~ t l l . $:i.!+s. 7 T ~ l e ~ o ~ ~ - p { ~ ! , , ~ r , ~ . llrr~r. .\or to Kutc 1 uur- /.if,.. I?! 1.2lrl . luh: iy . %oudt.rvar~ I'ul)iish- , ; (1 { I ! ; : I . 1:,1 ;~iigd..s l ' l l ~ : l ! . s::.:1.-1. By Life or I{,, ~ ~ ~ ~ t h , J ~ ~ ~ ~ , . ~ C . IIr.!$. % o l ~ d i . r \ ~ ~ n I 'ul~i is l l in~ Ilousc, i ; rn ]~d l:al)jds. l!)!;:b. ?OX l):iqf.>. f,l!btil. s4.3:.