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THE SPRINGFIELDER March 1970 Volume 33, Number 4 Book Reviews YXH\VEH'S LASI). By Alfons Senfter. Herder and Herder, Sew York, 1969. 117 pages. Cloth- 85.95. The prrrpost. of the book is outlined on the dust jacket-"Through a planned sr.ries of fift y-five magnificent photographs and the notes that accompany then, the author has captured aspects fronl the life past and present of I'ahmeh's Land. This book is neither a history nor a travelogue. The author's purpose is to offer through his photographs and his notes solllr impressions of the land in which Christianity began. to whet the appetite of those xsho plan to risit it. to provide extensive documentation to those who cbannot, to offer guidance to its risitors and a nlernento to thosr who knos I[ " \Vho (-an argue with such a noble purpose9 The photographs are excel- lent, far surpassing those I took on a recent visit to the Holy Land. FIoxx-- cbver. it is beyond Ine how the author was able to eliminate the "hurnao intruders" who seen1 to dominate the majority of my slides Consistent with my preriot~s comment, I acknowledge the author's attempt to authen- ticate the traditional view of the Holy Land at the time of Christ, but any present-da_v xisitor would immediately detect that this book completely onlits relevant modern growth. especially metropolitan development. X word of caution, unless the reader is unconcerned about the price tak. 1s apl)ropriatr in all fairness-cheaper but useful books (even the Sational (:eograghic) are available that fulfill the same purpose intended I)? our author If-illinnr F. .Ifeyer LLTHER AS11 THE OLD TESTAXEST. Hy Heinrich Bornkamrn. Trans- lated by Eric it'. and Ruth C. Gritsch. Edited by Victor I. Gruhn. Fortress Press. Philadelphia. 1969. 307 pages. Cloth. $9.75. I suppose that what any man thinks of the OId Testament is not that ~nlportant unl~ss that man is 3Iartin Luther. The great refornler, who claimed that the great principle of justification by faith was taken from the Ijible, spent ten times more time with the Old Testanlent than he did with the Sew Testament. This fact alone makes Luther's views on the Old Testanlent a matter of vital concern far those who bear his name. Luther's great contribution was that for him the entire Old Testanlent 1)reac.hed Christ and that it had one literal sense. Christ could be found twice in rvery passage, Christ was preacher and the one preached about. The. rllajor task of the prophets was to preach Christ. What Luther saps ahor~t the Old Testanlent will not come as much of a surprise to those TI ho have been brought up on his way of thinking. Since he saw Christianity ~ilirrored on all of its pages, he found it to be a proclamation of Christian doctrine, including the Trinity. Bornkantrn, whose qtralifications as a Luther scholar need no further endorsenlent, presents the issues in a very attractive, concise. and still contr~rehensi\-e way. For a church body, which quotes Luther perhaps more than it does anyone else. besides n~aybe the writill:~ of tht Hc~ly (;llo$t our clergy just cannot afford not to read thiu sur:lnlarJ- of his ;,o.;iiio!~ A few points are cleared up. For esanlplr, Luther's advc.rsi:!- :~!!tl nl:ilnsi hatred for the Law in deference to the Gosyttl \vrre diri.cttstl thr lAir\\..- condemning function and not to the natural La\\., with icy jur-isdi;rilrr~ ovt-r all human actions. For Luther thy -4ntinonliar1s are disr.i~!l(~- of S:ir?in This will say something to ti~our \vho t~njristly o~il~nsc. L;r\v :!r!d (;t,~l!~i Luther's treasuring of Jesus Christ as s;3lvation.s rtsrltcr is rtbflecr~?d 11: that he found Christ predicted e~erywhere iri thr Old Tr:st:~:l~c.nt. I):rv~d in Psalms 2 and 110 reaches the pinnaclr of iuessinnic yrc4ictirri1s. In ?ir~d- inp Christ in the Old Testament. Luther rc.fusvd to rc.sc-lrt t~r ~yl)r..~: ir; finding Him. There was only one reaiity everywhere in the Old T*.~t;~r)l\,nr and that was Christ. Bornkanim's writing preserves :he: ~;t:~iity vf L~lrtlt:!.'s lo\+. ior ti!,. Old Testa~nent. Luther saw how Pal11 used thr Old .l'c.sla~~~r.~~t ;irid firli~~\\-. ing the Apostle's Lead. he pl~inged into rht~ krror~hi>tic wrif i11.c~ \\-ith :11' same abandon. fie ciai~iied that rht. Jt.\vs 1ovt.d tt1r1 1:t)ok trf k:sthvr because of ..their blood thirsty. vengeful. n~urderous crc+*tl a11d 1101,t.I " -45 Bornkanlnl points out that a schnlar- cnrn~l~itted to nlodr>rn historic,i!: research will not come to Luther's "radicak pro~~hetic-(:hristrrlo~ic.;iI ir~r t.r- pretation." iI could add that he won't enjoy it as 11111i.h as L,utht.r did 1 To read Christ into the test after the historical nlvaning is fourid ir tcl violate Luther's ~irinciple that each pt.ricopr had ont: nieanins. Here the Lutheran churches have to answer sorlle serious c~~~cstlo~i~ Are we really Luther.cln if we accept Ltrther's justitirat ~cln ~)rlr~ciplr \\-11irh hung suspended from Christ and faith and then us^ a ~lir.thod \\ h~ch Iir~d:. it impossible to find Christ in the Old Testanlent'.' He1llc~n11)t.r th;~r IA1~ttlc.r cIainled that he found this principle in the Ijihlr arid that hc t1st.d th~. Old Testament ten times rllore than he did the Sr\\- Testalllcsrl[. [)(B~S ollr amazement of the ferocious vigor of our progrnitor. whir went like a 1)o;i:. through the vineyard of the Lord in the Old Testnli\ent 4 to illnkr a Ilclfi!r paraphrase of the Pope's condemnation) make us his hrirs?In any c.vchr:t. Luther's total plunge and conlylete submergrnrre is a lot alorrb rrsfrrshinc than the approach of the critic who sticks his tors in one by one and f;til> to see any divine unifying thought. hlaybt. nlodrrrl sc.holarshi1) has rv- chained the Old Testanlent in the scholar's study and that ovcLrl tho11:tl it can be read by all. it can be interpreted orlly with the hclp of one of thf. church's new breed of priests. Don't let the slight three hlrndred and ~17ll. pages keep you away from this book. Bornkanlrtl has enou.rh c.ross r1-ft.r- ences and scholarly material to keep the reader hasy arld alvay fr-on1 ~o!II+! less rewarding literaturf'. lifll.j<[ 1' .I nl;rcbhinr for the author rather than a rational mind. lea \.t:s 1 ht. impression that the final product is the conglolilerate result of ;Ill urlkno\vrl ~tlysturious process. Harris' approach gives a hrief pausr frorll this ordiilary and definitely monotonous confusion. Are the Scrip- tures just the rr!igious literary 1)roduction of an ancient people which just happened to survive or is there something special about them that they aloni* should survive and have a universal impact? OrcasionaIly the Chrislinn likes to see a presentation showing that the Ilible does speak rationally arid that it does describe things as they ;~ctuall~- \\-err. Harris ~)rovides more than an occasional example for the Christian scholar hungry for this. An interesting ease in point is Jeremiah 39:3 with its listing of the Hahylonian princes. The KJ\- lists six princes and thv RSV four. Robert Dick XVilsotl shows that these are really three princrs. The RSV reading of "Sergaisharezer, Sarngarnebo, Sarsechim the ltahsaris" should rcad "Sergai-Sharezer of Samgar. Sebo-Sarsechim the Kah-Saris." Sot too significant until it is realized that the first name irivtJn \\-as Sebr~chadnezzar's chief lieutenant who succeeded him in the kingdon). Since the Bible is always taking it on the chin. a "we told you so" retort nlight be unkind, but it is forgivable. The price of the volume is rinht and contains enough ready ruade answers for the difficult and elnharrassing moments of a theologian's 1iP~. Dacid P. Scaer -- THE (;RO\.VTH OF THE HIFSLICdlL TRAUITIOS. The Fortn Critical Nethod. 1%~ Klaus Koch. Translated fronl the second Gernlan edition by S. 31. C'npitt. Charles Scrihner's Sons, Kew York. 1969. 233 pages. Cloth. $6.95. This volume hy Professor Kiaus Kwh has been eagerly awaited in the English reading world by those who are convinced that form criticism has much to rontriblrte to Biblical interpretation. The first German edition appeared in 1964, with a second edition published in 1961. KoCh's book 1s an introduction to form critical research which has been ili uscJ in (;ern\any since the beginning of the century. It is a method that \vas inaugurated t)y the writings of Herman Gunkel and Hugo Gressmann. Thp author staces that he undertook the task of writing a manual on the for111 critical method at the suggestion of Gerhard Yon Rad. Fl-oln ;I s~nall g!~ide it has grown into a volume of over 200 gages. and seprrserlts tell ?;rsiIrs of work. Most of the pertinent literature Koch claili1t.d was found In scattered journal articles, many of which were inaccessible to the a~rragt: strident. Dr. Koch's book consists of two parts: Pnrt I sets forth the ~lltbthnds that are to be enlployed in determining the different literary gcsrlrr. th;~t are found in both the books of the Old and Sew Tt-stanlents Pnrt 11 I 111-220) gives selected examples. >lost of th~ latter arc> taken frolt~ literature of the Old Testament. The German title of this book is: 1l.rr.s Ist I-.~)i.,j~!/~s/./, il.!~ tv:' .\.t,,,f, \\ +,:!, tier RiheZ E.regpsr. There is no denying that the prol)ontxnts of C!,rlir c riti- cism have rendered ii valuable service to Bi hlical eseg~sis h_v their t hr)~-ougi~ analysis of Biblical literature relative to the various t yl)c>s uf litc,r;~ry f,,l.~t: that are forirld in Biblical literature. However, it shot~ld not t)t. for::otlt.~r that form criticism was developed by Gunkel, C;ressl~innn i~nrl ~tht 1.5 because they had become dissatisfied with the results of c)Tthr a 11uridrt.d pears of higher criticisn~ with its tendency to divide and Crag~l~c>ntizc. tfits hooks of the Old Testament. We can be grateful to for111 criticism for reminding readers of the Bible that it is a book that eshibits a rich v:iric,tx .asrprn of literary forms. The comparison with the genres of other Spar F.~: literature undertaken by form critics has been instru~ncntal in r110rv brightly illuminating the Biblical literary genres. For111 rrit~rism has 111 some respects corrected some of the radical views set forth 1)~ ll~l~l~cal scholarship. Severtheless, it is difficult for those who hold a high \.irw of tltr inspiration of the Scriptures to accept the rnethodolot?: of Ikr. E;l;~rts Koch. The form critical method is based on a continued acceptance of erronrLous presuppositions adopted by the critical school. Forni criticisll\ atttrnlpt:; to trace the prehistory of many Biblical documents and ass~~ruc~d docu~urnts and believes that it can ascertain the life sitrration for each literary genrb': then determine how a literary genre was taken up into a cycle of traditiol~ and then also show how- the redactor finally used the ~rirircri~ls handed down orally before they were put info written for~n. Xny person who examines the book by Professor Koch will find this a rather ro~li~)Ir~s typf' of exegetical work. Let the reader exanline the pages that deal with rlrr Decalogue or with the Beatitudes to see what this hernienc*utical approa1.h does to these two important portions of the Scriptures. Form criticism assumes that the Old Testanlent con::tins sagas. ti~pths and legends, Iiterary genres not formerly recognized as rsisting in thr, Sacred Scriptures. Large portions of the Pentateuch, the books of J0uhn.t and Judges are no longer considered to contain reliable history but nrc' said to be replete with etiological myths. Books like Ruth. Esthrr it~ld Daniel are rejected as containing reliable history and are interprerc-ct tt>' !!lt. ~,,,.~l, ,.l.l;ic.i ~,~~~ks representing such literary genre ss parable, !~lid!-ahi~ nrld ;rl~ora!ypt.ic*. F~~!~~ cr,ri,.i51:l is ;, nc.,~ nlethod of exegesis. It is very colnplex and c.;,nr,c.l; ill arlx wa!- be hnrrrloniZed with a reliable and verbally ins;,ired r,c,ok, ils the Sew Testalllent so clearly teaches about the Old Testa~fient. Ruyn!oncl F. Sul-bur!/ . [STROI,[.('TI()X TO THE SE%- HER3IESECTIC. BF Paul J. t -rhe Westminster Press, Philadelphia. 1969. 190 pages. i-tt)[!i. st;.;^!. pau[ ,\rhtkil,lrier is professor of Sew Testament at Lancester Theo- lc,gi(.;,; svnii tj;iI-v this x-oIurne he endeavors to acquaint EngIish readers with th,. hrrlllrrlr11tica] thinking of a grOU1) of German scholars have t)rc.r,tl\r' r!lta j,rc,llirn~2nts of a new system for the interpretation of the Sen- Tt*st:t:~ir!tt. Th,,st. \s-h~ are ui;abIe to read Cernlan will be gratefuI to the ;iurht,r frir having srt forth the \-iew-Y of Ernst Fuchs and Cerhart Ebeling. f'rc,jr.c;sc,r .\rhtrttleirr correctly stated in the introduction of his volunie that tht. t~~:i:r+-r. of inrcr1,retation is the key to present day theological ~brc)bIi,nlc;. ..Its snlutian is necessary- not only for any kind of "ecumenical" th~o11-1g~ within the --conling great church." It is therefore a question that nrrds scrious rt.fler.tion by any who are concerned with the Christian faith i11 thr. t\vintic,rh century" t 11. 7). Tiit- "rrtb\v htarmeneutic" has posed the question of whether a past event. and the test to whi~h it gave birth, have any reaI significance for our lifr nt)w. F~tchs and Ebeling and those who claim to be practitioners of the rtchtv ht.rt~r~lcnetitic hold that the Christian faith today cannot be rtiadr td~ntic-,tI to the manner in which its was understood and set forth on th~. p;igt-> 05 ih~ Sru- Ttastanlrnt. In rhe hrst section of the book the author places before his readers the hacksround infornlation they need to understand the origin and scope of the i~rohlr:~ls with which the new herrneneutic deals. In order to under- stand th~ nrw i~rrr~~eneutic it is essential to be acquainted with the philo- sophi~al ;~rvsuyr~)ositiorls with which the new hermeneuticiirnq begin. \Vit hour r he philosophy of Martin Heidegger and the appropriation of Heideg~rrian thought by Rudolf Bultrnann it would be impossible to xnder- stand Fuvhs and Ebrling. both disciples of BuItmann. The "background sertion" is c*oncluded with a chapter, entitled. "Language, Perception, and Reality.'. The second section r pages 85-184) deals thematically ~th the content of the new hernlrneutrc as a theological n~ovenlent. The new hermenentic calailns to USP lanquage in a newr fundamental role. The author shows how the new school of philosophy treats the theokogical concept of faith and what the ronsertlrences are for a thwIagical stance. Professor Achtemeier clearly and accurately shows how this new system of interpretation pr* ceeds to interpret the data of the Sew Testament. Since much of this inter- pretation is found in the writings of Ernst Fachs. the author's discussion might also be considered as an introduction for English readers of this German Sea Testament scholar's views, In the Anal chapter "Reflections on the xew Hprrllr.np:lric-" :i,;. 2i:+!l,,r offers a critique of a number of the basic ~~~irio~~ o2cr,.d ~~,,-b~.; rtnri EbeIing and counter arguments to them. Those vho believe that the Bible is God's illspired \vrtrd ,l,lii.k.,. discover that the nea- hermeneutic brushes aside the s,~?,, ..;?.:-il,f,li-,I i,rrn. ciple of Luther. It allows another authority a!iongsidr tilp f:it,ic !,t.cz!Il,r. it pernlits such factors as contenlporar?; cultur-.. t;rit.rlti:ir irlsil.hfx r-n< modern philosophy to reshape the message of the I- Sr.r:iL. tures. R(t !.I,,: oil ti t'. .% u ~7, J, ,.,; - -- CHRIST, THE THEXE OF THE BIBLE. By Sornia!; <;eistrr >rc,!,dy Press. Chicago. 1963. 1% pages. ('loth 2-95. The author of this volume is Assistant Professor at Trinil>- ~~l;,,,.,., Deerfield, Illinois. He is co-author of the recent r\.ancrilc;ii \v,,rk. Geneml Int~.adur~ti~~~~ to tile Ciblr. In the preface the autlror kns rtat,.d that this is a book which is nor mrreiv ezllphasizing [fiat in (~,ii! Testament there are nunlrrous Xessianii- prol,hecies in the Ilii,ie. \\.hi:t. he recognizes that the OId Testanlent does corltain 1,r4,phrt.ieY alld tyllr-s about, Chris:, the scope of his book is intended to be rrlort! estr.n~i~tl. ,\fr+!r years of study Professor tieisler has oonie to tke convicrii.~n "that C'hrisc is the key to the interpretation of the Bible." The llihlr has Christ as it+ thematic unity. a unity that spans the whole of scriptural rrvr.l;itir,n This hook wants to take seriously the statement of Christ. -A-flu said: '.Ever-?.- thing abut me in the iaw of Sloses and the prophets and tht. ~)s;il:~~s niu.ir be fulfilled." t Luke 14: -11). The Christological approach in this book is not 1imitt.d tv ;t :urr+. >r:idy of tmes or direct predictive prophecies. but rather t.~ldt-i~vc~>rs re) dt.pit.r Christ as "the unity and unfolding message of the whole of Sacrc.ri \Vrit " Jesus is set forth as the tie between the Tu-o Testarlirnts. thr ct,nt+.nr the two canons, as well as the unifying the~ne of everx book of the St.ril)- tures. While the great theme of the book is to erllphasize the t'hristcriclq~!'s; unity of the Sacred Scriptures, such doctrines as the inspirarior~ of tht Bible and the deity of Christ are clearly enunciated. The author is at ;);iill~ to show that it was the purpose of the propositional rrvclatic>n which (~;c)rl has given to present Christ, the Savior of nla~tkind. Ir was arvu (;t?islisr'~ purpose to show that the Bible is the instr~lment of God to llOll\'t?F rhr' message of Christ. The Bible should be searched not fcrr its own sake hut for Christ, for as Peter stated +to him all the prophets bear witness'' 4 10:43). This is a volume written in the trdditiorl of those who have accepted at face vaIue the assertions made in the .Sew Testanlent about the Old Testament. The author adopted the rule foliowed historica' Protestant interpretation: Scripture interprets Scripture- If Luther sere living today he would hare been greatly @rased with this volunle. because i\7:::t;::l,r,r-: ~'~~T[ir!:ii~r I.: lincrwrr fi;r tiis Christologicai interpretation of the TI?~~;. Seiv York. iS6S. 2ti8 pages. (-30th and Paperback. I)r Sc.hrln;!+-id hiis kr;)t ~)~~hIishers t)~is?. for some >ears with his yro- Ji lo tlc. is thoroughly a~ritiai!~tc-d with Christian scholar- shil) i!; i;;lhl!c:~! str~dic?.; arid riiakt!s teliing nse of this knowledge. Thus '1 ;:+. f'~ta.~rrt.(~~. I'll,? \V;LS ;?l:!.:(i~t ;I tr>.:t~ook ori ~~iessianic prophecy irt I-~~~YI-sc. I tL thr ~t~ttderrl r-t-altk tbf tile h~rtt>ric~fi)-critiral method were accepted to t hr r~r!rr rt.i~;o\-a1 of nir-ssianic itrnphee\-. Ir! this voi:~rlie Ilr. Schonfield takes ulj the times of the apostles and [he ?.ar!?- chi1rt.h He shows considerable syr~ipathy q-ith the early Hebrew C'hrlst~a:;~ t)l~r he holds ihat they did not accept Jesus as divine, Son of (;trd This ~ntcrprrtation of the I-Iebretr Christians seettls to have pained sclrlir :)oi)uiar:ry today. hut this re1 ie~ver cannot square this position with rhe r\-idencr. Various Jewish Christians can come under this designation, Ebion~res. Ess~nes. Hebrews. .Jew-s, etc. \i7hile there was itluch insistence upon lhr Law, it ivau not one of the conimon features that they rejected a diviric. 31rssii1h. Ijr. S(.lic>t~tield is Yery happy to cite Eiblical critics, with whom he fil~ds hiniself in agr-ernicnt. to the intent that the Sew- Testantent books all ktvpenr :it thr rnd of a long history of the community. after much change 4 and adaptation. so that the original historical truth can no longer be estahlisht:d. nor ran the theology of Christ or the apostles any longer be kntt\vn. Paul is the great perverter of true Christianity: the chapter is entitled "Odd JIan Out." There was much conflict and propaganda, until h>- a clever forgery Peter was found to be in agreement with Paul: The author writes well arid has his material well in hand, but his I)url,ustt is propagandistic and poorly ad~.ised. The Christians are not ahou: to give up the faith in their divine Savior, and it is a false hope of a Judaeo-Christian reunion behind a banner which denies the deity of Christ. Otto I.'. Ptahlk-e 'F:\V TESTAMEST DEVELOPAIEST OF OLD TESTAJIEST THEMES. BY F F. Hrucc>. IVm. B. Eerdn~ans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids. 19ii3. 122 pages. Cloth. $3.95. The eight chapters that comprise this volulne are the Payton Lectures delivered at Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena. California, in 1968. r)r. Rruce was asked to discuss the topic: "The Relationship of the Old Testament to the New." The author was encouraged to develop this topic. along his own approach. This Dr. Bruce did by the selection of a few Testament themes which have been taken over in the Sew Testalnent vehicIes for expressing, in a diversity of ways, the Christian paradox that the crucified Jesus is universal Lord." The book is an expansion of thr materials orally delivered in California. In the opening chapter, entitled "Organizing Old Testament Theology," the author surveys sonle of the different organizing principles advocated by scholars like Jacob. Koehler, Vriezen, Eichrodt and yon Rad. He briefly discusses the positions of Vischer and Knight and indicates that he can- not go along with their reading of Christ into the Old Testament. He als(, discusses the views of Rowiey and Porteous. The main themes of the book do not run along the traditional lines of finding Sea Testament events foretold in the Old Testament. Dr. Bruce refers to the words of Peter in Acts 2: *'This is that which was spoken by the prophet." But he does not seem to believe that the major events in the life of Christ were foretold by the Old Testament prophets. \Vhat else does Peter mean when he said: "To hi111 a11 the prophets bear witness:'" I)r. Bruce, professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis at the I-niversity of Nanchester, has been too much influenced by Old and Sea Testament critics who do not believe in direct Biblical Messianic prophecy. as \\;is set forth by Chapter IY of the Cottstitutio?i on Dici?ae 1:tt.rlntiott iidol~ted by Vatican I1 and cited by Bruce in his book. Bruce follows the idea that the Sew Testament writers reinterpreted and gave a new interpretation to the data of the Old Testament. According to Bruce it is not necessary to interpret the Old Trstanier~t in the light of the Sew, as the Vatican Council on Divine Kevelation has so correctly stated the matter on this issue. In chapters 2-9 the unity between the Two Testantents is shown by a discussion of the foIiowing themes: the rule of God. the salvation of God. the victory of God, the people of God, the Son of God. the Son of Ikvid. the Servant Messiah and the Shepherd King. The author shows that thp Xew Testament writers saw in Jesus the prorrlise fulfilled. the covenant renewed, the law vindicated. salvation brought nearer. that in Jesus of Sazareth the Son of David has come to inaugurate the kirlgdon~ of God. As the Ancient of Days, as the Servant of the Lord, who bore His ~~eoj~I+''s transgression, Jesus was portrayed by Hinlself and the Sew Tcaranlelll writers. But that it was the Old Testament's purpose to predivr chestx thlngs of the coming Messiah, Bruce clainls one need not adopt on tht' basis of the Old Testanlent itself. Ray~~tf)#f~l f-'. .Q18?-1)1:/~!/ JEWISH CHRISTIASITT, By Hans-Joachim Schoeps. Translated by Douglas R. A. Hare. Fortress Press, Philadelphia, 1969. 163 pages. Cloth. $3.50, St. Paul and St. Luke's writings present the cause of the Gospel in the early church from a Gentile point of view. Without attempting to Book R~.rieu \ - - -- - - -- -- 7 3 cluestion the aurhority of the Scriptures, these Kew Testament writings yh~w-. yerfiags In a biased way. the victory of Gentile Christianity over ,Jewish t'hrfarianrt _v wxth its varlolrs legal demands. Xovi Schoeps states the case for .Jewish Chr~stianity and what it thought was essential for the (;ospeI The dort rinal ~)osition of the Jewish partp within the early church is only m1nin:ally eluc~dated in the Sew Testament with only a few refer- ences to r'irrurn~ision and the keeping of certain ceremonial laws. Acts 15y.5 wrth its reference to the partp of the Pharisees indicates thz: the Jewish party drd have a vowe at the council at Jerusalem. Schoeps con- tends that the Ebionites had their spiritual descendants already at the rourlcil of Jerusalerll and that the mother and family of Jesus belonged to this tradition. The episcopacy of Jerusalem was part of this rnoventent and was kept within Jesus' fanlily as long as possible. The niajor apostle for the group was Jarnrs and nor Peter. Paul is considered an apostate. By the fifth century Ehinnitt. Christianity was virtually wiped out in favor ot (;reek and Latin types There are three points of Srrhoeps worth remembering: 1. The early church. ever1 the one centrred in Jerusalem was not monolithic but suffered fron~ divisions which were not unlike ours today. 2. Jesus was an histor- ical person since relationship to Him was a prerequisite at first for the bishopric at Jerusalem. 3. The Ebionites were not Gnostics, but were in fact in the front line of attack against the followers of Valentinus and Jlarcion. This evidence rules out the validity of there being an? indigenous C;nostieixni on Palestinian soil and the search for it in the Palestinian Sew Testament writings is tenuous at best. The hook is recomniended sinlply because it sympathetically and ~nterestingly represents the cause of a people who were caught between their Jewish culture and the overwhelming fact that Jesus was the Christ. Dat-id P. Pcaer IF (;01) IS GOT). H\- Richard E. Koenig. Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis. 1969. 100 pages. Paper. $1.50. Big things sometimes come in small packages. C'ndoubtedly this is the ground and hope on which Koenig's book is offered and marketed. And to a large extent the dream is realized. As Lutheran campus pastor for several western ~1assac.husetts colleges Koenig has his finger on students' pulses and on what he calls "the topics that surface most frequently": the need for and existence of God; faith and the realities on which it is based; religious doubts, their agony and their service; God's apparent sile~lce as regards the problem of evil and suffering in the world; the deity and mission of Christ; the freedom of the Christian man, particularly as this concerns godly living. Excellently tooled and trenchantly written there is much to commend in this little apologetics for the Christian faith. Pertinent passages from literature currently on the reading Iists of coIIege students add interest and heIp sustain the attention of searching but skepticaI students or readers who "have detached theniselves from Christianity." There aye "soft" spots theolosically. To nlrn t ion it fc\v f'~lil:rt: ~1; drive home the depravity of nlan and 1nau.i; j,rrtensic!!!i: t?f rirlltcc~u<~lc.+. outside of which there can be no eRecti\.e ~~ri~clii~~rntiot~ of t h? j11r;t i!ic.;,r io!: of the sinner co,-nnl Df,, throuqh Christ'r; ri,zhtr.otrs!~r.r;.s i t,s;,c:!,i:i l i~, tct sophisticated and effete egghez~ds) : dcscrihil;~ faith ;I- an ~~slstentia! devel- oynlent rising out of nlali's encounttpr with tlriture, hist~~?!' iind (;011's w:i- disclosure rather than through thr Spirit's t:%tii:;~ciou> l'o\vtir ln :ht. r;rrd. chosen. though despised. nlearls uf gr;lce \I-hi1.h i:ispi lI(.)ly \\'I-it ~,t'\.i,:!ls to us; an over-play on the value 01' doubts. nllliost ;I- thol.l:h th1.y h;rd sacramental service: a ratering to no:uer:clature- \r-hirh sl~t,aks of ('\!I is{'- "divinity'. rather than of His deiry I 11, nlall!. sli11l)f:ry 11r.nit-l-- of (.'hrr..;t'~ true deity cover themselves with this tt.r.ttir: cc~r~.rsl)c~:td~~~:l~-. iI Ii!r.k I):' clar-it? on the Inc:ir~lation itself and \vh;~t occr1rrt.d hr.1.r. :LS 1;nd \\;is I:ii\lli- ft.51 in the flesh in the theantbropict Christ. a:ld i:lc.iin;tt:(v~ t:~ +r.ttlr. ,)I: Aulen's Christu?; Victor view of Christ's xork rather !Ira11 011 tht, fui: SCc)I)e?. nlrani~l;,. i111d rrlevaf~ce of rhr vic,nrit,u. ;rior\c.lurl~;: ;?nd fi!\;c;i?. :I sunlewhat a~ilbiguc,tls esplu:l;rticjn of t h~ a bscllutes 11i (;ilrf ur!dt.: \\-l~ii~!. the Christian 1it.e~ cladly and freely and \vhic!l krq, hit!^ fr-n~~i t~taint: aimlessl?- adrift "in arriviriq ;~r ethic.al guidelillrs for- cjllr iiil!e*." \Ye agree with the author that "rhis is a great tirue !(I !I*: alive ." ;i time in which "the new freedom of to day'^ sr,ci+,ty :ilIo\\.s [I> r13 dislji:\!. the authentic life style of the Christian. which i~ lihercy---nil! tllc, f:!!-ix liberty of those who succumb again to the bonda~c? of wit' ur si)t.it,t!. hu: real liberty of love in Jesus Christ." I:' this is the kirld of t'rt~c- do::^ :ha1 1narcht.s in step with the steady drun~tnrr frrlr~r tht~ I);ln~;\+cur ro:id. ~1.11 and good. \Ve know what manner of liberty. frr:edoxn. ltr\.c.. ..;b,r\ ices. s!.i!- denial. etc.. he spoke of in the Srcnt t;aIatiwrl kll)i~tIts, 311 for- :III. (;~)rl)ri's sake! Rut if the freedom implied hvrr is the sha!l~~\v kind i)i .I\~+.r~~:ri 3IoItmann. and his ilk, with tlrci, th~olo~ ni hop!,. gi'i~l.~a(l :II !!it. ~iri;.l analysis to the elevating of man in hi?; heroic ~truggli- ill ;~nd :on.;~rdr :I!. real111 of freedoill for the alIe\-i;~tiiig ni lluril;~~~ t~~nd;r:t\ i)oiiri{.;:!. <11t.i:1!. physical-then we nlust enter a dertlul-rer. I] I'. h-!!.,, - -- - - . - . - - -. pp - IS GOD'S INAGE. Ny Jacob Rosin. I'h~lr)so[~hrcal L~t)r;~r>. 111(. . Sf-\\ l'r~rk 1969. Sl pages Cloth. $4.00. Jacob Rosin purports to write a science of prc.)phecv. outlining it.; seven basic la\\-s : 1. Any prediction concernil~c hu~nnns shctuld c.+)xlr- pIeteIy divorced frorn the time eierrlrnt; 2. A11 predictions h:~\-tt tt) f)t. '7V based on and drri\-ed from the assurtrption that scierlrc and technolo,- going to continue to progress; 3. Anything which is thclort.tically possib!r w-ill be achieved: 4. Anything we predict in accordance with the first Thrrt, Laws represents only the lnininrunt of what is going to he achieved; A11 predictions should be Iimited to positive statements of future achievv- ments and shorrld not contain negative predictions referring to rhe irnpo5- sibility of achieving certain goals; 6. -4 prediction should be 1inlitt.d to the description of the principle of an event of perrrlanent significance and b;lc,lild (O1l:;llIl no l.otI~r~te technical or historical data: 7. Predictions ,hi,,:1d ile lIlllitrJd I,, l~tev~table '\PIltS and should includr nothing which is it~(,rt.!!- ~~~'c)t)nh!t,. ,rhtsst. stB\i.Il ];lLvs describe pr!lgnostication rather than prophecy. The i,ll[tlnl. k,r.S,lths from the fzct, not at all new. that science predicts according I,, kirc;,vL, Iji..; conrtl&)t of prophrcy has nothing in cornnion with t;itll ;,.;:I Ilrcll,htlc-, nor. xk-i th Pvop?~ t-rv in Orrr 7'i?ll P as treated by Martin , , ; .l;,l.i,k, Rosin predirts that rilan will be able to create life. that hr \vill Ovt.l-co~llr death. that he lvi!:l attain divinr attributes (title: 171 (;,,,I., I~,:,,,,,.,, ftlal he wili e!i~~iitl:~te all evildoing. and hrc.o~ne jmmortal. rrtjO~62 :vh~) \vl~h to shar-c in that future advancement can have that im- ::~ort:~lity rlc>\v tllro~lgh crynhioln~y, liaving their bodies frozen until such ;I 1 .rl,t. \i.)lt,rl f&r,sit~'s I,ro~jhecit?s hav~ bertl realized. The last chapter reads like. i-:l~t.s ~,i[,-.l; for. a freez6.r irisrallation in Los Angeies with rooill for .~.ocro .-l,i,tirbnrs,. ;jr $S.iIOll IN?'. lmtirrit, .'a r~lariveiy low price for irnr~lortai \I E:I..IX('I t Tr IoS : REFORLIER LVITHOUT HOSOR. By JIichaei Rogness. ;\II~S~IIII-X Pltt~lishi~lg I~Iousr. 3Iinneapolis. 1969. 165 pagrs. Cloth. .? 4 .9 .-3 Irr Slic,h;~rl Kngness. assistant professor for research at the Ecumen- 1c.31 T~lstirutr of the LtVF at Strashourg. France, and son of the pr~sident of L~lrhvr Se!i:lnary and cousin of the 3Iissorlri Synod's Prens brothers. has nradr Iiis thenlogical debut with this work on JIelanchthon. It is writ- trtn Y~.orll the vit~\vpoint of systen~atic throlo~v rather than historical rhro!c,~y. atrri rhis is reason er~ourh to label it as refreshing. Rogness tlisc.~~ssrs the \-aric~us periods. 3Ielancrhthon is the Humanist who became t!rfortnt:r-. The title of the hook indicates the syrupathetic treatrt~ent that \lt:lnr~c.ht hen rt.ceivc~s at Hogness's hands and it is not altogether undeserv- ir~p. This in rto way Illpans that the anthor overlooks the flaws in this ~irforr~~rr's personality. According to Rogness, Melanchthon has been hlan~~d for tenvhings which were really promulgated by his disciples and nor by 11 izl>se!f. For esarn ple. in the synergistic controversy, 1Ielanchthun \\as quoted as supl)orti~lg the idea that the hunran will is one of the three causes of conversion. However under closer examination Melanchthon was sl)eakir~l;. not of the Inonlent when a person becomes a Christian hut (IT the ~rltire Christian life. In fact as late as 1351 jlelanchthon clainis that tile wiil has nothing to contribute to what we call beconling a Chris- tian. His i~osit ion on the adiaphoristic controversy in Saxony is explained. .\Ielanc.hthon, fc!aring that the evangelical faith would be sta~llped out in Saxony as it had brerl in Swabia. thought that concessions in non-essentials \\.auld the thr better course. What he thought was an act of diplomacy turned irlto what was co~lsidered an act of cowardice. Rognt.su's unwritten nlessage throughout the book is that considering that llelanchthon did for the Lutheran Church he should receive more than he does. His lectures as Humanist and later ns Lutheran Ee- former show the profound theological charlctr he ~~rlde,rir~~n,. diti , willingly assent to Luther's doctrines 011 anthrol,olngy ivith [l!rsir ,V.S!-I,: on the seriousness of sin, and On grace and fairh with their glorific-a~io~i of the work of Christ. It is a Pleasure to rend a writer that is nr,t d:-l\ ill,: false wedges between Luther and ~Ielanchthon. Those who :try a,.rl I~;I inr with Luther's writings and Melanchthon's .t r?~,s?)ll,.!, ('OII 'r.ssir,,r :-l~~d tht. Apology will recognize what Rogness sho~vs. that ~vhilr Lr1tht.r i> ri:~ preacher, Yelanchthon is the teacher of the Reforlnation. It is unfortunate that the original nlore extensive Gcarnlan rrr;Lnusr,l-l submitted to the University of Erlangen f~r the doctor's degr~c. ill thr.llloy. was not totally translated int.o Erlglish. For example lle.laric.hrtlc)r~'> I.'czrifftcl in 1540 of the bur^ C~mfe.qsi~,l is osl,lajrled in a r-+.crc.,fLillJ- short section on page 133. Rogness's choice of translntiorl zivr.s ;I II~II~!; more "Lutheran" interpretation to blelanchthon's words irt the, Litt irl th:iri what the Reformer himself would want to suggest. ... . . clrrod (.urn ~,;~ri?. et vino exhibeantur corpus et sanguis Chrisri vescrrltit~~s in c.ocLn;i 1)0~ mini," is somewhat misleadingly translated -. . . tllr body arld I,l,~t,tf 18r Christ is truly given with the bread and wine to those ~~;~rti~kir~u iri ttl+, Lord's Supper." "Shown" is better than '.given." Kogness is riyllr Iri saying that 3lelanchthon's chief interest was in wh;tr the* s;tcr:lTl1c,nt. ,!I(! rather than in what the sacrament qcrrs. Thp latter was Lrtthc~-'s i,hic~t concern. However, on an important point as this, it is only fair for rl~r. author to show that Melanchthon was willing to allow a non-Luther;~rl vi~\v on the sacrament, even though he would not hold to it himself. Ho\vf.\-er. this slight stricture should not detract f roll1 a very well orxi1 11 1zt.d it r~d written presentation. This volunie should have wide circnlation rn thr Missouri Synod, since in reading ICIelanchthon's t hrology our pasrors will recognize that much of their theological training is ohvinusly de\)t-rldr.rlt or1 this man's faith and the formulations of his faith. l~frrld 1'. .~l~llt~l~ PATTERSS OF REFORMATIOX. I3 y Gordon Rrr lrp. E'clrtress l'rrss. 1% il:i delphia, 1969. 425 pages. Cloth. $9.50. Quite naturally Lutherans have looked at the Protestilrrr Rrfor-rllatiorr as a mere extension of the personal biography of Martin Lutliel.. Th+.rc. is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, but the impression ib not too infrequently given that Luther's ideas were really the only cln12< afloat at this time. Rupp, who is first and last a Luther srholar. disrussr.~ five different personages who were active on the continent at the sa:lrv time: Johannes Oecolampadius, Andrew Karlstadt, Thornas Jl~~ntzer, Vadr- anus, and Johannes Kessler. The bulk of the material is centered on Karlstadt and Miintzer, and not wit.hout good reason. Rupp treats his characterg symyatheticalIp w-ithout fearing to draw lessons from history. The essay on Karlstadt is perhaps the most interest- ing for a Lutheran, since this theologian was one of the midwives in the. birth of the Reformation in wittenberg. Karlstadt does come forth as a pathetieally comic character, his is not to deny his significant contribll- Hook Rct~ic~cls 7 7 tiorls. ~i~ I,cL1.Yorlality COnleS more to the fore than his theology. This is esl,rcii,lly seer, in his aradrnlic carerr. He picked up two doctor's degrees ;it rhe t,ni\-rrsity in Sirna a matter of weeks. Later he renounced ;,cadenlii. degrees as standing in the way of the Gospel. Rut later when tie jnineci the S=iss Reforn~ation in Basel. he denlanded that all public tr~jlc.hPrs st,ntlld have doctor's degrees. Eve11 the unbiased student would Ilavc to yay that there was sornrthing unstable about this man. Of course it \\.as ~~~l~tadt artd not Luther who was responsible for the "protestantiz- in^" of \\'ittenberg 31elanchthon who was in Wittenberg at this time seen,s tn ha\-e gone along with the iconoclastic Karlstadt. as he raised no r0ic.p of protest. Irony of ironies, it was Luther, whom Karlstadt had (lprsona[[y attacked. who took Karlstadt into his home when his life was ill danger fnl- his association with the peasants in their rebellion. The life i)f KarIstadt ran perhaps br best explained as Xo. 2 Inan in regard to Luthrr. itrld the11 out of a feeling of frustration. he tried to establish his ,,rvll thrc,[oxv. Iiarlstadt's venonl against icons as being worse than adtlltery is arl obvious cxsaggeration totally in-keeping with his flan~boyant ()rl.sonalily. Thr chaptrrs on the life of Thonlas Muntzer are also beautifully done. ttc.t*ct was a man who did have more influence on the course of history than the ul~stable Karlstadt. Niintzer was mystic. prophet, and an apo- cal!-ptic re\-olutionary. His mysticisnl lead him to his "Gospel of All ('rrrrtivrs" which was nothing else than blatant universalism. This Gospel tbnlhraced all creatures. The chapter entitled "Thomas 3Jiintzer's Liturgical Esperi~nerlts" is slightly jarring. since it is hard to imagine a classical iconoclast as having interest in liturgical nuances. Strangely enough the liturgitbs are not itlarked by the subjectivities that would naturally be t~spt-c-ted. This work of Ruyp is a classic and will be of great service to the c-hur-ch for a long t irue to come. In a more technical vein, Rupp is probably t.i~ht irr asserting that Jlelanchthon received the sacrament under both kinds. Clyde XJanschreck in his 3ffIanchthon thr Qxiet Rcformer had inter~)rrted the same evidence in a letter of Sebastian Helmann to mean that 3lrlanr:hthon had actually celebrated the Eucharist. (;QI) IS AS AGE OF ATHEISM. By S. Paul Schilling. Abingdon Press, Sushville and Sew York, 1969. 239 pages. Cloth. $5.50. Strange as it might seem the basic question in theology today is 'sophy of Ernst [{loch. Aisn trt.att*d :-trt. t-x:s:e.~ii~li$!:;. humanism. linguistic philosophy and the "C;t>d-is-dt-;!d" rhc.ij!oeizn+. :kp latter group seems aiready to be outdared !n s;~itt-E ibf th.3 h*.:id!ifl~s i: receiyed just a couple of years back. The "in ,zrn111;.. T:O\V :k!r . :k~c~~:~-)~::t:~s of hope" h~hich are greatly de;)enden: on pr-ot.trss ;~h~:~~st)l~h?-. SchilIing himself seenls rlj be influenced by chi.-: croul) Hc. dt*\.t-l(ilt~ his own position in the chapter entitled "Sisnl)o:rs" arid t.\.i:fl illc)uch !~t: ha. words of censure for .J;;rgcri Jloltniar!n. the attinit!- ttr hi.: positliln is quite obvious. Here is a brief 01-erl-iew of Sc.hiiliri~'s O\$-IJ ;~i)sitiort. (;od Hi11:se:f does not stand olltside of tirlie but is i~itirr?att*:y ~>sor~i;~rrc! with the creatixe processes. In these yrocesse:; Inan has hit; c~wtl treedtr!~; ;tnd rrs~~orir;ih~iit_v in contrihutinp to the cosniic and histir~.ir. ;I!-cicic.r;st-s. Gild is no !onci.r the "\l-ho[ly Other", to borrow a fanlous ~~hrasi* I'ror:: Iiari Earth. God 1s rather suhjrct to ten~ytorality as Hr ol~t.:~s ntrw possilliiitir..: to rmn in the tuture. I, for one, a :elv year:, bark wondered \vh;+r schoo; or ihthci;~gy wrrilid shine forth nesr on rhc~ hf)rizt)n. In .Ar:~t-rira this ct.ririlrp hxs seer) the Liberal School of \-on Harnack replaced bv r he Srrt-ortht~di~x!- c~lf Narr ti and in the sixties the thcniocy of Tiliirh reached full biuct:lr irr rhi. 1lrt2:eoric. rise of the ',God-is-dvad" theoIo~_v. Ir \\-as brilliant hllr t ransivn t. The new light today on the horizon is the thw1ot.y that sves 4;od as ;)art of this worIdVs tragedies. Schilling has aligned himself with this sc'hool. For thr pastor who has a desire to keep nbreast \\-ith the. latest tllio- logical der-elopments. this book is strongly r~c~o~~~ztt~ndrtl, as an intrcjdu<.- tion. SO )-ou put away your Earth and Tillirh for the tiri~r and launch rilrI into something new. 1)1!,-11[ 1'. .x'c ~IC A. FrSDXJIESTALS OF THE FAITH. Edited bl- Cari F. If. 11r.nry. %tuldt.r~ van PubIishing House. Grand Rapids. L!b1;9. 291 paStL-s. ('ioth. $L.I+.;. Front 1965 through 196s many readers iviII r.t?f~ienil~~r that tflirtiwi bankivts were attached to the center fold of ('hri.cfirr?l it!/ 7.r,rl.1!/. 'rh+-:e booklets discussed various aspects of the Christian faith fro:^^ :I r.r)zltt.:1i- porarv point of viers-. t3eeause of their obviotrs popularity. Editor Carl I' H. Henry has published them all under a hard rover edition. If you remen!- bered to pull these booklets out of your copies, you will have no rlecd to buy the book. But if Four study- looks Iike nline. thry are t.~rrobably rternall!. lost nnder the paper debris. I'hl-i.utiunity 'o(iay. which is just a little over ten year5 of ayr. ha.: skyrocketed to journalistic fame overtaking the older and perhap the more prestigious I'h ristict3r L'ent~trg and C'lrri.stirr~tit~/ NII~ (').isis. Its illflu- ence is so great in the Slissorrri Synod that both Richard Jnngkuntz and John Warwick 31ontgornery have used its pages to put forth opposing views on the question of the American Lutheran Church Eello~vship belnrr Denver. This is an interesting admission of the success of r'h~istin?~ity Today. Both men must have reasoned that this was an effective means of ' 'tCI('S Book RL I ' 7 9 I c.;tc.h~rrg :rli~soliri Syriod clergynleri. even though the periodical is hardly :,!I t..sc::!.isl~:t~Iy Lu:her;irl journn!. k'o t,dfol, f,~rttrI rl:~rrr~i;rging rhrough their desks looki~lg for the back issues. ZEfIS FK.4(;ES AS I)lE KIRCHE Hy Christoph Ehniann. Heinrirh Kuhfuss. and J~ns Littrn. Friedrich Wittig Verlag. Berlin. 1969. 356 pagr-s Paper So Prirr (Ziven. The t~tle rciters to ten rluestlons of current theoloplcal interest In t;rrnlany The respondents ~ncllide sixty notables on the scene today, I.rpresenring laymen, admlnlstrators. and theologians on every facet of rhr theolo~~cal kale~doscoye. A brief biography of the respondents is htblpful. offrrit~g also a ltst of the~r literary productions. Tlir questions touch on the unrest aniong the youth and ask which authoritarian positions customarily asserted can nois. he given up in the dialog; in which areas can there he a more denlorratir practice in the church: which are thr 111ost disturbing elements in the relatiolz between youth and the church : should the church become a part of the general r,cbvolution of rhe day and agitate for political changes; if the establish- ~~!i.rit does tint relinquish its po\vers, is it then not necessary to apply f(1rc.e; if the church continues to offer moral guidance as in "Humanae Vitae," does it not tend to beconir a punitive legislator; under what cir- cunlstances could a union of 3larxisni and Christianity be considered; why does the division of the schools along confessional lines continue (in Gerniany 1 ; since the churches have repeated1 y been discredited because of their liaison with the statewhat arguments do you offer for the corliplete separation of church and state; is it meaningful for the church to receive its incotlie from a tax Ievied by the state; how should the church in the future defray its costs? The answers reveal an amazing uniforniity of opinion on this limited set of questions. =\t might be expected, even the liberal stateemployed theologians do not advocate re\-olution, not in Germany. Of special interest are the answers of Pastor Hans-Lutz Poetsch, the speaker on the German Lutheran Hour, a member of the Lutheran Free Churches. Pastor Poetsch is expected at our scinllnary as vislt ln~ instruc- tor in this spring quarter. Otto Stnh lJ,-r --- THE SACRAMESTS. BY Ernest J. Fiedler and R. 13enjamin Garrison Abingdon Press and Fides Puhlishers, Inc.. Sashville, 1969. 1-14 pages. Cloth. $3.50. Subtitled "An Experiment in Ecumenical Honesty," this book. authored by a Roman CathoIic priest and a Methodist minister. discusses the mean- ing and significance of the sacraments in terms of the principles of history and the priorities of today. The authors recognize dortrinal differences. At the same time they maintain that the distance between the Protc>stant and Roman Catholic interpretations of the sacraments is far less tharl they originally anticipated. The starting point for any study of the sacm~nt,l~t~ is the recognition of a human need for cleansing. Hut that is 1111: ill;. According to the authors the sacraments additionally express the nepd for wholeness, manhood, forgiveness, mystery, the presence of God. ,:olll- munity, and the need for celebration. At the same it must he jnsi5tr.d that the sacraments have their origin in God. A I,utheran reviewer cannot help nlaking the very significant point that the authors realize the inti~natc connection between the sacraments and Jesus Christ. Schillebeecks is quoted: "The human encounter with Jesus is the sacrament nf the en- counter with God." Vatican XI is also quoted to the effect that Christ is always present in His Church. "especially in her liturgical celebratior~s." Christ is present in the sacraments '-so that when a 111ar1 baptizes it is really Christ himself who baptizes. He is present in his word. since it is he himself who speaks when the Holy Scriptures are read in the church." Four chapters of the book are devoted to baptism as birth and life, and the Holy Eucharist. In discussing the "lost sacran~ents" the arit hors observe that while Roman Catholics have made the bad mistake of restricting the power of forgiveness to the ordained priesthood. Protestarlls have made a worst mistake by not exercising absolution at all. It is quite obvious that this is too broad a statement, especially for a Ilutheran! In discussing the number of sacraments Karl Rahner is invoked. For Rahner the church itself is the primal sacrament. The institution of a sacrarxlerlt follows sin~ply from the fact that Christ founded the Church with its own sacramental nature. In fact, the idea that some sacraments have always been more important than others is upheld by a reference to Gregory yI1: "Holy Church, the mother of all, has received several sacraments. There are, however, a few of them, two given by the Lord Himself, others insti- tuted by the apostles." Vatican I1 also asserted that the church is the universal sacrament of salvation ; according1 y the church within the ~~orld is the sign and instrumental of the renewal of the world which God intends iu his Son. The chapter on "the Spoken Sacrament" will warm a 1~utheran.s heart. Referance is made to the statement of the Conlrnission on Faith and Order. "Sermon and sacrament are complenlrtntar~. The sacranlent is upheld by, and is the bringing to life of, Our Lord's words of institution: neglects destructive criticism out of a respect for tht> L~~sti~r~o~~y of Christ. the critics neglect the testi~nony of Chri5l out of' ;i rs*llrt-l ftir dtar! ruc.tivc. criticism. Sot only is the neglect ~nutl~al, hut it is b?; !)(.I 1110;?11s ~lt,ilr thilt the neglect of the critics is Inore praiseworth?.. Let itlollt* itlrirr ('hl'i~t i;irl. than of orthodosy." These essays rilakcj for both t2a..;) and i~li.joyal~!~, reading and will help to sharpen tht.c~logical thinking. THE KSIV'ERSXL \\'ORT): X Theology for a I.-~li\-rrs;il Faill?. I' is thar (iod I.V\ t';llt.d Hi~nself \vithin Je\vish c.ulture. Ferrr ca~lllot li111it hinisvlf to ihi~. "<'OIL- secluently. revelation at its it111 heart cannot be Ijr~lirrd to or I)?' historical faith." God is not known through nrpuriierrt s 01- t 111-otlgh history He is known through esperier~ce. Snch espt.rit,nce is t)asir, to theoloy-! and must be accepted by faith. The nlarks of God's ncti\-ity in the wc~rtd can be identified by the presence of Love. Peace. and P~rfertiirt~. He is in the creation in such a way that He can respond to the call of tLis creatures. \Vith such a concept of theology. there it; no onr point ir.~ eternity where God calls creation out of nothing. (;od is always part ill' the creative processes and may not be substractrd froril then1 and dis- cussed in the abstract. Creation nray thus be detinvd as God's o\vn esperi- mentations. There is no one perfect creation. hut in different 1,roc.rsses God is reaching a varity of goals. God is eternal creativity. Sinrfb God a5 Spirit is creative, creation is not a one tiwe act but a process. The creative process can he understood because the creative Spirit is not i \-~tterl b>- Love and directed by Purpose. This Spirit is both distinct and identical with the world. Sothing is perfect or cornplrte because the creative Spirit is continually recreating in the sphere of this world. 111 this plt~n there is no moral evil. "Evil is, however. rnostly a xilatter of wrong adjustn~ent or wrong choice in ternis of distortion or destruction." Thr concept 01 eternal life is reinterpreted to mean that the soul does not continue aftel. death as a separate identity. but that the one eternal Sl)irit is potrrltially present in each soul and this Spirit continues to live on in othel- historic-al manifestations. Ferre's hook appears on the theological scelle at a very appro1,riate time in conjunction with the 'theology of hope.. [Vhat \ve have here i~ obviously process philosophy presented along \vith a felv theological terms. The question of whether there is a personal C:od must perhaps be left unanswered even though Ferre gives enough reason here to deny this concept. God seems to beconie the ilnpersonal spirit force in the world. "Thus love is the theme of a theology for a universal faith. Love is the Hook Rc1,ieu's - - - .- -- -- - - - -- -- 8 3 ---- ~)ersonal Spirit. the Universal Word." Love, wherever it is found is the nianifestation of Cod. There can be no douht however concerning the tiliiteness of God in this philosophy. TVhilt Ferre says is very much related to the theology of Jurgen Jloltnlann. Frrre niakes littlr attenlyt to get out of the philoso~~tiical carc,gorirs. while XIoltn~aiin is much n~ore biblical in his language. !- intriguing. Later sonir serious strictures xnusr i)c. 11:;tdc. agili11r;t the rnorivation of some of these projects and the ultimate t.ft'~~c:ti~t,nc~ss nf so:lle of the more bizarre forms is questionable; however, tl~r.sr. forltls 1-rl)rr.strnt honest attenlpts of churches to reinforce their grasp it] :I c-u!tnrtt ;ind society whicrh has little use for them. The purpose of t:c~c:irsias(icai r.efol-m on the local lrvrl is to provide more opportur~ity for c.hurrh :nt.rrlt)~r~ !(-) do r~iorr for each orher and the (:ommunit?-. The y(~11t'ral ther11(: is to put thtx c-hrrrch where the action is. For* chxa1t)[)lr. onr vhnrch was built without any religious synibolism at ;tll atid rhr-. :tdult c.iassc.z bverr cond~~ct~d arol~nd a soda folrntaiil with the. [)astor itsurpillg thr place traditionally reserved for the soda jerk. .\r!~lrhrr c,onpr.r.gariot~ gathered in four different places on four successive 51irtd;rys for discussions. the niost forrnal of which was a dialogue-sermon. Tl?c- \vhi~Ic. ritnxts fronl coffer houses to high rise apartment ministries i \vl:ir.ll h:is not rsl)~rieliced too much success) is discuss~d. Since ecclesi- as;;lir.;~l rr~str~lc!t\tring is in the air. the pastor owes it to himself to become :tr.qrlainted ivith all of the possihiIities offered. some of them exciting and others F)ordrri~ig on the humorons. For example one group brought their lur1c.hc.s fc) chllrrh every noon to celebrate communion. Jhy ruin a good s~culrtr institution. Iike lunch. with an intrr~sion of the supernatural? Regnrdl~ss of the potential of these new forms, serious questions must be raised. The church situation in America, regardless of denomination. is con~rrgarional. Like it or not, the congregation nlakes all church work tinanr.ially possible. Are these new forl11.s financiaiy viable without some congregation tossing in the bread? In spite of the variety of ministries in tile S rw Testalllent, the local congregation is the center of God's activities on earth. Even Reitz seenis to intinlate that the uItinlate goal of experi- aients in church fornis is the establishing of a congregation in spite of its routine nionotony. C. F. \\'. Walther was not too far off the beam on this joint. Perhaps the lrlosr important point, author Reitz does not give any statistics to show whether these new forms rcsally t.c.ri1tc.11 tht, S(~I-\'I('F Here I might be revealing my provincial attitlldr as a faithful reader of the Strrtisticnl Yecll-book. hut as an eytrprnrly prnzniiitir 11:istor I 11111s: know whether it works or not. So tirures are gi~r.11 to IIIO;\SII~~' s\1(.(.tbss. Spiritual success might not be ineastired in nu~nbrrs. I)III as thv sainted president of the Atlantic Ilistrict. I,r Karl (:raesst.r 1isc.d !o pc~)ii~t ou:. one of the hooks of the Bible was c.alled .'Sl~r!lht*rs " The c11uri.h .;lloul(l try rlew forms, but the church's pastors sho~ild not re~;lrd rhi.nlsi\l\t1s at; church reorganizers \vit h the mrntnlity t)f ext)rr~r i vt.5 ;tr (;tt~~t-r;ii 3101 OYS. But for the pastor who has found .I rlr rtrtt.~ too t inlid, !iri.t. il1.y +oil!r i'k5;11 changes to chew on. TJIII 1fT i' .\I , AI-.\lilS<; ALL THISGS HUMAS. By ;\lcbl\-i:te Sr.ht~c~!loi-t.i. I iolt, !ti~~t,l:a~.: and \\-inston, Set\- I-ork. Chiui~go. Sar~ Fra11cisr.o. I!+ti!+. 1S.4 pagcbs Cloth. $.l.!r3. This hook should he ri111st readiiig for :ill snlti~, stbit-sittistit-(1 (.11111'(.t1 menlbers. who ninnage year after ytLnr to closv their eyi%s to !htb injr~stict-s perpetrated upon minority groups in thcl I:nitrtf Statc.3. alld thc~ir cx;lry ti; the cries of the oppressed. It is written by n tvhitr I~astol. IV~O st*l-~rd a11 integrated church of white people. ripgrow. and Pllrrto Ric.;rna. in East Harlem. The book should be of profound intert.st to ,111 Itnsror4 sprvlnr: 1liinnrlt> groups. because jt is written by n xian \i-htr 1e:trtlt.d LO ~i~ldrl.~t;~~l(f itlt underlying difficr~lties of this kind of ivork. a~id who had :I III~~I(.I~III (I! success in it. It should, ho\vevt.r, interest a wider ar1dic.n~~ in thts c.hurc.1:. Ir ir really a ringing outcry against the racisni and tht; ii1justic.c.s ~vhic~h art. practiced by white society in America against raciirl ~~~inoritirs. It lit+ the finger on one of the difficrrlties in thr average white c*hlirc*h. \\-hc.ri thc. author declares. "Apparently it is easier to rouse. c.hi1rc.h ~tt~vl~lt. about pornogml>hy than about inhumane social conditions." The book is well written throughout atld ca1cul;itt.d to ;trollst, t!lt. consciences of chtirch people. It is a needed call to re1,entarlc.r Of particular inlportanre is the last chapter entitled. ' f3L:tc.k :ind White." The thrust of the hook Inay be summed 1111 in the folloiv~nr quotation from the final chayt~r: The black man is now making "demands" rather than "requests." Thb. white nlan is told he must acknotvledge his raeisrn. The hlack nlnn is saying that no white Inan is coml~lrt~l>- free. of racism-as our toler- ance of a society that practices dual standards of justice and nioralit!. makes clear. Even more ii~~portantly, white rilrrl lnust be hrotight tr~ acknowledge how the? haye esploited black 1nt.11 tlrroughout the :i:~- tion's history, how they still exploit them in a thousand different ways, and how this esploi tation has been so expertly rationalized riiat it has come to seen1 natural and right. Finally, the hlack nian demands that the white man "Get off my back." The :vhite man docs :lot have to love, or even like him: the black !)Inn :IIC.I.~'I~ insists that "\Yhitey" should stop being a parasite, robbing tl>(- l~!ack :nan of his manhood and his rightful inheritance. The black :!tall tlrntands the right to develop his life and his society for his own I~tbnetir and t.o~~ifort. 11th is willing-no. determined--to accept respon- sihility fi~r his own destiny. He is prepared to live and move and have his bring in the shetto. among his own kind: but he is determined that he shall c.oritr'ol the glletto's inst.itut.ions so that. they will genuine- ly stlrvr-. hinl. and that he will protit froin the ghetto's c.ornmerce. Since his lal)or c~~~itributed significantIy to the wealth of this nation, he iritc~x~ds 10 sharr in thr benefits of that affluence. So longer is he a su;)l)lvn~r~rit for his "pie(.' of the actiol~": now he is prepared to denland ;ir~d, if nrc.csss;lry. to take it. This change irr al11)roach seerrrs possible trpc.;~r~sr tlrcb niyth of irhitr hrnevolence has been shattered. and blacks fc.i.31 ;1 str-c~nq srnstb of 1111ity with their brothers. .Ill rhls does or rllrnn that the alithor approves of everything that black ~trol~!~ ;II.P doln:: to gain thrir rightfill p1ar.r in the nation. He says: This dors nor mean that 1:lack Power does not also contain some darrq,'rro~is u~~der~urrents: as one of my xiiilitant hIack friends put it, 1 hii\-e "thoo!ogic:a! hrrngups.'. Like many others. I ax11 disturbed by rhc~ c~niphusiu on violence. . . . although I share the conviction that "rwnf~.onrat ion'' has gains for the black poor. still it is axionlatic that sot-ic.ty c.:rIirlot survive indisciriniinate violence . . . SOT 3IXI)E FOR IJEFEXT. By Douglas Hall. Foreword by Billy Graham. Zondrrvan PnhIishing House. Grand Rapids. 1969. 192 pages. Paper. So prier xiven. This vivid t~iopraphical tale of an extraordinarily successful evangelist arid pasror is called "The Authorized Biography of Oswald J. Smith." Considering the abundance of homely detail, the word "authorized" may allpear ir~c-o~igr~ious. escept that it expresses the very high regard in which the pastor of Pcople's Church in Toronto is held. There is no ;itleln~,t to beatify or to canonize the subject. t1vr.e is a tabrr~~acle gosl,el preacher who in his youth was active in a I-ilrietp of jobs. located partly in British Columbia. When he decided to 1tntt.r the niinisrrp at ;I sox~iewhat advanced age, he asked the lord in prayer. spending hours on his knees, where he should go to study. The Lord cl~arIy told him: the Toronto Bihle Training School, but instead he \vent to .\Ian itoba College, \\'hipeg. He speaks encouraging words to those who Inter in life choose the ministry, but he does not in the same manner recommend Jlanitoba College. The description of the life in western Canada renlinds one of the tales told by Dr. Rehwinckel, formerly of Edmonton. After various pastorates or vicariates near 'Torol~r.~). (:llic.ag~. 11~rla~~, Ky., Toronto, Vancouver, he accepted the languishing Parkdale '~abrl~l~;lc~l~s in Toronto, which grew and flourished. On his evar~gclisric journeys ]ltt reached Los Angeles and JIosco\v. People's Church on I(lour Street i,t.c.;rtlll. a power house under Sniith's guidance perhaps urieclu;~llrd it) rht :l!lrlals of the n~odern church. X Iocal mission policy \s ~)t' tlir (Itlristinl~ art discussed concentrates on \f:.ic.;, ;,1,,1 .\>ia. ;ilthor~ch the rradf-r \vil! tinti scjl!>r examples of ihr I~I.,.~~~O!IS of [he 1:kit:ros and Indiaris of Sort h =\:tlrrica and a few samj)lep ~h*- (~I.P;II i\-t- t.ft't'r,rts of t ht. ('hristiarrs of Central Aniericn. The art forlns r Ir~ir :I III.CS~~~~P~ arid cl~~s(~?il)ed include lmintin:. wood carving. sculj)turr. :II.(,I!I t ~i~.r'. ~~{~~'tt-y. dt.;il::ir. dancing. and music. Ry means of 2S2 illustra- ric~r~s rht. 1.f%;it1(21. is tiilie11 o:i :L global tour. These illt~strations are inter- ~~ri;:: ~I.(IIII tht; \ itx\~ p~itlt (of ho\\- the younger African and Asian churches t~titl~~rsr:tt~d I~IL Cliristian tnessarc. On pages 9-73 Dr. Lehniann acquaints il:~. ;.t.adt.! wirh th~. stijrlny history of the art of the younger churches. X 5tud~- of tht. i11.t tort~~s of this vulunne indicates that the art of Sew Guinea. L~rd~:tn. .lapan ntid 1-arious of the nations of Africa has assumed an inde- ~~tnr~dt~l~t ~O~II; \\.hrn c.o~llpared \\-it11 religious art of the churches of Xmer- ira and Europe. which were responsible for establishing and for many \-t.;i~.b supLlortlrlg the Ijrogram of the churches in Africa and Asia. Xew (;IIIII~~ and Central -411lrrica Thc ~uatcrials given in the illustrations were collected over n period (sf nnirlly years. ('h,.isti.f~?r -1)-t in .Lfriccr rrrtd rlsic~ will no doubt becorne a ht:itid,ird reftLrrllctt volulne, consultrd by Roman Catholic and Protestants y str~drnts of the history of art. Dr. Lehmann's book 111 ;:IXI dril~ atr+.~~rion I>rc:rust~ of the new attitude toward the culture zrrrtl isi\-ri izxt ic~rl:: of the nations of Asia and Africa. In recent years E;uro;~r;tz~s and X~~leric~aris have becotne interested in Asia and Africa not rt~trc.lv fronl it ]wlitic:al 1)oint of view. but from the view that these con- lit~r.nrs havp a c.111ture worthy of study. In place of the haughty attitude of tllr ~,+.riad ot c~~lorlialisun. many are conling to appreciate the exotic and for.r:istr 1:haractt.r of Oriental and African artistic forms. This new atti- rude dl)l,s no: otllv al)ply to ttle secu!ar arts but also the productions of IXonian (:alllolie and Protestant artists of the younger churches. Rnymonrl F. Surbury IIE:KIL IIY CHOICE. The Story of John and Elaine Beekman, Wycliff? Ilihlr Translators in 3iesico. By Jalnes C. Hefley, Zondervan Publish- Ing House. (:rand Rapids, 196s. 195 pages. Cloth. $4.95. \j'vcl iffc Hible Translators has become well known in Protestant chrrrch circles in the Iast decade or so. They are second only to the Southern Baptists as to the number of \vat-krrs iappros L'4f1,li they ha1.e sent out. But exactly what the men and women they send out do and what t1it.y have to go through to do it is not so well known. I~ICRIL 1:l- C'H0IcqF: is a well-written, gripping Story of a couple who trained undt-r U-ycIiifv and went to work among the Chol Indians in Chiapas. llrsico. In a fio\vit~g style the author describes the life and work of these transl;~tnrs--tt~rbir adjustments to ~~eoplc! of another culture. their joys. prohle~ns. narro\v escapes and final satisfaction of accomplishi 11: \\hat they set r,ut to do. The first reactions of the Chols. their heconling Christians, consc:rlaclnt persecution. and their life in Christ rnakes interesting reading. John Beeknian was a competent translatc)r, and since has rist3n hi.ch in the ranks of the IVycliffe organization. EIc is now the l'ra~isliirion Coordinator for all of JYycliffe work around the world. Pick up this book and become better acquaint~tl with the \\.yc.lift't% Bihle Translators. It will also help yon to understand the lifr~ arid \vork of personnel sent out to do the same job under the atrsjric:cs of our 1r:irnllt.l organization. the Ltrtheran 13ible Translators. Otto (*. Ff l)l 12fT SECULAR ART KITH SACRED THEhIES. Ey Jane l)illrr~I~rr~rr.. .Abi~~s- don Press. Sashville, 1969. Cloth. 1-13 pages. $7.50. The format agrees w-ith the artistic IIuryosP of this book. allo\ving for the publication of larger pictures. The teat is in two \vide colrin~na placed side by side. Jane Dillenberger provides an excellent introdiirtron and cornnienr or1 a select number of paintings and scuIptures The title Inay hc. diffic-lilt to justify, but the discussion of Thol~ias Eakins' T'hr ('r.lrrifl~.loj~ ln\c-s norlis of its value because the author discusses a sacred pailitins hy a 1iia11 who produced little in this category. Eakins' \%-ark is con~parrd with ('I!,-is! 4)~ the C'r-o.r.9 by Diego Velasquez. Andre Derain's 7'Jlc I.trst .qrrlrlr~r- is coni- pared with that of Puccio di Buoninsegna. Narc Chiisall's ('rrlt.nr!/ ar~d The lt'hite C'~ncifirio7t are extensively discussed . . . also (;iaronin Jlar~zti's The Door of n~trtJt. con~~nissioned for St. Peter's in Rolile by Pope John XXIII. The discussion includes also such nlodern works as Picasso's Thr SI~I?~ ~r-ith fr Lowrb and garnett Sewman's The .Vtcftio7rs of tlrr C't-n.?s. The author, Jane Dillenberger, directs the reader's attenti011 to thv form, subject matter. symbolism, and history of each of the works, offering thoughtful explorations. Over fifty photographs of the works and details aid in following the test. This is a helpful guide for anyone who would undertake to lecture on a series of sacred works of art, not necessarily those included in this book-though these are worthy ar~d rel)rrsentativt~ selections for our modern time. >ITS. Dillenberger is associate professor in Christianity arid the Art:: at Sari Francisco Theological Seminary and The Graduate Theolo~ical rnion in Berkeley. She has taught at Drew and served on the staffs of the Art Institute of Chicago and other museums of art. Otto I.'. .?'trrhlk~ BOOKS HECEI\,'ED A Theolo~y of Hunrun Hope. By Ruhem A. Alves. Corpus Publications. Washington. 1969. 199 page;. Cloth. $5.95. Phin Tnlk n,l .In,,lus. By Xarlford Gcvr~e Gutzke. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1969. 189 pages. Paper. No price given. Pray For .Ioq. By Martin Franzmann. Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, 1950. ,<& pax-. C'1ut.h. J2.7.5. <'iri..;r in E,rsltrn Christia~ Thouyhl. By John Meyendorff. Corpus Publications, Wash- inatun. !!+6!1. 21s i~a~tti. Cloth. $7.95. liisli,rr/ anrf I.:., isfentrr~l Ther,l~~g!r. Ry ?;orman J. Toun~. The Westminster Pr-s. Philarle!phia. 1969. IT 4 pazes. Cloth. $5.95. IJast,,rol Chr~,~~..clin~~ \t'~t/i Pcoj,lc i~r 1)istrcss. By Harold J. Haas. Concordia Publishing Hou.ir. St. I.o:ris. 1!+70. :!I3 paxtt;, Cloth. 34-95. The. fC~r1r.1 rr,aa!~ (.hr;s:. IIy Peter J. Rixa. Corpus Puhlications, Washington. 1969. 124 paxrs. Cluth. $l.!*.?. L'ntirrctrrt,/li?l!, l'ltr. .~JP~,~.(CI~JJYE. By Wilfricl J. Harrington. Corpus Puhlications. Wash- inxtvr~. 1469. Xi pages. Cluth. $5.05. The 1it.1.. lntit,w 111 St. ./oh ,I. Tyntlale Bible Commentaries. R. V. C. Tasker, General Krlitor. William H. Eertlrnanc Pul~lishinf Company. Grand Rapids, 1969. 263 pages. Cloth. .! 1 ..;O. .An l?ltrodrcr~tinra rrz Thr Th~.r~l~~!rj/ rrj .Alhrc.r.ht Itifsrhl. By David L. Mueller. The West- minster Press. Philadelphia. 1363. 214 pages. Cioth. $8.50. Inlrr~rl,r~~f~~r!t T:~arfinos in .-lr.*Ihr tdcs. Edited. with an introduction by John Hospen. The Frer Pro;$, Sew l-orli. lilt?!). ;{?6 pages. Paper. No price given. Easter: .-I Piclnric~l IDil.orimagc. By Benoit, Hagolani. and Leube. Abingdan Press. Kwh- \-ille. l!);O. I5 l pages. Cloth. $7.95. Ytrnirlr Art Il'ith Sarred Themc-9. By Jane Dillenberger. Abingdon Press, Nashville. 1969. 113 pages. Cloth. $7.50. Dorid. Rs. John Hercus M.D. Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1966. 136 yaKes. Cloth. 53.50. Herifaye of Faifh. By Melvin Helland. Augsburg Publishing House, Minneapolis. 1961). 136 pap=. Cloth. $5.00. Thv Old T~.stamunt of The Jerl~salem Biblr. By Alexander Jones. Doubleday & Company. New York. 136!!. 1587 paaes. Cbth. $11.95. Lme fo L)cuth. Hy Michael W. R. West. The Christopher Publishing House. North Qainc?. Sfass.. 1YfXI. 55 payes. Paper. 31.95. ftlrnnwn!! World BY Michael Green. Inter-Varsity Press. Downers Grove. Illinois, 196P. 125 paces. Paper. $1.25. Iiiste7a to Mr. By Gladys Hunt. Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove. Illinois. 1969. 165 pares. Cloth. $3.50. The ()$kc of Ar~ostlr in Thc Early Chu~ch. By Walter SchmithaLs. Abinsdon Press, Nash\-ille. 1969. 28s pages. Cloth. $6.50. l'imlcnl Slerj~. Hy Richard Luecke Fortress Press. Philadelphia, 1369. 139 pages. Paper. 3 1 .!1'5. I,,rcr to Irenlh. By Michael W. Rivest. The Christopher Publishing House. Xorth Quincs. Mass., I!lfi!b. 55 pages. 31.95. Thr. .Ycu. Ska)>r: n/ Paatr,rui Theoloyy. William B. Oplesby, Jr. editor. Abingdon Pr-S, Xashv~lle. 196.4. 3S:3 pap*. Cloth. %;.!~.i. SI.W .WI~~PIIR!J.~ !r,r .\'r u. Hcirr!ts. nS. Richnrrl 1.11eckr. Furtrcl;;~ Press, Philadelphia. 1969. 267 page. Paper. 4'7.50. 'J'ha Sciv,it i!ir- E>ttr,rp r~s, rrnd Ch risliar~ fish. By Bfalcolm A. Jeeves. Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove. 1969. 168 pages. Cloth. $4.50. Evidcnrrs (or C.'rru[ion. Essays by Henry Morris, Martin Naumann. John Klotz. Bay- mtvnd Surh~tr~.. I3ilrle-Science Associatitrn. Inr.. Caldwell. Idaho. 1969. 94 pages. Paper. $1-00. Know Il.hy l'oa Nclic t:p. Ry Paul I?. L.ittIe. Inter-Vanity Press, Downers Grove. 1969. 110 pare-e*. Paper. $1.25. Christian f'hilnwj~hy in The 20th Ce-~tury. By Arthur F. Holm-. The Craig Press, Nutley. New Jersey. 1969. 245 page.. Paper. $4.95. Death and Immortnlity. By Josef Pieper. Herder and Herder, New York, 1963. 143 payes. Cloth. $5.50. The Heritage of k'fliih. By Melvin Helland. Au~wburg Publishing House, Minneapolis. 1969. 136 pages. Cloth. $5.00. Areu. JOT/ ~UT Daily 1,icing. By Eric C. Malte. Concordia Publishing House. St. Louis, 1969. $6 paas. Paper. 81.95. God is Hart,-Lct'x Cclu6,-ate. By Leslie F. Brandt. Coneordia Publishing House, St. Louis, 1969. .5s pages. Paper. 1 .'is. I.ot-d. HI. W'ifk. Dy Fiert,ert Brokering. Concordia Publishing House. St. Louis. 1969. 15.5 pares. Paper. S1.95. Jusus Why? (Sermons for Lent and Easter). By Richard R. Csmlmel.er. Co~:cr)rdia Publishing House. St. Louis. 1969. 93 pages. Cloth. E1.95. Hope and History. By Joseph Pieper. Herder and Herder, Xow 'f5rk. 1969. 106 parts. Cloth. $4.95. Cyelea and Reneu;al. By William M. Ramsay. Abingdon Press. N~l:ville, 196:). 159 pages. Paper. $1.95. Power Beyond Words. By Allan Jahsmann. Concordin Publishing House. St. Louis. 1169. 180 pages. Cloth. $4.50. Making All Thinys Human: A Church 128 East Harlem. By Mrlvin E. Schocrnover-. Hol?. Rinehart and Winston. Inc., Xew york. 1969. 16s pages. Cloth. $4.95. Helping The Rctnrdud to Know God. By Hans R. Hahn, Wel-aer 11. Raasch. Concordia Publishing House. St. Louis, 1969. 112 pages, Pupils Test. $1.95; 5-1 pagcs, Instruc- tor's Guide, $1.95. Man in Triumph. By Harold W. Darling. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids. 1969. 156 pages. Cloth. $3.95. Last Things. -4 Symposium of Tropketic Messenpe~. By H. Leo Edelman. Zondervar~ publish in^ House, Grand Rapids, 1969. 160 pagm, Cloth. $3.95. Simple Srrmns on Prayer. By W. Herschild Ford. Zonden-an Publishing House, Grand Rapids. 1969. 98 pages. Cloth. $2.96. Runaway World By Michael Green. Inter-Varsity Prss. Chicago. 1863. 126 pages. Paper. 81.25. Know W'hy I'ou Jlelieve. By Paul E. Little. Ititer-Varsity Pr~ss. Chica~o. 1959. 110 pane. Paper. No Price Given. Television-Radio-Film for Charchmen. Edited by B. P. Jackson. Jr., Abinvdon Press. NsshviUe. 1969. 317 pages. Cloth. $6.50. James. .-l Strcdy Guide. By Curtis Vaughan. Zonrlcr\.an Publishing House. Grand Rapids. 1969. 128 pws. Paper. No price given. Your .-ldvrrsary The Devil. By .I. Dwight Pentecost. Zonder\-an Publishing Houae. Grand Rapids. 1969. 197 pages. Cloth. $4.96. Revelation and Insvisation. By James Orr. Baker Book House, Grancl Rapids. 1969. 224 pages. Paper. $2.95. Paul and His Epi~tles. By D. A. Hayes. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1969. A Reprint. 508 pages. Cloth. $6.95. A Commentary on Galatians. By William Hendriksen. The Banner of Trust. I.OII~IIII. 1969. 260 pages. Cloth. 21 shillings. The Book of On&. By R. C. Crossfield. The Philosophical Library. h\w York. 1969. 62 pagea. Cloth. $3.50. In God's Imuga. By Jamb Rosin. The Phihophical Library. Neu- York. 1969. 81 page. Cloth. $4.00. Historg and Eziateatiul Theology: The Role of Hisfury in The Tholr!~ht of I:rrdnV Bdtmonn. By Norman J. Young. Westminster Press, Philadelphia. 1969. 174 paged. Cloth. $5.95. Spiwza. A Lije of Reason. Second Enlarged Edition. By Abraham Wolfson. The Philosophical Library, New York. 1969. 347 pagcs. Cloth. 86.00. The Practical Message of Jamea. By Howard P. Colson. Broadman Press, Nashville. 1969. 90 pages. Paper. 9L.95.