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CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY Volume 42, Number 4 OCTOBER 1978 Liturgical Commonplaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kurt blarquart 330 Worship and Sacrifice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charles J. Evanson 347 The Church in the New Testament. Luther, and the Lutheran Confessions. . . . . . . . . Rjarne M'. Teigen 378 Theological Observer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 399 Homiletical St,udies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . 406 BookReviews ....................................... 438 Book Reviews I. Biblical Studies INTRODUCING THE OLD TESTAMENT. By Clyde Francisco. Revised Edition. Broadman, Nashville, 1977. 315 pages. Cloth. $8.95. introducing the Old Testament first ap eared in rint in 1950 and has been f 9 continuously in print for 26 years. In the oreword r. Francisco states that he has completely rewritten most of the material and brought it up to date. The purpose of the original edition was not to deal with "the technicalities ot scholarly research because such material would have defeated the primary intention of the writing." His purpose was to "acquaint the reader with the essential history and teachings of the Old Testament." According to Francisco the differences between the two editions of the books are the following: "The first writing was more an outline to be filled in by the teacher. In this edition I have sought both to clarify basic issues and to elaborate on the teachings of each book." On the inside of the jacket the publishers claim that this textbook for theological seminaries "is based on a firm conviction as to the authenticity of the Old Testament, it uses constructively the results of modem scholarship." Francisco. professor of Old Testament at Southern Baptist Seminary since 1944, has capitulated to the higher critical approach relative to Old Testament problems. While he gives the views of conservative Biblical scholarship on the authorship of the Pentateuch and Isaiah, date of the book of Daniel, and other issues which have come to divide scholars into opposing camps, Francisco accepts the conclusions of higher critical scholarship. This appears to be in harmony with the reversal of theological positions once taught at Southern Baptist Seminary, as once held by men like Drs. A. T. Robertson and John R. Sampey. The question of the authorship of Biblical books is unimportant according to Francisco as long as one regards the various Old Testament books as inspired. However, one might ask, what does the higher critical position do for the reliability of various Biblical assertions found in both the Old and New Testaments which ascribe the Pentateuch to Moses? How does one harmonize the authenticity and reliability of the Bible with the concept of contradictions and mistakes? A helpful feature of this Old Testament introduction is to be found in the summaries of various Biblical characters and outlines of Biblical books. Raymond F. Surburg READER'S GUIDE TO THE BIBLE, INCLUDING THE APOCRYPHA. By Richard H. Hiers. Abingdon, Nashville, 1978. 160 pages. Paper. $3.50. This is a brief guide for the eighty-one books, the sixty-six of the Old and New Testaments together with the fifteen books found in the Protestant version of the Apocrypha. Professor Hiers of the University of Florida at Gainesville has written a compact reference book for non-scholars, which was designed to be descriptive. The Reader's Guide embodies numerous Scripture citations and also has introductory essays which pinpoint the main historical events and developments in Israel and the Middle East from 1500 B.C. to A.D . 100. The system of interpretation used in this book has been determined by the presuppositions and conclusions of the historical critical method. Most of the conclusions of higher critical scholarship are found here and would be unacceptable to those who hold to Biblical views on revelation, inspiration, the formation of the canon, and isagogical issues. Raymond F. Surburg Book Reviews 439 BETTER BIBLE STUDY. A LAYMAN'S GUIDE TO INTERPRETING AND UNDERSTANDING GOD'S WORD. By A. Berkeley and Alvena M. Mickelsen. G/L Regal Books, Glendale, California, 1977. 176 pages. Paper. $3.50. The objective of this book is to help non-professional Christians to interpret the Word of God. Much of the matenal is based upon the book of the male partner of this team, who in 1963 published Interpreting the Bible (Eerdmans). In clear and popular language, which the layman can grasp since no technical theological jargon is employed, the authors have discussed those topics which come under the classification of general and special hermeneutics. In sixteen chapters the Mickelsens answer questions hke these: How can a person know what the Bible says? How can the untrained Christian avoid the pitfalls of making the Bible say what it does not? In what respects is the Bible different from other books? Why are so many different translations in existence? Why is it necessary to know the history and culture of the period when a Biblical book was written? In addition to answering these questions the technique of in- terpreting a passage of the Bible is described. In the area of special hermeneutics there are chapters on the interpretation of prophecy, poetry, apocalyptic, parables, allegory, typology, riddles, and the manner in which New Testament writers quoted the Old Testament. The place of figurative language is also treated. As in Interpreting the Bible, the position is advocated that the first three chapters of Genesis are not to be understood literally, thus permitting an interpretation of chapters 1-2 within the context of theistic evolution, the position of the theology department of Wheaton, where A. Michelson taught for years before coming to his present position at Bethel Theological Seminary, in St. Paul, Minnesota. Now and then assertions are made with which this reviewer disagrees. On page 48 the statement is made: "Today's Christian must base his beliefs on the total message of the Bible, not on individual verses or phrases chosen because they please him." The command for Christian baptism is based on individual passages. How many passages are there in the New Testament for the descent of Christ into hell? If the writers mean that passages should not be taken out of their context, one would have to agree with the authors. In the concluding pages the authors caution their readers against the idea that once hermeneutical principles have been mastered it will follow that they will be able always to interpret the Scriptures correctly. "To exercise proper care and balance in understanding the Bible is easier to talk about than it is to practice. This is true of most skills . . . . It takes time and effort to learn to coordinate elements of biblical interpretation involving language, historical backgrounds, culture patterns, figurative language, etc., to arrive at the original meaning for us today. We soon find that understanding the Bible, like swimming, is a personal matter. There is no impersonal way to get its meaning. There are only guide lines to help persons discover meaning" (p. 170). &stars will find this a useful book, providing they take into consideration those statements that are subjective and subject to serious challenge. Raymond F. Surburg HISTORY OF THE RELIGION OF ISRAEL. FROM BABYLONIAN CAPTIVI'IY TO THE END OF PROPHECY. By ~eheikel Kaufmann. Ktav Publishing House, New York, 1977. Cloth. 726 pages. $25.00. This colume is a translation by C. W. Efrovrnson of Butler University of Volume IV: Book-1 of the four-volume History of the Religion of Israel (in Hebrew) by Y ehezkel Kaufmann (Tel Aviv: ~ialik 1nst itute-hir, 1937- 1956). There is no second book, because the author never completed his projected history. The University of Chicago's The Religion of Ismel, from Its Begin- 440 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY nings to the Babylonian Exile (1'360) is an abridged translation by L)r. Mosh Greenberg (Hebrew University, Jerusalem of volumes I- 111 of the H&bre original. The publishers claim that History of the Religion of Israel, Tokd Ha-Emunah Ha-Yismelit, is considered by many scholars the greatest work c biblical scholarship of our time. In general, Kaufmann's approach is that employed by critical scholarshig although he frequently differs from the views put forward by Pmtestant an Roman Catholic critical scholars. He has the temerity to challeng Wellhausen's Four-Source Documentary Hypothesis. In The Religion of Israt Kaufmann writes: Wellhausen's arguments complemented each other nice1 , and offered what seemed to be a solid foundation upon which to buid the house of biblical criticism. Since then, however, both the evidence and the arguments supporting the structure have been called into question and to some extent, even rejected. Yet biblical scholarship, while admitting that the grounds have crumbled away, nevertheless, continues to adhere to its conclusions. The critique of Wellhausen's theory which began some forty years ago has not been consistently carried through its end. In volume IV Kaufmann starts with the Babylonian capitivity and the] discusses the author and contents of Deutero-Isaiah, the dm of Cyrus, tb activity of Zerubbabel and the building of the Temple, and the preaching o the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. The efforts of Ezra and Nehemiah mivc a chapter each. The - prophets .- Obadiah and Malachi are considered the last c the Old Testament prophets. One chapter is devoted to the close of thc prophetic movement. The work concludes with a hundred-page chapter treatini of the Persian period of Biblical history. There are 12 appendices totalling 8r pages, matching the 12 chapters of the book. In this fourth volume Professor Kaufmann examines the situation of th, exiles in the Babylonian Capitivity and notes how the prediction of Ezekie that the dry bones would come alive again (ch. 37:3) was fulfilled. He the1 deals with the development of Israel's religion in Palestine during thc Hellenistic period and in doing so provides his readers with detailec discussions of the postexilic prophets. According to some modem scholars, Israel adopted true monotheism only i~ the postexilic period. Kaufmann rejects this view. He firmly contends that tht Jewish nation accepted monotheism from the very beginning of its existence a2 a nation. He further claims that the history of post-exilic Israel can be un. derstood ody as the history of a people whose very beginnings were monotheistic. Critical as well as conservative scholars will be challenged by the theories and views of this eminent Hebrew scholar. Raymond F. Surburg LICHT AUF DEM WEG. LIGHT ON THE PATH. LUMEN SEMITAE. PHOS TAIS TRIBOIS. OR LINETIBAH. By Heinrich Bitzer. Oekum- menischer Verlag Dr. R. F. Edel, Marburg an der Lahn, 1969. 395 pages. Cloth. $4.20 This is a handy pocket-size book which is designed as a Vademecum for every thorough theologian. It contains for each day of the year, beginning with January 1 and ending with December 31, a Hebrew and a Greek passage of the Bible, which, it is suggested by the author, should be read verbally (better audibly). The passages were selected with care. The inspiration for the book was the widely used and translated devotional booklet Daily Light on the Doily Path (published by Samuel Bagster and Sons of London). Important passages of the Bible were chosen and assigned to the 365 days of the year. Bitzer assures those who will faithfully use this Vademecum that, if these words of Holy Writ are read regularly year after year, they will become Hook Reviews 44 1 familiar with the basic text of Holy Scripture more and more. "He who learns these words by heart will acquire an imperishable treasure of holy wordsW(p. 11). While the Greek text is merely printed out, for the Hebrew text there are notes relating to vocabulary and grammar. In these notes the meanings of less common words are given in English, German, and Latin. The dictionaries of Koehler-Baumgartner (Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libras, 1953) and Gesenius (Hebraeisches und A ramaeisches Handwoerterbuch ueber das Alte Testament, edited by Dr. Franz Buhl, 1921) were used to arrive at the meaning of Hebrew words. However, often references are also made to Neue Verdeutschung der Schrift by Martin Buber, who, according to Bitzer as "a born Jew sometimes suggests a surprising but meaningful meaning for difficult words, true to the root-meaning of the word, where Koehler and Gesenius often make a conjecture" (p. 11). For the text of the Greek and Hebrew Scriptures the latest editions (up till 1966) of the Priv. Wuertt. Bibelanstalt have been utilized. Bit-er regrets the fact, as stated by him in his preface, that "good theologians tend to lay aside the Hebrew text of the Old ~estarnent. They may still read the Greek text of the New Testament rather frequently to prepare sermons. But the skill acquired in exegesis over the years and increasing familiarity with recurring passages often leads to neglect of the Greek basic text" (p. 9). Bitzer believes that the more a pastor allows himself to be detached from the Hebrew and Greek of the Bible, the more he detaches himself from the source of true theology, which is the foundation of a fruitful and blessed ministry. Those who defend the verbal and plenary inspiration of Holy Writ need to be reminded of the famous statement of Luther made in 1524 in his tract "To the Councillors of all Cities in German States . . . ." (Bitzer, p. 9): As dear as the Gospel is to us all, let us as hard contend with its language. For God did not allow his Holy Scriptures to be written alone in the two languages without reason, the Old Testament in He- brew and the New Testament in Greek. Those languages, that God did not despise but chose above all others for his Word, we must also honour above all others . . . Therefore the Hebrew Language is called holy . . . Let the Greek language therefore be called holy, because it was chosen to be the language of the New Testament. Those who need help with New Testament Greek have at their disposal Fritz Rienecker's Sprachlicher Schluessel rum Griechischen Neuen Testament, published by Brunnen-Verlag, Giessen. Raymond F. Surburg ISAIAH, AN EXPOSITION. By W. A. Criswell. Zondervan Publisbiag Company, Grand Rapids, 1977. 316 pages. Cloth. $9.95. Dr. Criswell is the pastor of the large First Baptist Church of Dallas, Texas. This is his eighteenth book, a number of which purport to be expositions of Biblical books of both the Old and New Testaments. This is no commentary on the Book of Isaiah. It is not _a word-by-word examination of the sixty-six chapters of "The Evangelical Prophet." In its 46 messages the reader will find word studies, discussion of the historical setting, provocative analysis, and colorful descriptions of the text. In some of the addresses there will be found comfort and assurance for the Christian believer; the need for Jesus Christ as the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world is effectively set forth. Criswell believes in the verbal inerrancy of Holy Scriptures and finds Christ foretold in numerous passages of Isaiah. Criswell holds that the Virgin Birth is announced by the prophet in 442 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY Isaiah 7:14 and finds the Savior's work and person foretold and described in the famous Servant Songs of Isaiah. Unfortunately, Criswell subscribes to the belief that there will be a millennium and to the idea of Christ's return to Palestine to establish an earthly kingdom, a kingdom which Jesus was prevented from establishing in the first century A.D. when the Jews rejected Christ as the promised Messiah of the Old Testament. The interpretation of Old Testament prophecy and Criswell's eschatological teachings are affected by his dispensational her- meneutics. In many places, therefore, the author reads interpretations into the text of Isaiah which are not there. Raynond F. Surburg KNOWING THE SCRIPTURE. By R. C. Sproul. Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois 1977. 125 pages. Paper. $3.50. The authorof this volume is theologian-in-residence at Ligonier Valley Study Center (Stahlstown, Pennsylvania), which was founded by Sproul in 1971 and is dedicated to providing biblical and theological instruction to college students and other adults. This center has as its goal to help Christians to continue to grow in their knowledge of God and the Christian faith. In his preface the author notes that there has been a renewal of interest in the Holy Scriptures. Unfortunately, there has arisen great confusion about what the Bible teaches because there has been little agreement concerning the rudimentary principles of biblical interpretation. "This confusion in the scholarly world has made an impact on the life of the whole church" (p. 11). With this problem in mind Sproul has written Knowing the Scripture, which is comprised of six chapters. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 contain Spmul's system of Biblical interpretation. Chapter 1 discusses the reasons why a person should study the Bible, while chapter 2 endeavors to relate personal Bible study and private interpretation to correct interpretation. In chapter 6 Sproul takes up the need for various tools. He gives his views on the use of translations, annotated Bibles, concordances, the King James Version, and commentaries, and the desirability of studying and using the original languages of Holy Writ. The author of Knowing the Scripture believes the Bible is the inspired Word of God and his hermeneutics reflects his conservative Presbyterian theological stance. The beginner of Bible study will find this a useful volume, and those who have been studying the Bible a long time will discover now and then interesting and helpful insights on certain Biblical passages. J. I. Packer has written as appreciative foreword, in which he states that this book is characterized by "clarity, common sense, mastery of material and a bubbling enthusiasm which turns the author from a good communicator into a superb one." Raymond F. Surburg A LEXICON FOR THE POETICAL BOOKS. By Neal D. Williams. Williams and Watrous Publishing Co., Irving, Texas, 1977. 136 pages. Paper. $4.95. This lexicon was originally the author's research project for the master's degree at Dallas Theological Seminary, Dallas, Texas. This book was un- dertaken because of the need for Hebrew students to have help with the massive Hebrew vocabulary of the poetical books which serves as a deterrent to the reading of the text for many students. It is similar to Fems L. McDaniel's, A Readers' Hebrew English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Like the latter, Williams' Lexicon is not designed to replace the large standard lexica. In his introduction Williams describes his procedure as follows: To accomplish this goal of this lexicon the author has simply read through the poetical books listing the words verse by verse which occur Book Reviews 443 less than seventy times in the entire Old Testament. The brief definitions are taken from Brown, Driver and Brigg's, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907) and Koehler and Baumgartner's Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1958). Homonyms are recorded with a Roman numeral corresponding to the classification of BDB. The word statistics are taken from Lisowsky's Konkordanz zum Hebraeischen Alten Testament (S tuttgart: Wurttenbergische Bibelanstalt , 1958) and Mandelkern's Veteris Testamenti Concordantiae: Hebraicae atque Chaldaicae (Tel Aviv: Sumptibus Schocken Hierosolymis, 1971). However, where BDB differs with these concordances, BDB has been taken as authoritative for the statistic. Words occurring more than five times have been given at the beginning of the vocabulary for each book under the caption of "special vocabulary," with Psalms being the exception. Concerning the statistics found behind each word Williams states : Each word in the text is followed by parentheses enclosing two numbers: The first number gives the frequency of the word in that particular book except the Psalms where the first number records the frequency for only that individual Psalm; The second number recoda the frequency of the word in the entire Old Testament. Words which occur more than once in a particular verse are immediately followed by parentheses indicating the frequency of the word in that particular verse. An appendix is provided with a list of all words occurring seventy times and over. Hebrew and Aramaic students in the last fifteen years have been supplied with many excellent helps which it is to be hoped will encourage more reading of the Old Testament Scriptures in the original languages. Raymond F. Surburg . . EBLA TABLETS: SECRETS OF A FORGOTTEN CITY. By Clifford Wilson. Master Books, Division of Creation-Life Publishers, San Diego, 1977. 124 pages. $1.95. In this volume Dr. Clifford Wilson, for a number of years director of the Australian Institute for Archaeology, relates the story of the finding of the archaeological discoveries at Tell Mardikh in Syria. Between 1964 and 1973 Professor Paolo Matthiae and his team uncovered the remains of the ancient city of Ebla. A 26-line inscription on a male statue, dedicated to Ibbit-Lim, son of I kris-Hepa, King of Ebla, was found in 1968. The discovery of the Ebla tablets must be reckoned as one of the greatest discoveries of Near Eastern archaeology. For years to come scholars will be studying these tablets, and all their implications will only become evident when much more study will have been devoted to them. Wilson was prompted to publish this small book because people are asking basic facts about the Ebla tablets, and because of "sensational exaggerations have already appeared. That is unfortunate, and a balanced appraisal is needed" (p. 6). Because of contacts with both Professor Matthiae and Professor Giovanni Pettinab, the epigraphist, Wilson was in a position to give an estimate of the importance of these major finds. The materials in this book are based, according to Wilson, on articles by Pettinato which have appeared in The Biblical Archaeologist (May, 1976). on reports in other journals, on public lectures given by Pettinato, and on conversations with Dr. Noel Freedman. In this ten-chapter book the reader will be able to learn about the history of the finds, and what the Ebla tablets are all about. In a number of chapters the implications for ancient history are stated. Because of the Tell Mardikh finds the New Cambridge Ancient History is no longer up-to-date in all of its 444 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY statements. Not only does Wilson acquaint his readers with the history and archaeological data about this third great center of political and cultural in- fluence in the Ancient Near East, but also he shows how the newer finds from Ebla do not support previous critical assumptions about the Book of Genesis. Raymond F. Surburg A SYMPOSIUM ON CREATION, VI. Donald W. Patten, editor. Pacific Meridian Publishing Company, Seattle, Washington, 1977 153 pages. Paper. $3.95. This is the sixth in the series entitled A Symposium on Creation. The following scholars are contributors to this volume: John H. Fermor, Donald W. Patten, Charles Mchwell, William I. Thompson 111, Bolton Davidheiser, and C. E. Allan Turner. A farword was penned by W. Dennis burro we^, secretary of the North American Creation Movement, Victoria, British Columbia. The one feature that all writers of Symposium VI have in common is that they are creationists who hold the Bible to be God's infallible revelation. In the essays presented to the public, the reader will find attempts at scient@c inquiry that involve a wide range of disciplines with special attention given to astrophysics, climatology, physical geogaphy , and history. Dr. John Fermor in his essay, "Paleoclimatology and Infrared Radiation Traps" examines the canopy concepts of Whitcomb and Morris and of D. W. Patten, and gives an alternate view which he believes meets the geographicd difficulties which he feels adhere to earlier models. Fermor allows for rain before the Flood, which the other models of the "greenhouse effect" do not. Donald Patten's "millennia1 clematology" rests upon the assumption that Christ will reign visibly upon earth for a thousand years. Patten employs Exekiel 47:l-12 in his description of the climatological changes which sup- posedly will take place when the millennium arrives. Lutherans, of course, reject the millennialist views of Scofield and others. The third article of the symposium, written by Dr. Charles McDowell, is an excursion into the history of science. In "Catastrophism and Puritan Thought: The Newton Era," Mchwell treats of the development of the opposing ideas of catastrophism and deism in Puritan England and on the European con- tinent. Mchwell sheds new light on the great Newton-Leibnitz debate con- cerning calculus. There is also a discussion of the reference to the moons of Mars in Swift's Gulliver's Travels. Dr. Davidheiser gives an overview of the life and scientific views of Louis Agassiz. The latter was a great opponent of the views of Charles Darwin. He realized what the implications were of mega-evolution , the theory at the heart of Darwinianism. Agassiz, although a vigorous opponent of Darwin would not be classified as a strict creationist. Darwin's views won out over those of Agassiz in the scientific community of the latter half of the nineteenth century. Davidheiser has shown the inmnsistencies and contradictions in the views advocated by Agassiz. It is difficult to exactly ascertain where the Agassiz stood in the creation-evolution controversy. Relative to Agassiz, "we do not know for sure on what spiritual grounds he fought the battle, whether on the grounds of religious respectability or true Christian conviction" (Burrows, p. 13). The final essay is by Dr. C. E. Allan Turner, entitled "The Place of Trace Elements in the Creation. " Dr. Turner deals with the effects of the presence (or absence) of a wide variety of metals and nonmetals in relation to plant and animal physiology. He points out that with our increase of knowledge the list of useful and necessary metals grows. Those interested in biochemistry will be challenged by this contribution. Raymond F. Surburg Book Reviews 445 FOSSILS IN FOCUS. By J. Kerby Anderson and Harold G. Coffin. With a Response be Russell L. Mixter. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, and Probe Ministeries International, Richardson, Texas, 1977. 95 pages. Paper. $2.95. This is one of a number of books that comprise what is to be known as "The Curriculum Word View" of the Christian Free University Curriculum, which affirms "the world view that reality includes both material and immaterial realms, that man and nature are finite and created." The Christian Free University Curriculum is a continuing series of monographs within 15 different academic areas of interest: (1) History; (2) Issues; (3) Life Sciences; (4) Political Science; (5) Business; (6) Physical Sciences; (7) Literature; (8) Philosoph ; (9) Education; (10) Religion; ( 11 1 Sociology; (12) Psychology; (13) Anthropofogy: (14) Earth Sciences; and 1151 Pine Arts. Fossils in Focus is a book in the "Earth Sciences Series." The authors of this monograph show a wide acquaintance with the scientific literature on the occurrence ot tossils throughout the world. On the basis of their examination they believe that the paeleontological evidence supports the belief that the gaps in the paeleontological record are real and that there is no evidence for missing links, for hybrid animals which would bridge the zoological gaps. Anderson and Coffin contend that there is no continuity of fossils from one kind to another. Of their presentation, Russell Mixter in his response asserts: "Here is a well-documented discussion of the creationist's position." The authors do not argue for "the fixity of species," a notion espoused by Linnaeus, but allow "for change possible in limits. In fact, as we look at the fossil record, the results from genetic research, and the natural world about us, we are led to believe that the truth lies between the two extremes of fixity of species and limited change." The word min in such passages as Genesis 121 has wrongly been identified with species. It includes a larger classification of animals or plants. Microevolution is possble within the "kind," (as the word rnin is usually translated). Raymond F. Surburg THE TABERNACLE OF GOD IN THE WILDERNESS OF SINAI. By Paul F. Kiene. Translated-by John S. Crandall. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 19'j7,176 pages. Cloth. $14.96. This is a translation of a book published in German as Das Heiligtum Gottes in der Wueste (1976). The volume is an art volume, in which there are 34 beautifully colored illustrations of the tabernacle and its appurtenances. Kiene's volume contains five chapters. An introductory chapter, in which there is a discussion of the tent of meeting, its spiritual meaning as the dwelling place of God, its place in the wilderness wanderings of Israel, the heave offering and its fourteen corn- ponents, is followed by chapters devoted to the outer court (ch. 2), the tabernacle structure (ch. 3), the Holy place (ch. 4), and the holy of Holies (ch. 51. The exegetical literature of the Old Testament does not include many volumes treating of the tabernacle, the first place of public worship for God's chosen people. In his bibliography Kiene seems to know of only eight books written about the tabernacle from a conservative viewpoint. Kiene starts from the New Testament teaching that the Spirit of Christ was active in the Old Testament prophets who foretold the sufferings, death, and glorification of Jesus Christ, the promised Messiah of the Old Testament (1 Peter 1 : 11). In the preface the author states the hermeneutical approach which he follows throughout this useful and informative study of the tabernacle: May His wisdom lead us as we elucidate the types of Christ in the tabernacle. This holy, unique construction speaks of Him in all of its details. Throughout we see the magnificent greatness of His wonderful person with wonder and amazement. At the same time we also see how 446 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY His perfect work of salvation is prophetically represented in the sacrificial acts. Thus, the Word of God by the mouth of the prophet is fulfilled: "My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure" (Isaiah 46:lO). In order to cany out the objective to see in aU details of the tabernacle Christ's humiliation and exaltation, Kiene is forced to resort to excessive typologizing and even to deploy at times what unfortunately is a wrong fom of numerics. This reviewer is in sympathy with Kiene's basic hermeneutical presupposition that many of the features of Israel's cultus were designed by the Holy Spirit to predict by means of types the essential plan of salvation. As Christ said to his con- temporaries: " Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life and they are they that testify of me" (John 5:39). The Epistle to the Hebrews clearly teaches that certain aspects of the Old Testament cultus typified facts about the person and ministry of Jesus Christ. However, the exposition of Kiene is characterized by a typologizing that amounts to allegorization, in come cases of the wildest and strangest sort. While he does this in the interest of showing how Christ permeates the entire Old Testament, still in many cases his interpretation is unsound. Any person reading through the entire volume will find many Bible passages quoted, and on the basis of these he will learn or be reminded of the essentials of the plan of salvation as given by God in the Old and New Testament Scriptures. And that is worthwhile! Raymond F . Surburg BIBLICAL THEOLOGY. VOLUME TW0:NEW TESTAMENT. By Cheeter K. Lehman. Harold Press, Scottdale, Pennsylvania, 1974. 566 pages. Cloth. $18.95. This volume is a companion to Biblical Theology: Old Testament and thus completes what might be termed the mugum opus of one of the ourstancing theologians of the Mennonite Church. The same approach to the Word of God which characterized the author's Old Testament volume also characterizes his New Testament theology, in which the theological teachings of the twenty-seven books of the New Testament canon are discussed under four major divisions. In Part One "The Earthly Ministry of Christ" is presented. In Part Two "The Beginning of Jesus' Rule as the Enthroned Lord and Christ" is explicated. In this part Lehman treats the teachings of the emerging church as reflected in the Epistle of James, followed by the theology of Peter and Jude. In Part Three the theology of Paul is discussed in nearly 150 pages of text. In Part Four the author concludes with the theology of the Letter to the Hebrews and of the Johannine Writings. Lehman correctly holds that the New Testament stands as the glorious climax of God's revelation to man. The Four Gospels are rightly held to be of great value because they set forth the life, teachings and the mighty works of God's Son. The Book of Acts sets forth the activities of the Holy Spirit, who blessed the missionary efforts of Peter, John, Paul, and other Christians as they carried outv the great commission of Christ to evangelize the world. In the letters of Paul, Peter, James, and Jude we have apostolic messages and teachings which are nothing less than Cod's revelation to all mankind unto the end of this age. The reader will quickly discover that Lehman accepts a high view of the Bible, espouses a high Christology, and employs a Christocentic hermeneutic. President Augsburger of Eastern Mennonite College and Eastern Mennonite Seminary informs the reader in the introduction that "true to his Anabaptist faith, seeing the whole Bible as the Word of God written, he sees the New Testament on a higher level than the Old Testament as God's full Word in Christ." The bibliographical data at the end of each chapter aa well as the sel- bibliography (pp. 538-544) show that Lehman was acquainted with all schools of thought as they have been reflected in the last one hundred ym in the discipline of New Testament theology. Although he is well acquainted with the Book Reviews 447 views of Bultmann, Conzelmann, Jeremias, Bornkamm, Dibelius, Bumws, Barr, Ogden, Penin, Barclay, and others he does not accept their anti- Scriptural interpretations. The newer forms of the historicalcritical method, such as form criticism, redaction criticism, content criticism, and structural criticism are not utilized; otherwise the sound Biblical position worked out in this book would have Deen mposslbie. In distinction from other New Testament theologies, Lehman correctly places the Four Gospels and the epistolary literature of the New Testament on the same level. Lehman holds that "the nature of the kerygma and the full development of the theological understandings of the person of Christ is both confirmed and expanded is such great passages as Philippians 2" ( p. 9). Since the author has set out to write a New Testament theology which reflects the Anabaptist stance, it stands to reason that those who do not share the distinctive theological positions of Anabaptism will not accept every thing which Lehman says here. However, in a time when most churches of Christendom no longer teach and defend their historic theological positions, one must admire a theologian who unabashedly sets forth his demoninations's historic stance. This book should aid seminarians, pastors, and graduate students in their study of that portion of the written revelation of God which is the climax of all that God has recorded for the salvation and guidance of mankind. Raymond F . Surburg A POPULAR GUIDE TO NEW TESTAMENT CRITICISM. By H. P. Hamann. Concordia Publishing House, 1977. 78 pages. Paper $2.95. This volume by Dr. H. P. Hamann, Professor of New Testament and vice president of ~uther ~heobgkd ~embry, Adelaide, Australia, purports to be a conservative approach to the problems of Biblical interpretation. This means that the Australian theologian considers the Scriptures to be the inspid Word of God and that he accepts the traditional doctrines and teachings derived from the Old and New Teetaments as the revelation of God. The area of theological concern of this book is an important one. The author wishes to initiate the layman into the subject of New Testament criticism, which involverr the use of the following types of criticism: textual, literary, form, content, and redaction. The employment of these various kinds of criticism is at the heart of the current debate in Biblical studies. The consistent employment of a radical kind of literary criticism has in the past led to radical conclusions relative to the reliability and authenticity of the message of the New Testament. Add to this kind of criticism those of form, redaction, and content critisisms and the result is the emergence of views which are totally different from those expressed in the three ecumenical creeds of Christendom as well as from the doctrines set forth -in the distinctive creeds of historic Lutheranism. Throughout the book Hamann endeavors to treat honestly and clearly the views of modern literary critics. First he sets forth the principles of textual criticism, the problem of variant readings and the search for a reliable text. Then he presents a description of form criticism, gives the views held by some of its outstanding proponents, and provides his personal evaluation of them. The same is done for redaction and umtent criticisms. Hamann finds serious flaws in the methodology and conclusions of the proponents of literary, form, and redaction criticisms and frankly states what they are, because of the danger that they may lead to the rejection of basic Christian doctrines. Not all conservative scholars will agree with all assertions appearing in this book. For example, questioning the Petrine authorship of 2 Peter makes New Testament book a false writing. If the latter were the case, the book could never be used as Scripture in our churches. Raymond F. Surburg 448 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY 11. Theological-Historical Studies OUR COSMIC JOURNEY. By Hans Schwarz. Augsburg Publishing House, Minneapolis, 1977. 379 pages. Paper. $7.95. This volume by Hans Schwarz, a professor of systematic theology at the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Columbus, Ohio, is described as a "Christian Anthropology in the Light of Current Trends in the Sciences, Philosophy and 'l'heology." As the subtitle indicates, Our Cosmic Journey embodies in- formation obtained from the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, behavioral psychology, psychiatry, and theology to shed new light on creation and human nature. A look at the many references alluding to the scholarly literature in these different scientific disciplines will show that this is a scholarly work, clearly written, and a literary work covering a wide range of subject matter. Professor Schwarz wants to help Christian readers make up their minds as to how traditional Christian anthropology relates to modem thought. The present situation in the world greatly disturbs the author, who quotes Martin Heidegger, who in Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics, wrote: "NO other epoch has accumulated so great and so varied a store of knowledge concerning man as the present one: . . . But also, no epoch is less sure of its knowledge of what man is than the present one" (p. 9). In this situation, says Schwan, "it is imperative to rediscover the origin, direction and goal of Our Cosmic Journey. The most appropriate way for self-assessment is to tap the immense resources that science has uncovered concerning the origin and history of the universe, of life within the universe, and of our own kind. We must also listen to the important things science has to say about our potential for self- improvement, the peculiarities of human behavior and its possible modification, and our psychic potential for good or evil" (p. 10). Schwarz endeavors to relate the findings of the sciences to the traditional doctrines of creation, sin, and divine providence. According to the author, this is necessary because "such theological reflection upon the findings of the life sciences is even more necessary, since the life sciences can only project a warranted future as an extrapolation of the past. Since the future of the stream of life is basically unpredictable, such extrapolations cannot suffice as a trustworthy foundation on which to build the future" (p. 10). Traditional Biblical anthropology dealt with the following topics: creation of man, the nature of man, the primeval state of man, the propagation of human beings, the fall of man, hereditary guilt and sin, actual sins, the state of wrath, the Ten Commandments, universal condemnation, the material of good and evil acts, divine government of evil, matrimony, civil government, laws of nature and temporal death. The creation of the universe and of this earth is traditionally discussed under cosmology. Our Cosmic Journey includes items from the loci of cosmology and eschatology, and so does not strictly limit itself to what traditional theology defined as the scope of anthropology. The Bible seems not to have the same authority for the author as it did for older dogmaticians of churches now aEkted with the TALC, such as Reu, Lenski, Klotsche, Fritschl, Lindberg, Norlie, Sasse, Neve, and Hove. While Schwarz does refer to numerous passages from the Old and New Testaments, in his interpretation he follows the conclusions of the historical-critical method. The Bible and the teachings of the Bible are referred to by means of the unsatisfactory term, "the Judaeo-Christian tradition." The Lutheran Confessions are never quoted and are completely ignored, a fact which should tell conservative Lutherans something about the author's theological orientation. Raymond F. Surburg Book Reviews 449 AUTHORITY AND OBEDIENCE IN THE CHURCH. By Milton L. Rud- nick. Lutheran Education Association, Chicago, 1977. 100 pages. Paper. $3.95. A STUDY GUIDE FOR MILTON RUDNICK'S AUTHORITY AND OBEDIENCE IN THE CHURCH. By Kenneth Heinitz. Lutheran Education Association, Chicago, 1977. 20. Paper. 50c. This is the 1977 yearbook of the Lutheran Education Association, written by the Rev. Dr. Milton Rudnick of Concordia College, St. Paul, Minnesota. The motivation for this theological treatise was the current controversy in the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. This study, says Rudnick, is to focus on authority and obedience in the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, a church body which is "in the throes of an authority crisis." The authority and obedience issue, however, is not the only one convulsing the LC-MS. This study avoids taking sides in the controversies now dividing the Synod. In the preface Rudnick states his purpose in publishing this study as follows (p. v): I have chosen to focus attention, not on current arguments about church authority in the LC-MS. but rather on what Scripture and the Lutheran Confessions have to say on the subject. I have attempted to state as clearly and simply as possible, not so much for the theologian as for the Lutheran educator and pastor, as well as for the concerned lay person: (1) what the four basic kinds of church authority are, (2) how they relate to each other, and (3) the form of obedience ap- propriate to each. As Rudnick utilizes the Scriptures and the Lutheran Confessions he identifies four kinds of church authority and sets forth their relationship to each other and to authority. This 100-page study has five chapters: Chapter I, "Introduction," Chapter 11, "Evangelical Authority ," Chapter 111, "Con- fessional Authority," Chapter IV, "Disciplinary Authority," and Chapter V, "Organizational Authority." These chapters are followed by a brief epilogue. Concerning this book the St. Paul professor informs his readership: "This book is to be a discussion rather than a definitive interpretation." To have a well-functioning church body this reviewer agrees with the author that "as teachers of the church, we are responsible for interpreting the church to those whom we serve, as well as to others." The author is also correct when he writes: "Crises in authority and obedience are not confined to the Missouri Synod. The Biblical and theological insights which are the heart of this presentation may also ring true to those of other confessional and ecclesiastical commitments and prove useful to them in responding to their own situations" (p. v). Neither the "moderates" nor those espousing the historic doctrinal stance of the LC-MS will have much quarrel with these discussions of authority and obedience. Both sides in the controversy can empIoy the argumentation against the other party and cIaim that the other side needs to have action taken against it, because of its false position. One thing is certain: "A house divided against itself cannot stand." The polarization that exists in the LC-MS and the divergent theological views relative to what is involved in the authority of the Bible and what in the Iatter is binding upon human conscience can only lead to further confusion of the laity and frustration of the clergy. Under existing circumstances, and with not much prospect of improvement, the name "Ichabod" might well given to the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod., when its present state is compared with the doctrinal unity which characterized its history for over a century. Raymond F. Surburg BIBLICAL AUTHORITY. Edited by Jack Rogers. Word Books, Waco, Texas, 1977. 196 pages. Paper. $4.50. This book would not have been written were it not for Harold Lindsell's 4 50 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY book, The Battle for the BibZe, which dramatically exposed the liberal theology of many so-called Evangelicals concerning Biblical inspiration and inerrancy. Every writer of this symposium appears clearly threatened by Lindsen's ex- pose, although a facade of scholarship and sophistication covers, albeit only superficially, their vulnerability. The discerning reader will readily discover that each of the authors has departed from the classical Protestant Biblical doctrine of inspiration and inerrancy, although he wLl want to use these venerable terms. Missouri Synod readers will find nothing new in the sym- posium: the arguments undermining, denying, and obfuscating the doctrine of Biblical inerrancy have all been employed in Missouri circles in the recent past; e.R., but the term "inerrancy" is unclear (Clark Pinnock), that it is a negative term (Berkeley Mickelsen), that we do not have the autographs (Rogers), that. the doctrine of inerrancy should not be devisive (Pinnock), that the classical doctrine was inconsistent and self-contradictory (Bernard Ramm), that there has never been "one certain theory (sic!) of inspiration" (Rarnm), that Luther taught an existentialistic view of inerrancy (Rogers), that cults and sects representing persons of mediocre education and mind teach verbal inspiration (Ramm), that theologians with a low view of Scripture have written some good things (Ramm), that orthodox Christians have overreacted to liberal assaults against the Bible (David Hubbard), that the Reformed and Lutheran doctrine of inerrancy is rationalistic (Hubbard), that proponents of vert>al inspiration have sometimes done bad exegesis (kubbard), that the doctrine of inerrancy undermines the sufficiency of Scripture (Hubbard), that inerrancy is a secular concept (~ubbard), that the doctrine of Scgpture is infallible rather than Scripture itself (Hubbard), that those who hold to the inerrancy of Scripture- are really faulting Scripture by defending it (Hubbard). Hubbard seems to argue that every poor piece of exegesis by a fundamentalist or conservative is due to his belief in Biblical inerrancy. The ridiculous chiliasm and dispen- sationalist aberrations of some fundamentalists have even been laid at the foot of the doctrine of inerrancy, The purpose of this symposium, apart from answering Lindsell's blasts, is apparently to alter radically the Protestant understanding of Biblical authority without letting the reader know what is happening. And so the authors champion the soh scripturn principle, and they lay claim to such popular terms among Evangelicals as inspiration, infallibility, yes, and even inerrancy. We all really agree, they tell us, let us just rally around our consensus, Hubbard says. They want us to believe that they have changed nothing, and the differences between those who believe that they have changed nothing, and the differences between those who believe in inerrancy and those who do not are really not very important. History is repeating itself. What happened at the St. Louis seminary prior to 1974 is happening at Fuller Seminary today. And it is happeni~ elsewhere among those who call themselves Evangelicals. We can only hope and pray that lay people and pastors all over the country will recognize this and do something about it before it is too late. Biblical ~utnon'ty, edited by Jack Rogers, is a vindication of Harold Lind- sell's book, The Battle for the Bible. Lindsell was right on target as he analyzed what is going on in evangelical circles today. Robert Preus THE CHURCH UNDER SIEGE. By M. A. Smith. Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester, England, 1976. 277 pages. Paper. $5.95. The Church Under Siege is a popular survey of the Church's history from the time of Constantine (early 4th century) to the time of Charlemagne (early 9th century). It is a continuation of an earlier book, From Christ to Con- stantine. Mr. Smith, at present a Baptist minister in Lancashire, is to be Book Reviews 45 1 commended for presenting a popular account of this segment or the Church's history. 'l'he period of the early Middle Ages is often a neglected period and is generauy a term incognita for the lay person and for many clergymen. It is un- fortunate, therefore, that the author chose to devote almost two-thirds of his narrative to the period from Constantine to St. Augustine. This period is well- trodden and readily accessible in manifold other works. Because generally neglected, it is the reviewer's opinion that the period from Augustine to Charlemagne (c.450-c.800) deserved a more expanded treatment. Nevertheless, the novice reader can meet here summary discussions of fiis rarely met: Salvian, Germanus of Auxerre, Sidonius Apollinaris. The reason why the early medieval penod is often neglected, especially by evangelicals, is, however, reflected in the very thesis of the book. The period from Constantine to Charlemagne is one in which the Church became "debased and mediaevalized" (p. 249). Smith writes (p. 248): The contrast between the beginning of our period and the end is most instructive. When Constantine became emperor, the churches were loosely grouped congregations of believers. At the end of the period we have two fairly monolithic systems, the eastern one ruled by the Byzantine emperor . . . the western system centered around the pope of Rome . . . . In Constantine's time, and for a century afterwards, there was a fairly wide spread of education which made theology un- derstandable, and the Christian faith was at least partially a matter of intellectual belief and commitment. By the time of Charlemagne, general culture had become virtually nil. Only the churches and the clergy were centers of learning, and even there the Christian message had undergone serious debasement. Further evidence of this debasement is the fact that under Constantine baptism was still a rite concerned with personal commitment to Christ, while by Charlemagne it had become "a magic rite to wash away sin and to be performed on a baby as soon as possible"; the "free, rhetorical worship" of the Cons tantinian churches gave way to uniform worship; preaching withered to a mere reading of sermons by the Church Fathers; the clergy had become an intellectual elite (pp. 248f.l. "The metamorphosis of Graeco-Roman Christianity into mediaeval religion is complete" (p. 248). However, ". . . the church had not departed so far from original Christianity as to be unable to be called back to it in due time" (p. 249). Without wishing to impugn the generally good overview of the historical material this book presents, the interpretation the author gives to this period is quite frankly itself a debasement of Church history. It is interesting how often "conservative" views of Church History parallel those of dassical liberal Protestantism (von Harnack, von Soden, and kindred spirits): primitive Christianity was informal, spontaneous, free, zealous while later Christianity became formalistic, uniform, and prosaic. This is apparently the pattern with which Mr. Smith works, and it leads him to make one-sided judgements which skew the historical record. For example, reviewing the fourth century the author writes (p. 126): The spontaneous enthusiasm for Jesus has departed from the monasteries and hermitages, and, although