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CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY: Volume 44. Number 1 .-- - JANUARY 1980 ........................................... Harry A. Huth, D.D., 1917-1979 1 Perceived Influences on Occupational Choice ...................................... of Seminarians William M. Cross 3 The Purpose and Fruits of the Holy Supper ............................................. C.J. Evanson 17 Luther's Understanding of "Church" in His Treatise On the Councils and the Church of 1539 ................................................ Eugene F. A. Klug 27 To Raymond Surburg on His ........................................................... Seventieth Birthday 39 Raymond F. Surburg: A Selected Bibliography ................... 41 Opinion of the Department of Systematic Theology ............ 46 ............................................................ Theological Observer 50 Homiletical Studies ............................................................... 62 .................................................................... Books Reviewed 79 Books Received ..................................................................... 99 Book Reviews I. Biblical Studies THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPEDIA. Vol. I. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. William B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michi- gan. Fully Revised, 1939. 1oU6 pages. Maps pages. Cloth. No price set. First published in 19 15, the revisededition of 1979 perpetuates the name of the original work, but in most aspects recognized as essentially a new work. The first volume (A-D) covers 1000 pages plus an index and colored maps. This is the kind of material out of which church, high school, and college libraries are built and this encyclopedia is destined to a long and fruitful life in the hands of pupils of the Bible. Along with the associate editors, Everett Harrison, Roland Harri- son, and William LaSor, beneath the articles are the names of such prominent persons as Archer, Freedman, Kaiser, Ladd, Payne, Ramm, Ridderbos, Samuel Schultz, Unger, Van Elderen, Waltke, and Yamauchi. No contemporary con- fessional Lutheran scholars are listed as contributors, though articles by W.H.T. Dau, Henry Jacobs, and Wilhelm Moeller are reprinted from the first edition. Along with the usual geographical and historical listings typical of Bible en- cyclopedias. there are articles on broader topics approaching minor treatises in length. Acasual paging through the encyclopedia shows the name of F. F. Bruce, the prominent Manchester conservative New Testament scholar, frequently beneath the longer exegetical articles. For example he is the author of "Acts of the Apostles," twelve pages or twen ty-three columns of print. Here traditional conservative positions are followed, as Luke is recognized as the author. He is also the author of "Criticism" (pp. 8 17-825). A detached posture lets each reader see the procedures of the various methods used without being unduly influenced by the writer. Indeed this is most useful. Bruce is hardly negativeabout the use of Biblical criticism and sees its value if it brings us to know the Jesus of history who can be known as the Christ of the Bible. How Bruce bridges the gap between the Jesus of history and Christ is not made entirely clear. The editor, Geoffrey Bromiley, responsible for the English Kirre1, has himself authored many of the major theological articles. In the article on "Authority" @p. 365-7 1) there is a hesitancy to state unequivocally that the Scriptures are the final authority available to men. The phrase, "God exercises His own authority," is plainly typical Reformed theology. In the same article the best form of civil authority is said to be exercised according to the Word of God. The touchy matter of Baptism (pp. 41 1426) is handled by having separate articles expressing Baptist, Reformed, and Lutheran views - in that order! But in the article on "Baptismal Regeneration," the Reformed view is pushed and the Lutheran view is presented, tolerated, and then given a Reformed tinge by say- ing that in the final analysis it is the Spirit's work (pp. 428-9). Bromiley's article on the "Descent Into Hell(Hades)" presents the various his- torical views, but leans toward Calvin's by stating that it "constituted the final point of (Oirist's) identification with sinners" (pp. 926-7). A limited atonement of sorts is also supported (pp. 352-60). The quick availability of knowledge cer- tainly recommends this encyclopedia. On the other hand the editor has made certain that the theological articles are almost without exception Reformed. It is regretable that a Bible encyclopedia turns itself into a Calvinistic dogmatics in the major theological articles. David P. Scaer 80 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY COMMENTARY ON GALATIANS. By Martin Luther. English transla- tion by Erasmus Middleton. Edited and abridged by John Prince Fallowes, Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, 1979. Hard cover. 384 pages. $10.95. Next to the Scriptures, Luther's 1535 Commentary on Galatians is not only Luther's greatest exegetical legacy but, in the thinking of many, the greatest theological treatise of all times. In the area of salvation thesubtlest heresy is d- vation by faith andworks. This heresy plagues every generation since the days of St. Paul. Though this book is an abridgement of the original and though it is written in the King's English (and uses the A. V. as a text). it is verv readable, reflects Luther's style and contains the thoughts of the original of Luther. The book is recommended and well worth the price. Harold H. Buis A LAYMAN'S GUIDE TO INTERPRETING THE BIBLE. By Walter A. Hinrichsen. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, and Navapress, Colorado Springs, 1978. 231 pages. Paper. $4.95. "Biblical interpretation is more than just an intellectual game that theolo- gians play; it's what opens up lives in Christ and makes them full." With this in mind. author Walter Hinrichsen brings the subject of Biblical icterpretation down to a practical level in A Layman's Guide to Arerprering rhe Bible. This volume is designed to help lay people to interpret the Bible correctly by furnish- ing them with basic rules of hermeneutics. Incorporated into this help is the author's earlier 107-page book, Understand, A Straight-Forward Approach to Inrerpreting the Bible. In the latter volume Hinrichsen had outlined with illustrations twenty-four basic hermeneutical principles. This now constitutes section I - "How to Interpret the Bible." To this basic section two ochers have been added, namely, section I1 -- "How to Study the Bible" and section 111 - "Improving Your Bible Study Skills." In Part 11, such methods as the analytical, synthetic, topical and biographical are discussed. Part 111 concludes with ways for the Bible student to improve his skills in the areas of observation, interpretation, correlation and application. The author does not list a bibliography of books deaIing with hermeneutics, the book method and methods for Bible study. Any person knowledgeable in these areas will know that the author has drawn heavily upon the labors and in- sights of authors and specialists in these fields of Biblical study. Hinrichsen, a graduate of Western Theological Seminary, Holland, Michi- gan, and at present a worker with the Leadership Foundation, endeavors to help business and professional people maximize their potential for Jesus Christ in the context of their own business or profession. Laymen will best be able to Iearn from this book if they have the guidance of competent Biblical scholars whoare versed in the knowledge of the original languages of Holy Writ. Pastors and divinity students will profit from the reading of this useful Biblical help. Raymond F. Surburg ECCLESIASTES. TOTAL LIFE. By Walter C. Kaiser, Jr. Moody Press, Chicago, 1979. 128 pages. Soft cover. $2.50. This is one of Moody's Everyman's Bible Commentaries. The publication of this commentary has as its antecedents in studies conducted at Wheaton Col- lege, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School and Campus Crusader's Institute of Biblical Studies. Book Reviews 8 1 in the preface Professor Kaiser of Trinity Evangeiical Si.nlina[-) sho~s hob timely the message of Ecclesiastes is for modern man, for life is a puzzle. For many life has lost its zip. "Man is made to ieel cheap, commercial, dead, and machine-like. The basic worth and dignity of modern man are repeatedly denied when his humanity is deliberately overlooked and he is equated with the brutes and, worse still. with the machine. All the while, everything within that same man cries out for a larger view of the entirety of life" (p. 7). Kaiser is convinced that a study of Ecclesiastes is the best antidote 1.01- restoring to men and women the Ioss of truth and persona1 digniry which so many have suffered. Ecclesiastes is the book to be taken beriouslq. by those desiring to live meaningful lives now. "Ecclesiastes has as irs central concern thac basic hunger of men to see if the totality of life fits into a meaningful pattern" @p. 8-9). In his introduction the reader will find an excellent discussion vl' the clues- tions of unity, integrity, authorship, time of writing, the I-c?latioriship of' Ecclesiastes to ancient Near Eastern wisdom literary yer;l-e. 111 oppositiori tc) many scholars, critical and conservative, Kaiser defends the Solon?on ic author- ship of Koheleth and differs rightly from many scholars who h;l\c !liI! grasped the true purpose of this inspired Scriptural book. Tile rheo!osic;ii i~fziib ar-e adequately presented as they relate to other parts of the Old testa;::^!^^ r-eveh- tion. The author has grouped his comments and exposltlolis arcjund :our !>art>. I. "Enjoying Life as a Gift from God," 1 :I-2:26; 2. "Underbtanding the .Ail-encorn- passing Ran of God,"3:1-5:20; 3. "Explaining and Apphins ihe Plan ol'God." 6:1-8:15; 4. "Removing Discouragements and Applying God's Plan to the Lives of Believers," 8:6-12: 14. Although the commentary was written specifically for laymen in non-techni- cal Ianguage, the professional theologian will find this commentary thought- provoking and helpful. A selected bibliography lists the major commentaries and journal articles that will prove further helpful in a detailed study of this wisdom book. Raymond F. Surburg ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE BIBLE. AN ~NTRODUCTORY STUDY. By Donald J. Wiseman and Edwin Yamauchi. Zondervan Publishing House, 1979. I22 pages. Soft cover. S3.95. This volume is one in Zondervan's Contemporar.v Evangelical I+r~pecrive Series- The two chapters which comprise this volume have been selected from the introductory articles that make up volume I of The Expositor's Bible Com- mentary, published by andeman, 1979. The authors wrote these chapters in 1974-75. Both chapters, the one dealing with the Old Testament and the other with the New Testament, were designed to providean outlineand overalI \it'#. ofthe sub- ject. Books listed in the bibliographies may be consulted by I hose wishing to pur- sue further the fascinating subject of biblical archaeology in depth and increase their knowledge of the interesting background materials which can aid in a better understanding of the text of Holy Writ. The study of archaeology adds a tangible dimension to people, places and events of long-past gcrierarion> of Hiblr: times. Dr. Wiseman, Professor of AssyrioIogy at the University of London, and Chairman of the British School of Archaeology in lraq, states in his preface: 82 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY "While such extrabiblical knowledge is not essential to learning, or responding to, the messages of the Bible, it does help us to bridge the gap between the his- torical events recorded there and today and to see how relevant and reliable the Bible is for us in the modem world" (p. 2). Wiseman traces Biblical history from the beginning of time to and including the Hellenistic period (33 1-63 B.C.). Dr. Edwin Yamauchi, Professor and Director of Graduate Studies, History Department, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, and author of The Srones and Scripture, treats of the archaeological discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean area, especially the texts in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Latin, which have helped people to understand the background of Jesus' parables, to have a better picture of St. Paul's cities, and to appreciate better the allusions in the Book of Revelation. For those who visit the Near East and the Levant a knowledge of recent New Testament archaeological discoveries will enable them to distinguish the true facts from what is fictional relative places mentioned in the Gospels, Acts and the epistolarly literature of the New Testament. In some instances discoveries have shown the erroneous character of New Testament literary criticism, as the work and discoveries of William Ramsey have shown. The book is an excellent introduction to the field of Biblical archaeology and is highly informative. Raymond F. Surburg IS ADAM A "TEACHING MODELYN THE NEW TESTAMENT? By J. P. Versteeg. Translated by Richard B. Gaffin, Jr. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1978. 67 pages. Paper. % 1.75. This monograph is a slighty abridged translation of "Is Adam in het Niewe Testament een 'leermodel? Woord en Kerk. Theologische bijdragen van de hoogleeren an de Theologiwhe Hogeschool der Chrisrelgke Gerejbrmeerde Kerken in Nederland bij de herdenking van het vifenzeven~zgiarzg bestan van de Hogesschool (Amsterdam: T. Holland, 1969), pp. 29-70. Versteeg has undertaken to examine one of the central points in the views of H. M. Kuitert and other theologians. Kuitert has adopted the view of many modem higher critical scholars who deny the historicity of Adam, the father of the human race. Evolutionary science has a diametrically opposite view about the origin of the human race. The specific question with which Versteeg deals is this: Do the sacred Scriptures characterize Adam as an historical person in whom the history of mankind began or is Adam merely a model, used in a frame- work of teaching, a model which is without historical significance? The answer to this question has far-reaching consequences ! A person's view of sin, redemp- tion and the Redeemer is closely connected with that person's view of Adam. Kuitert expressed his position regarding Adam in his book, Do You Under- srand W%ar You Read? For Kuitert it is important that the biblical writers be seen within the framework of their own time. "The time-bound dimension of Scrip- ture," says the Professor of the Free University of Amsterdam, "is. . . essential to its very character." The Dutch professor claims that just as the "firmament" in Genesis 1 is not to be taken literalIy, so one should not find a first set of parents in Genesis 2. Kuitert claims that the question of the historicity of Adam does not enter in a discussion of Romans 5: 1 1-2 1 or in I Timothy 2: 14. Kuitert contends that the parallel in Romans 5 between Adam and Christ is used for the purpose of "illuminating the meaning and scope of Jesus Christ and his work. Adam serves Paul by helping the apostle preach Jesus." Book Reviews 8 3 Versteeg in six chapters deals with: 1. The Concept "Teaching Model;" 11. The Data of Romans 5:12-21; 111. Other New Testament Data; IV. Rabbinic References to Actam; V. A Distance Between Intention and Significance? and VI. Consequences. Not only Kuitert but a number of other Dutch and other Continental theolo- gians are discussed in this apologetical monograph. Those who reject the his- toricity of Adam have embraced a heremeneutic which does violence to the intenaed meaning ot both the Old and New Testaments. Raymond F. Surburg 11. Doctrinal Studies THE PRINCIPLES OF THEOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTOIN TO THE THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES. By W. H. Griffith Thomas. Introduction by J. I. Packer. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1979. Paper. 548 pages. $8.95. Dr. Thornas, an Anglican theologian, has a career that covered Oxford, England; Toronto, Canada; and Dallas, Texas where he wasassociated with the founding of the famous seminary there. The Principfes leaves no doubt that Thomas was a great theologian and it is regretable that theauthor could not live to see the pubIication of his major work. While acknowledging a debt to Luther and the Lutheran Confessions, the Thirty-Nine Articles are seen within the mainstream of the Reformed and not the Lutheran faith. Archbishops Cranmer and Parker who spearheaded the Reformation during the reign of the Tudors learned more from Geneva rather than from Wittenberg. The characteristic Cal- vinistic emphasis on divine sovereignty is not a mark of Anglicanism. It does permeate its understanding of the sacraments, especially the Lord's Supper. Article 29 with its deniaI that the wicked participate in eating the body of Christ is said to be specifically anti-Lutheran and the Formula of Concord is said to condemn explicitly the published confessional Anglican view (p. 407). Luth- erans have been tempted to see in Anglicanism the Anglo-Saxon form of their own faith. This is always a mistake with grave consequences. Issues of polity more than theology divided Angticans from Reformed groups in Great Britain. The Principles is part of the Canterbury Book Series dedicated to the publi- cation of 'Lcontributions of authentic Anglican thought and theology." The reviewer certainly joins in wishing well any soundly Biblical revival in the Anglican communions. Dr. Packer, who provides the preface, might have been unnecessarily irritating in identifying the planting of "a sceptical and subjec- tivist new henneneutic on Enghsh soil" as Bultmann's "Lutheran music." Different words might be chosen for the next printing which will not offend Packer's many Lutheran admirers who see in Bultmann nothing of authentic Lutheranism. David P. Scaer THE GOD WHO CARES: A CHRlSTIAN LOOKS AT JUDAISM. By Frederick Holmgren. John Knox Press. Atlanta, 1979. 144 pages. Paper. $4.95. This book by Frederick HoImgren, Professor of Biblical Literature at North Park Theological Seminary, is described in the news release about this book, to be a long-awaited answer to the need for a sound introduction to the Jewish tradition. In the preface the author states: "This volume is addressed to Chris- tians who are unfamilair with the teachings of Judaism. It reflects the work of both Jewish and Christian scholars but it is a nontechnical presentation of some 84 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY central themes in ancient and modern Judaism. The book has in mind the lay- person and student. but it also addresses the pastor who has been given only a cursory introduction to Judaism in seminary" (p. 7). Chapter I contains a brief history of anti-Semitism, beginning with the New Testament and ending with the twentieth century. Chapters 3,4 and 5 deal with the understanding of Law, Mercy and Sacrificein the Hebrew Bible. In chapters 6 and 7 Holmgren looks at the teaching of the Law in the light of passages from rabbinic literature. Chapter 8 considers the nature of modem Judaic Law in the light of Abraham Joshua Heschel's writings. Chapter 10 deals with the two-fold problem of the Jewish-Christian reIationship: 1) the temptation of Christianity to caricature Judaism and 2) the possible contribution the Christian faith can make to human living. The author tries to show what elements Judaism and Christianity have in common; he emphasizes the strong Jewish character of the New Testament. Holmgren endeavors to show the beauty of the Torah and other Christian writings. TVo Christian can be proud of the fact that Christians down the centuries have persecuted and killed Jewish people. It was not in harmony with New Testa- ment teaching to force Jews to become Christians. Jewish people have suffered unjustly at the hands of Christians. However, Holmgren and other New Testa- ment scholars take the position that the New Testament has misrepresented the .Judaism of the first century. The Gospel of John is accused of containing many anti-.Semitic statements. The grossest and worst lie of the New Testament, sup- posedly is. that the Jewish Sanhedrin condemned Jesus to death and demanded of Pontius Pilate that Christ be crucified. Many of these anti-Semiticassertions are supposedly later interpolations. Holmgren cites the Gospel of John as con- taining anti-Semitic statements (p. 18). Matthew 23 is explained in such a way as to interpret it to mean, that Jesus did not pronounce those harsh statements against the Scribes and Pharisees. Romans 9-1 1 he misinterprets in his endeavor to paint a picture that the Jews will not be lost, claiming that no objective exegesis will find such views in these three chapters. The understanding of the Old Testament which various New Testament writers give (cf. the Epistle to the Hebrews) as to the true nature of Judaism is ignored. Jesus'assertion that no person, and that would include physical descen- dants of Abraham. can be saved apart from faith in him (John 14:6) is placed side by side with the statement of Abraham Heschel: "Do Christians readily believe that it is God's will that every synagogue throughout the world be closed'?" and the Christian reader is left to make a choice. But John 3:16 clearly states that whosoever believes in Christ will be saved and he who does not believe is condemned. In dealing with historic Judaism Holmgren completely ignores the Jewish belief in a coming Messiah, who was foretoId in the Old Testament. This re- viewer believes that Holmgren does not believe in the deity of Christ, for in writing about Jesus he asserts "we do not want to deny - indeed, that in Jesus Christ we have discerned the presence of God." (p. 140). Christ was the God- Van not merely a human individual in whom God's presence was found. What Holmgren has been advocating for both the OId and New Testament is a reli- gion of work righteousness. The doctrine of justification by faith is never hinted at or spoken about. The contention that Judaism is just as viable a religion as Christianity is a conclusion that the Christian reader is Ieft to draw from this book. Raymond F. Surburg Book Reviews 8 5 THE USIVERSE YEXT DOOR. By James W. Sire. Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois. 1976. The intent of James Sire's book is indicated by its subtitle: "A Basic World View Catalog." His purpose is to describe the various world views operative today, and to help us communicate with others who may not share our world view. The book contains seven chapters on the current options as Sire sees them: Christian Theism, Deism, Naturalism, Nihilism, Existentialism. Eastern Pan- theistic Monism, and the Xew Consciousness. The last two of these chapters are perhaps the most valuable. Sire has per- formed the valuable service of summarizing the eastern approach to religionand life. The importance of understanding eastern thought for the Christian apologistlevangelist can hardly be overestimated in America today. lgnoring something doesn't make it go away. Sire believes the movement toward eastern thought was brought on by the rejection of middle class values in the sixties and a general dissatisfaction with technology, coupled with gross injustice in society which was perceived by many to be intensified by western religion. Followers of eastern religions are looking for a meaningful approach to life which seems to be without meaning. Tbeir route is to see "good" and "evil" as part of the essential "oneness" behind the universe. Arising out of the same concerns is the interest in the New Consciousness, which Sire sees as a western version of eastern religion. included under this cate- gory are: parapsychology, drug-induced states of consciousness, and the rise of the occult. Here Sire provides an excellent summary of Carlos Castaneda's "systematics" of the occult in his writings, which trace his study, apprenticeship, and final acceptance of the sorcery of Don Juan, his Indian teacher. If there is any disappointment with this book, it could be that Sire has not undertaken a more vigorous Christian apologetic. For example, though he touches on the doctrine of angels in his chapter on Castaneda, much more could have been done in showing that orthodox Christianity has always taught a "uni- verse next door' in that there is more to reality than meets theeye, i.e., the coter- minal (and according to modem physics, interrelated) worlds of the spiritual and the physical. It is evident that the Christian in his witness today must assume an apologetic role. No longer can we be content to "share the message" and then leave con- temporary man to ''just believe." This approach was perhaps possible before the popular acceptance of rationalism and naturaIism. but not today. How would we respond to a naturalist, for example, who would reply on hearing the Gospel: "That's very interesting, but I don't believe there is a God" - oran existentialist who says: ''That may be true for you, but not for me? Sire betrays a bit of Reformed bias in his optimistic view of man's ability to "deciden to believe in God, though he claims inpartiality on the issue (pp. 36-37). His positive contribution to tbeapologetic task, however. is that he enables us to see the inner inconsistencies of the prevalent world views and to show how the claims of the Word of God meet the reality of the world as it is. Once we have removed the rationalistic roadblocks many have erected, we can the more clear- ly present the claims of the Gospel, which alone is the power of God for salvation. "Faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God." (Romans 10: 17) Only after we have deaIt with the issues raised by other world views will we be able to effectively present that Word so it can be truly heard by modern man. 86 CONCORDlA THEOI_OGiCAL QUARTERLY Sire has highlighted the challenge tc the Christian apologist: "How shaIl they hear without a preacher?" Harold L. Senkbeil Morris, Minnesota BU DDHISM AND CHRISTIANITY. Edited by Claude Geffre and Mariasusai Dhavamony. The Seabury Press, New York, 1979. Paper. 126 pages. $4.95. Vatican I1 opened the doors of dialog for Roman Catholicism not only to the Christian denominations but also to other religions. The essays coming from Catholic discussions with Buddhists are described by the editors in the intro- duction as a"th~ologica1 evaluation of another religionwin the light of Christian revelation (p. x.). Buddhism is defined more as a philosophy of life rather than a religion. Essays developing out of dialog situations tend to be more positive and thus less critical in their evaluation and these are no exception. The essays are grouped under three headings: suffering and liberation, theology, and reports of the actual dialogs. The latter group suffers from the usual housekeeping report- ing which is the disease of churchly discussions. The essayists haveaccepted the general understanding of Vatican I1 that God is at work in other religions and thus there are lessons to be learned (p. 95). This assumption may open the door too wide! The Reverend Mervyn Ferdinando, who is deeply involved in both the theological and administrative aspects of the dialogs, clearly distinguishes Christianity as a religion of revelation from Buddhism as a method of self-liberation (p. 90). He identifies the Buddhist antitheses to Christianity as "no God, no Faith, and no God-salvation." He then startingly concludes with this positive judgment. "This antithetical experience about God and the world, about the All, is most disturbing and most rewarding for the human soul (p. 93." Working from the premise that God works in other religions, he can perhaps come to no other conclusion. But how can Chris- tianity which is based on a personal revelation of God in history benefit from a religion which recognizes neither God nor revelatb? One essayist, Andre Bareau provides an historicalsketch of the Buddha and dispells common myths. Several essayists (Boyd, Dumoulin, Vos) get into the actual practice of Buddhism, which seems a vastly complicated form of self-hypnosis. As the Christian churches are faced with an invasion of eastern thought,even if they are not specifically Buddhistic, these essays are a general and digestable introduction. The writers' expertise are above question. One clear fact comes through. In Christianity Christ serves as the object of worship and teacher and not only as a model. The Buddha serves only the latter function. Buddhism is pietism without God. Some forms of Christianity would feel very comfortable with this. The western culture is already suffering from the scourge cf nihilism. Whether this is internal deterioration or an eastern import is debatable. Paui Tillich was greatly influenced by nihilistic easterr, thought and brought it into Christian theology. The 'God is dead' theology of rhe f 960s had more in common with Buddhism than Christianity with the oniy adjustment that Christ was made to serve in the Buddha role. A more sobering note could have been added to these informative and enlightening mays if oce had been inclilded handling from an historical aspect the transfusions of eastern (Buddhist) thoughi which have already taken place into Christianity. David P. Scaer Bocji: Reviews 87 I BELIEVE: A OF E.2-Pj-IER'S SMALL. AND LARGE CATECHISMS. By bjarne W. Teigen. Lutheran Synod BOOK Company, Man- kai~. M3, !959. 29 pages. Paper. 51 25. This is :he focrtk in the fixie book!cc scriss by Dr. Teigen to help lay persons in particuiar coalmemorate the Luit~erar! Confessions. I'eigen is lucid in his writing stpie and he is co~nhrtable with the historical details surrounding Luther's corrlposition of his catechisms, so that the reader is drawn into the reformer's mind. This shouid be the xricst s~ccessful of the five, as Teigen is at home in the thoughr of Luther. The 16th century reformer comes alive in the 20th century writer. Teiger! k!lowsand breatnes Luther. The latter quality bnngs the subject matrer to iife. Of tht eleven chapters, five are devoted to the com- mandments reflecthg the proportionare space given by Luther to them in the Large &techism. The last chapter hanales private confession, prayers, table of duties and the ministerial accs of rsarriage and baptism. A11 topics in the last chaptei with the exceptio~ of ~rlvare confession, are marked with subtitles (pp. -. 26-7;. Why the omission'? In speaiirng about not admitting some to com- munion, Teigefi ilses the Szmiiiar +rase, "'close communion."' As uncomfor- tabie 35 the ierm '::lcsed corfirr.~~~ir;n" is, it is theologically more proper and more propsriy convzys wha~ the chcrch iztcnds to say. "C!ose communion" has s regretable chumsiness aboui it and breathes the church supper mentality of Schleierinzcfier. Lzh oT the e!even cfizp~ers has a set of questions to make the bookiet eminen:Iy and immediately ;>:j~i=;l ior group study. David P. Scaer OUR LIFE IN GOD'S LIGHT. ESj;K\(S BY HUGH T. KERR. John M. ~Mulder, Editor. The \Nestminsrer Fr~ss, Phiiadelphia, i979. 349 pages. Soft cover $7.95. Hzrdboucd S 12.50. Hugn T. Kerr is Benjamin B. Warlieid Professor Emeritus of Theology Princeton Tnzologicai Seminary. rfic vohme contains mostIy thirty-five articles by Hugh Kerr, originally written for Theology Today the theological journal which repiaced The Princetcn :FJ!~.oiogical Review, in 193G. These Kerr articles can give the reader a vivid picrurc of religious reflection of the past thirty-five years, a peroid of time which saw such tileological @ants as Reinhold Niebuhr, Paui Tiiiich, 'Karl Baith, and John -4. T. Robinsons. This epoch of 20th cenrury theological history aiso witnesses such different issues as situation ethics "death of God" theology 2s weii a3 :he theologies of hope and liberation. Students of theology appreciated Kerr's volumes, A Compend of'the Chris- tian Religion by John Culvin and A Corcpend of Luther's Theology. Mulder, Assistant Professor of American Church History at Princeton Theological Seminary, ha6 grouped the essays and editorials around four major topics: I. A. Critical Theciogy; IT. An Articulate Fairh; Ili. A Futuristic Ministry and IV. To Lift the Human Spirit. After a reqmnieo by Dr. Kerr, there is a bibliography of books cited in this volume and a list itf the writings of Professor Kerr. A reading of these writings of Kerr wi11 show that the Princeton Seminary after 1930 was considerably different from the old Princeton Theoiogy and those who believed that theology was nct a4jus:aSle to the spirit of the age but that there were fixed theoiogical iniths cari appreciate why scholars like Machen, Allis, Van Ti1 and others found the armosphere of the new Princeton stifling and believed that the Neo-orthdoxy that was being promoted was not the theology of Benjamin Warfield, Green, Hodge and other former stalwarts of Princeton. 8 8 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY The whole enterprise of theology is reinterpreted in the articles which have appeared in Theology Today. The gospel is not a definite message but is por- trayed as a message which must be made palatable to modern man. In the interest of the evangelistic approach Scriptural teachings must be made appealing by rejecting basic biblical teachings. In reading this volume, the reviewer was reminded of Paul's statement that Christians "should no longer be children, tossed up and down, and blown by every wind of teaching, tricked by the craft of men in the snares of misleading error; but holding the truth in love, we shall grow up in every part into him who is our Head, even Christ." Our Lge in God's Light will be a good aid in showing how theological opinions and views have been constantly shifting in tne last iour decades. Raymond F. Surburg Ill. Historical Studies THE ARABS: A SHORT HISTORY. By Philip K. Hitti. Revised Edition. Gateway Editions, Ltd., South Bend, Indiana, 1970. 274 Pages. Paper. $4.95. Dr. Philip D. Hitti, the Dean of Middle East Historians in America, initially wrote a Historv of the Arabs in the 1940's. That became a classic - in terms of investigation, narration, and interpretation ana attained a warm recep- tion among Orientalists. Macmillan and Princeton University both made it available to the reading public. Now Gateway Editions of South Bend, Indiana, has rendered a valuable service to a new generation of American students of the Middle East by publishing this revised edition of The Arabs. Certainly this volume - with its judicious statements, succinct text, and readable style -will render yeoman service - as a college, university, and seminary textbook, as a primer on Arab history and culture for informed citizens, as a resource for pastors and teachers. In 274 pages Dr. Hitti does the almost impossible - he provides a survey of Arab history - in its three great dimensions - politics, religion, and culture - from the days of Abraham to those of Nasser. The nineteenchapters explain the origins of Arabs, Muslims, and Semites, introduce "The Original Arab, the Bedouin," probe conditions in Arabia on the eve of Muhammad, report the life and labors of the Prophet, explore the theology, piety, and mysteries of the Quran and Islam, then narrate and interpret the rise and spread of Islam in the Middle Ages, with especial attention to Spain (which along with Sicily and Syria was one of the three avenues for the introduction of Arab thought and letters into Europe), review everyday life in the days of the Abbasids, evaluate Arab science and literature, as well as other dimensions of Saracen Civilization, give an exploration of the many contributions of High Islamic Culture to the Feudal West, and then sum up the Crusades, the impact of the Turks, Mongols, and Franks, the influence of European Imperialism, and the prospects for the future on the eve of the Arab Renaissance and, perhaps, a Resurgence of Islam. 1 recommend this book very highly - to the beginner - it is a fine text with which to being the fascinating story of the Arabs - and also to the expert, for it is a model of how to write, as well as a stimulating review of the subject. C. George Fry TALES OF PERSIA: A BOOK FOR CHILDREN. By William McElwee Miller. Illustrated by Lily Melton. Dorranceand Company, Philadelphia, 1979. 145 Pages. Cloth. $5.00. Book Reviews 89 In 1979 Dr. William McElwee Miller celebrated the sixtieth anniversary of his going to Iran as a missionary. During his ministry of more than half a century Bill Miller has done many, many things, and there is no indication that he is al- lowing retirement to slow him down. Having recently authored books on both the Muslim and Bahai faiths, Dr. MiIIer now turns his attention to writing stories for children. This small book of 145 pages contains some twenty-three real life stories from Iran drawn from the experience of Dr. Miller and his coworkers. Each story is illustrated handsomely with the drawings of Lily Melton. Suitable for children of all ages (is anyone ever too old for a good story book?) these TALES OF PERSIA tell us why Bill Miller left his native Ken- tucky to go as a missionary to Iran, how Islam began. how Gasem was con- verted as a result of reading the paper in which his lunch was wrapped, why Sang became an evangelist and tract missionary, how the Bible can now speak in Per- sian, why Rostam was happy, and much more. Written in simple yet stirring language, TALES OF PERSIA can be read by parents to their young children, or used as a gift for children (about fourth or fifth grade) who prefer to read alone. Each story concludes with a suggested Bible lection, indicating how the book can be used as a devotional guide. I, personalIy, am glad that Bill Miller recalled with what delight he listened to his mother read to him as a boy in Ken- tucky the TALES OF A GRANDFATHER by Sir Walter Scott, and that he decided then to draw on his wealth of memories of a lifetime in Iran and write these TALES OF PERSIA for boys and girls and grown-ups in America who have a concern for bringing Christ to the East. The result is an edifying, inform- ing, and inspiring book. C. George Fry THE ARABS: PEOPLE AND POWER. By the editors of EN- CYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA. Bantam / Britannica Books, New York, 1978. 268 Pages. Paper. $2.50. The Arabs are on the march. Not since the Middle Ages have the Arabs occupied such a prominent place in the political, economic, and religious life of the planet as they do today. Daily headlines about OPECmeetings, PLOactivi- ties, the adventures of Sadat, Qaddafi, Yamani, and Assad, and the resurgence of Islam all remind us of the amazing Arab renaissance that has occurred since World War 11. Many in the West were taken by surprise by this rebirth of the ArabEast. It is difficult to realize that -lid& (in Saudi Arabia) will have the world's largest air- port (bigger than Manhattan island), that Abu Dhabi (on the Arab or Persian Gulf) probably has the highest per capita income of any country on earth, and that the Quran may very well be the most widely read book on our planet in 1980. The shocks are only beginning. More seem in store. AS a result, Westerners are seeking information about the Arabs fast. This slick paperback is one of many new books on the market designed to meet that need. Prepared by the editors of Encyc!opedia Britannica for Bantam Books this 268 page paperback attempts in ten chapters to introduce the Arabs, explain their origins and characteristics, interpret their religion, expound on their rapid century of expansion (632-732, from the death of Muhammad to the Battle of Tours) from a peninsula (the largest on earth) to a tricontinental empire (Europe, with Spain and Sicily; Africa from Morocco to Somalia; Asia from Sinai to Sinkiang), recount thc many Arab contributions to global civiliza- tion (ranging from sugar and syrup, both Arab words, incidentally, to surgery, 90 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY chemistry, astronomy, philosophy, and agriculture), account for the Arab "Dark Ages" (centuries of slumber in the wake of Crusaders, Mongols, and Turks), and to narrate the "Arab Awakening" (to use George Antonius* term). That is quite a task. There are over 100,000,000 Arabs living in 2 I (or 22 coun- tries, if one includes Palestine), ranging in wealth from Kuwait (with a per capita income of 310,000 per year, one of the highest in the word) to North Yemen, a pocket of abysmal poverty (with perhaps the lowest per capita income on earth). Furthermore, Arabs are much divided - in politics (from conservative mon- archies to radical republics), in religion (being both Sunni and Shiite), and in custom (both sophisticated urbanites and preliterate bedouins). Perhaps no one volume could meet the challenge. The result in this instance is a "mixed bag." Coverage is "spotty" (I would have preferred more on the Otto- man and European Imperial periods). Interpretations in several instances could be challenged (as p. 117, Iraq is said to be the most successful of the European mandates in the Middle East; why?). The style is uneven (it seems heavy and pedantic; just like "homework"). A sense of momentum often is missing (but, after alI, any book by committee can end up "choppy"). But the editors have included a lot, in brief compass, with maps, pictures, and up-todate facts. For the busy pastor, teacher, or lay leader seekinga quick source for facts and figures, this will be a helpful tool. It can also be employed as a survey of Arab his- tory. For the persistent and determined reader, The Arabs: People and Power will provide rewards. C. George Fry ISLAM: A WAY OF LIFE. By Philip K. Hitti. Regnerv,'Gateway, Inc., South Bend, Indiana, 1970, 198 Pages. Paper. $4.45. This book originated as a series of public lectures delivered in 1967 at the Uni- versity of Minnesota where Dr. Philip K. Hitti, "the Dean of American Orien- talists," wasa visiting professor. Correctly identifying Islam as a religion, a state, and a culture, Hitti proceeds to devote a third of the book of each of these three dimensions of the Muslim "Way of Life." The incIusiveness of each section of the volume is commendable. In the sec- tion on religion Hini treats Muhammad as a man and as a prophet, introduces the Quran, surveys Muslim Beliefs and Practices (though he has come up with a somewhat original listing of Muslim Dogmas, adding "Sin" as a sixth belief alongside God, Prophecy, the Quran, Angels, and the Judgment!, studies Muslim theology and law, and gives a sympathetic introductio;~ to Sufism (Muslim mysticism). The unit on the state is a quick moving survey of Arab Muslim history form Abu Bakr (632, the first Caliph) to the fall of Baghdad (in 1258 to Hulagu the Mongol). Particularly charming was the part on Islam as a culture, containing discussions of Arab science, literature, philosophy, and art, with generous indications as to the impact of Saracen Civilization on the West. A conclusion evaluates the reciprocal impact in modem times (since Napoleon I) of the West on Islam. T?~is is a valuable book. It is succinct, crisp in style, gem-like in brilliance, covering much material in a brief compass. As an introduction to Islam, it wiH remain a classic for years to come. Regnerv/Gateway is to be commended for making thls text avatable agam in a popular addition. Even classics, however, have flaws. This is a study of Arab Islam, for Turks and Persians are pretty much omitted (unless they wrote in Arabic in thedays of Book Reviews 9 1 the Arab Empire) and only passing reference is made to Islam in India, Indonesia, and Black Africa. The number of Muslims given on page 2 as 450,000,000 needs updating; it is now 750,000,000. Since Muhammad was ap- parently illiterate, it would be better to speak of his "oraclesn rather than his "writings" (p. 15). Some Old Testament scholars would question the statement that Wisdom was a Hebrew goddess (p. 26). Evangelical readers will regard the differences between Islam and Christianity as more fundamental than one is led to believe at certain points (cf. pp. 39,40). A typo an page 82, stating that the Arabs crossed the Pyrenees for the first time in 91 8 ought to be corrected to 718. The passing aside that "creativity based on nothing takes place only in theology" @. 131) while "cute," is out of keeping with the author's otherwise objective style. Finally, in the concluding section, there is no anticipation of the current revival of Ishm and the rejection of Western values in some Muslim states. This book is like a fine Persian carpet. Of course it contains imperfections (for only God is without flaw). The eye, however, falls not on the defects, but the compelling design and the arresting color. As an introduction and interpreta- tion of Ishm, Hitti's text remains a treasure. C. George Fry VOLKSKIRCHE - KlRCHE DER ZUKUNFI? Various authors. Heft 12/13 of a series ZUR SACHE: Kirchliche Aspekte Heute. Lutherisches Verlagshaus: Hamburg. 1977. Paper. DM 12.80. nis series of essays was presented before the VELKD (Vereinigte Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche Deutschlands), not the same as EKiD, which represents the Landeskirchen proper. More conservative opinion can be expected from some members of VELKD. The editors of this double issue are the chairman and business manager of this society, von Wenzel Lohff and Lutz Mohaupt. The contributors are highly stationed people, representing high church offices and various institutions, including also Dr. Manfred Roensch of Oberursel, the seminary of the Lutheran free churches. The principal topic under discussion is given in a subtitle, "Guidelines from the Augsburg Confession for Today's Understanding of the Church." Is the Volkskirche(nationa1 church) the church of the future? The question has become more pressing since this reviewer discussed it with several Oberkirchenraetc in Germany twelve years ago. A German author describes the Volkskirche with the words ". . . und ihr Netz zerriss," (and her net broke). In consideration of the fact that some political parties carry a plank which advocates ending state sup- port of the churches, the leaders of the Volkskirck saw themselves facing a frantic situation without support from the national income tax. The churches have recently enjoyed great prosperity. The studies do not propose that they can resolve the question, but they hold that it must be taken up. Some thematic sentences will show the trend: The church of the Gospel is an open church. Reformation doctrine is its orientation. The church of faith is present in the church of experience. The church of the Gospel is the church ofjustification. The church as an institution is the church of Christian liberty. The sending of the church places it into God's world. The Volkskirche renews itself in the life of the congregation. In doctrine and life it must be recognized that the magno consensu of CA 4 has been abandoned, and righteousness is sought in works. The above statements represent the published report of a theological committee of the VELKD. Prof- Dr. Dietrich RMssler writes from a sociological viewpoint; A theory of the formation of a religious society is at the same time a theory of society in 92 CONCORDlA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY general . . . The church of the AC is the Volkskirche. It is this in the sense that there 1s no difference between society and church membership. The church is the religious institution for society as a whole. . .The church is in no sense a societas peqecta. Society becomes the church, and the difference between the "two king- doms" vanishes. Dr. Joest speaks differently: The "two-kingdom" doctrine should not be cast aside as a theory that failed to prove true. He also says that the Confessions find the office of the ministry in the universal priesthood . . . Graf Reventlow writes 14 fair theses, but adds the note: The literal understanding of the Messianic prophecies as pointing to Christ is no longer tenable in today's scholarship. Juergen Becker hauls out the full complement of historicocritical reflections as co-referent against Dr. Joest. According to Becker the N.T. does not suggest aoneness of the church; the variations are too great in soteriology, in ecclesiology, and eschatology. He finds differences in the doctrine of justifica- tion between Paul and Matthew. James, and the Book of Revelation. He holds that the Reformation could make its case against medieval Christianity only by emphasizing the "Syrian-Antiochene" use of "evangel" and the special Pauline tradition. Albrecht Peters, Manfred Roensch, and Hans-Martin Mueller write on spirituality, pietism and piety. In Peters the difference between Luther and the Schawermer is diminished. Roensch writes a wholesome and informative article on piety before pietism, but he hardly contributes to the discussion of the future of the Volkskirche. In Mueller the tension is between certainty and openness. The Kerngemainde (the faithful few) wants certainty, while the Randgernainde (escaped through the broken net) pursues openness in total de-institutionaliza- tion and de-theologization. 0. Stahlke FAlTH AND FREEDOM. Toward a Theology of Liberation. By Shubert M. Ogden. Abingdon, Nashville 1979. I28 pages. Paper, $3.95. Dr. Ogden is at Perkins School of Theology and director of Graduate Studies in religion at Southern Methodist L!.. Dallas. According to Ogden the multitude of theologies of liberation proclaimed today, various ethnic theologies, women's theology, black theology, third world theology, etc. are a subphase of social gospel theology. They fail to develop afull picture, such as the term 'theology' implies. They might better be termed a 'rationale' for action in a certain area, since they are concened with an action, with justice, with humannistic objectives. Ogden considers the 'polemic against so-called academic theologyw by these theologies of liberation as quite inadequate and out of order. Their view of redemption and emancipation is too restricted or provincial. So far this reviewer is able to agree with the author. The source of Ogden's judgment is quite different, however. He explams, "why 1 myself am no longer able to give the reply that Protestant theologians have traditionally given." To Ogden "all religious assertions are existential as- sertions." 'Faith in God is existence in freedom." "Faith as primarily belief about God has no warrant whatevereither in Scripture, or, more importantly, in the apostolic witness." He makes the sharpest distinction between faith in God and faith about God. His authorities are David Hume, Alfred North White- head, and Charles Hartshorne. In a proper, "genuinely postliberal theology" a process theology must beembraced, with a "process philosophy" lying behind it. On this ground Ogden criticizes especially Juan Luis Segundo ("Our Idea of God"). a theology showing 'Signs of still being very much under the influence of a metaphysical understanding of God that has played a fateful tole in Christian Book Reviews 93 theology." Ogden procedes to "bretcherize" not only the Scriptures, but also the nature of God and the doctrine of redemption. This is a small paperback, but it is a "humdinger" with a wallop of postliberal theology, explicit and easily recognized. 0. Stahlke JEWS AND JUDAISM SINCE JESUS. AN INTRODUCTION. By Har- riet L. Kaufman. Kaufman House Publishers, 386 Terrace Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1978. 88 pages. Paper. $3.95. The book is designed to give church groups, both Christian and Jewish, a better understanding of Judaism. The book is not intended to be a history of Judaism nor a complete introduction to Judaism. The volume ignores most Jewish holidays, festivals and customs. It is not written to be a text incornpara- tive religion. Ms. Kaufman states that she avoided "measuring Judaism and Christianity against each other. My purpose in designing these teachings aids was only to introduce my students to Judaism. My classes affirm both reli- gions." (from the foreword) The author claims: "Judaism was a living, loving and diverse religion during Jesus' life and it remains so today. The reality is missing from most published histories and American Christian education materials" (p. 1). The volume is or- ganized to have the following: a Glossary, a Chronology, Historical Outline, Bibliography and Maps. The Glossary sets forth basicconcepts in thecontext of life. Each section begins with a definition. Sayings and folktales are presented to give additional insights in to the Am Ykrael, the Jewish people. The definition and application are not to be separated says Ms. Kaufman, "because Jews sanctify this life as their acknowledgment of God's dominion." In the parallel Chronology events in Western and Jewish histories are placed side by side. Major events in Jewish life are cited which indicate the vigor and faith of Jews throughout the centuries. The Outline gives the story of key personalities, events, and beliefs they generated, and how they shaped Jews and Judaism. The Outline emphasizes the different ways Jewish people were taught by their religious leaders to adopt the ancient oral and written laws to insure physical survival and religious fidelity. An annotated bibliography list books which deal with the whole field of Judaism as well as the subject of Christian-Jewish relationships. The Maps indi- cate how widely the Jews have been dispersed among the world's nations and how through Jewish merchants ideas and letters could be exchanged. A great deal of interesting information has been crowded into eightyeight pages. Christian users can iearn much from a study of this study-book. The book contains a rather lengthy section, entitled "Antisemitism." Kauf- man defined the term as follows: "Antisemitism is the modern expression for the historic hatred of Jews and Judaism and those acts provoked by that emnity." The historv of Antisemitism is begun with Antiochus IV, 175-164 B.C. and fol- lowea up into the twentieth century. In speaking about Jesus the author claims that he essentially followed Pharasaic teaching. Jesus proclaimed himself the Messiah, a claim which some Jews accepted. After his death, his followers claimed that he was raised from thedead. Kaufrnan says nothing about who was responsible for the death of Jesus. The books she refers to in the bibliography and recommends are those that claim the New Testament has misrepresented the facts and that the New Tesrament has been responsible for Antisernifism on the 94 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY part of those Christian churches who have accepted the clear statements record- ing the historical fact that Christ was condemned to death by the Sanhedrin and that this body and other Jews insisted that Christ be crucified. Factsare facts and wishing them not to be true does not make them untrue! If the Gospels, the Epistles of Paul and the Book of Acts record them as historical factsand they are not me, then the N.T. would be a book of lies and fraudulent. How can Chris- tians place their faith in a Bible that contains historical fiction, yea, even lies? That Jews and Judaism have suffered at the hands of Christians in post- Biblical times no one denies or defends. One can oppose the theological beliefs of another religion without, however, persecuting people for their religious beliefs. But true Biblical Christianity insists that there is no salvation for any person apart from Christ, no matter what his color, sex, race or educational status might be. Raymond F. Surburg IV. Practical Studies THE SECRET OF SOUL WINNING. By Stephen F. Olford. Moody Press, Chicago, 1978. 121 pages. Paper. $2.50. Olford writes in a good simple style and is easy reading. He approaches evangelism (soul-winning, to him) in a broad sense that includes what you do and say to people in church, at the rear of the church, etc. He tends to leave no stone unturned. He does make a few interesting statements that are missed in other books. Instead of staring that we do have some inherent power to "win souls for Christ," he states that Christ is the only real soul-winner and we are not. He does, however, develop that since we are in Christ and Christ in us, we have the tools to be rea1 soul winners. His approach is a bit refreshing in that it does not play down the actual role of the indwelling of God in His people. It also serves to encourage those in the faith to realize what they have and to make good use of it. All that being said, he comes back and sees Baptism as something less than a sacrament. This in unfortunate since the Great Commission tells us weare to dis- ciple other nations via baptism and implies a meat miracle that occurs through it. He gives us beauty in bang in Christ, but takes it away by playing down one of the means of becoming "in Christ." There are some sections in his book that could have been omitted, in my opinion, but I also feel that he could have expanded on ihapter nine (some- thing seldom alluded to) since it views us ac u~ristians who are constantly pIagued with sinful desires (many books pr;~ that once we're in the faith, we somehow lose any semblance of sin . . .). Of recent books, although there are theological differences, I find this one a bit refreshing! Robert H. Collins EVANGELIZATION IN THE WORLD TODAY. Concilium. Edited by Norbwt Greinacher and Alois Miiller. The Seabury Press, New York, 1979.123 pages. Paper. S4.95. Tk book features various scholarly authors speaking to the topic of evangelism. The book seems to base itself on the "Cordeiro Report" of the Bishop's Synod held in Rome in 1974, where evangelism was defined as "pro- chiming the joyous message cf dvauon to all men through words, deeds and life ifseIfIfU The question of whether the "uaditionalw method of evange1'im is Book Reviews 95 apropos or not is taken up as well. Can one say that the nations that have been evangelized have an identity of their own other than what was brought to them by missionaries? The vital question of evangelizing and retaining an identity is brought out nicely. Different authors present various views that assume that the way the Church did its evangelizing (or enculturating) in the past was not correct. There is a subtle assumption that perhaps the Church should focus more on people as we find them and not disrupt their culture. Some authors go far enough to say that the true God can be found among non-Christian faiths and in some instances it would be best to acknowledge this and get on with the order of being brothers to these people. What is now considered conversion is not given prominence. The fallacy it brings forth is that to preach Christ is not to change a culture per se (that is, from what it was to become Western), but in preaching Christ many changes will occur in one's culture no matter how it is viewed. Since religion and culture are so closely interwoven, it can hardly be assumed that in doing evangelism you can retain the old culture (along with the old re1igion)in "peace- ful coexistence." This book lives up to its purpose in examining and critiquing modem day methods of evangelizing, but also fails miserably in seeing how a %oww Jesus would have His word taken to aU people. Far too much ofthe book is philosophicaland not theological. There are, however, moments of pleasure in reading it providing one does not forget the purpose of why it was written. Far too much guilt for past evangelism efforts penetrates the book and far too little of what Christ, and not modern %expertsw says, dominates its thought. Robert H. Collins HOW TO WITNESS SUCCESSFULLY: A Guidebook for Christians to Share the Good News. By George Sweeting. Moody Press, Chicago, 1978. 127 pages. Paper. $2.95. Sweeting writes with a very simple and readable styfeand allows the reader to get multi-usage out of it (private, groups or Sunday School). His basic assump tion for the successful witness is that this person must be a Christian and con- victed in his heart. As he develops this, he tends to make the power of the Word contingent on the speaker and not in itself. It is very true that believers make good witnesses, but it is equally true that whenever the word is proclaimed (re- gardless of the motive of the speaker), God is at work (Is. 55: 10, 1 1) effectively. It should be made clear that the author does have a book that is simple and clear to the average person. Since he addresses the man-on-the-street and not theologians, his language is quite appropriate. . . even if this writer finds it ob- jectionable theologically. He does make the same mistake as mny other writers have done (re : evangelism) in seeing John 4 (woman at the well) as the methodof evangelism that Christ hands us, rather than a method. He's a bit weak, if not totally silent, on how to witness to peopIe who have no knowledge of Jesus as Savior. One chapter on "Presenting the Gospelw contains some "signs" that do everything but allow you to see how God comes to you. It's more like how you must find Him! This is already a frustration among believers and would even be worse among those outside the faith. The idea of getting decisions isn't new, but it does raise the question on whether evangelism is man's effort to save, or God's. If it is God's, man is a pro- claimer and sharer, not a coercer. His views see man as assisting in the process of conversion. Much of the same is reflected m his chapter on getting a verdict, something about which he remains nebulous in def- but insistent on doing. 96 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY Readers will get something from the book, perhaps a lot, but the title is a bit misleading as if witnessing has it failure moments. This writer missed the real definition of what a witness reaIIy is which coukf have helped matters a lot. Robert H. Collins THE FAITH LETTERS. By Helmut Thielicke. Trans. by Douglas Crow. Word Books, Waco, Texas. 194 pages. 57.95. One never knows when an awakening of Christian thought and life will occur in Lutheran sectors of Germany. Remember the mission societies of the nine- teenth century? Out of a group of pastors who met with Thielicke in Hamburg to study their texts for forthcoming sermons, a wider concern developed. Thielicke had been involved in his own efforts in adult Christian Education since 1934 when he switched from more abstract philosophy and theology to communication of basic Christian beliefs and practices to the masses. His 'Didactic Sermons" over the decades have made him world famous. Now, in October 197 1, he involved an organized study and communication group in Hamburg to lead discussion groups at St. Michael's Church. About one third of the 2,000 plus who listened, remained for study and discussion. The 'Project Groupw which organized the discussions spun off into prison work, counselling, dissemination of Thiekke's lectures to other churches in dis- tant cities, etc. Thielicke notes. me flood of subscriptions climbed so high that after scarcely eighteen months their circulation was already a quarter of a mil- lion" (p. 9). Thielicke's format is that of a 'letter." Simple language. Sincere. FiIled with feeling. Spiced with Thielicke's sense of humor. (When they went to visit prisoners, posters in prison referred to them as uheavenly jokers"). Subjects of the "letters" include "The Secret Quest for God," "God as 'Father' - The Limit of Our Concepts," 'Man Suffers - Has God Failed," etc. Thielicke's Project Group puts a strong case for Christian faith over against the resistant secularism of our culture. The Faith Letters has already appeared in five languages. It should provoke thought for various study in parishes, on campuses, etc. The last chapter describes the methods the Group uses to stimulate Christian- oriented discussion and expand its spheres of influence and outreach. The for- mulation of stimulating, vital questions and the structure and comprehensive- ness of religious thought in the body of the book, together with this last chapter on merhods, make this a valuable addition to one's libmy of useful theological books. Harold H. Zietlow GLORY IN THE CROSS: A STUDY IN ATONEMENT. By Leon Moms. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Reprinted in 1979 from the 1966 edition. 94 pages. Paper. 52.50. Leon Moms has written comprehensively on the biblical passages relevant to the cross in two other books, The Cross in the New Testament and 7he Apostolic Preaching of the Cross. In this little paperback, Gfory in the Cross. he makes h appeals for the kchive biblical statement of atonem. He shows that all of the emphasa on Book Reviews 97 the atonement in the New Testament are relevant in the current human situation. This book is an apologetic for the complete doctrine of the atonement in the New Testament. Moms uphokis the views that the 5aviwwdies on thecross to save us, that sin demands retribution, and, the wrath of God. Therefore, the atonement is important to God as well as man. The spiritual sickness of man has to beforgiven before the physical symptoms are treated, as seen when Jesus forgives the sins of the paralytic and then heals him (Mk. 25). Like P. T. Forsythe, Morris stresses thepdgment of God and the eficacy of the cross. We can no more negotiate our way into heaven without the cost of sin being paid than we can negotiate with the ticket gatekeeper at the football game to let us in free. Christ paid for our sins. Sin -must be expiated . . . The Son of Man must suffer. . . for our sins" (p. 45). 'The New Testament sees the cross as God's complpte answeru (p. 81, italics mine). Morris covers all the doctrines of theatonement in a helpful and practical manner, and in the last chapter appeals for our affirmative "response" to its saving message for us. His book encourages preaching the cross. %Preaching that exalts Christ cru- cified can still be dynamic, the very power of God unto salvation for everyone who believes." "There is glory in the crossw(P. 94). Good book to buy and read fur preparation for Lent. Harold H. Zietlow THE TROUBLE WITH THE CHURCH: A CALL FOR RENEWAL. By Helmut Thielicke. Trans. by J. W. Doberstein. Baker Book House. Grand Rapids, Michigan. 1978. Paper reprint of 1965 Harper and Row edition. I30 pages, with index and bibliographical notes. $2.95. This book deals mostly with preaching. Thielickecontends that the laity is not sick of preaching, but impatient with poor quality preaching. lhielicke also fumes over liturgiologists who do not consider the congrega- tional audience when introducing and using antiquarian liturgies. While Thielicke aims his attack at the state church practices of West Ger- many, his critique fits the American scene as well. Some good advice for preachers which you will frnd developed in this book: (1) Don't try to cover too much in one sermon. (2) Scrutinize your useof words. (3) Scale your sermon content to the needs of your congregation. (4) Sermons should edify and educate the audience via the popularization of doctrine. (5) Integrate sermon and liturgy so that Iiturgy communicates the continuity of the eternal uuths while the sermon applies these truths to current needs. (6) Count on substance in your sermons. Don't rely on gimmicks. Work hard on your sermons. If you're willing to renew your preaching, this book will help. Thielicke tries to help the modem church preachers with hope that renewal will result. Conditions may be discouraging now, but he feels they can be improved. Basis for hi hope: "Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted." Harold H. Zietlow HARVEST OF FNTM- By Paul D. Lang. Concordia Publishing House, St- Louis, 1979. 96 pages. THROUGH CLOUDS AND SUNSHINE. By William A. Lauwrbacb Con- 98 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY cordia Publishing House, St. Louis, 1979. % pages, The- two volumes, published in large print, are especially designed for older Christians. Here are two excellent devotional books that adult Christians will en~oy, especially those who have been raiscd on substantial Christian fare in their earlier lives, on sound catechism instruction and good textual Biblical preaching. Pastor Paul Lang in his Reface to the 33 devotions wrote: Life is happy and Wing when we have something for which to live, not only fur t&y and tomorrow, but for eternity. The future is the ultimate purpose, the important goal. Happbes now and in the future comes from God. To Him we must go for true peace and happiness. We are most happy when we trust in God'sgrace and love through Christ Jesus. Then we have forgiveness, peace, and hope. Life is worth living and hopeful when we pray and live every day in union with our gracious and loving God. Pastor Lang's devotionah will help the older Christian, the retired Christian with the Spirit's aid to a harvest of faith. Each devotion, based on a Word of God, is concluded with an appropriate hymn verse. Pastor William Lauttrbach, a prolific and successful devotional writer, has provided 4 1 helpful devotions. In ?be fnst devotion the author explained the title of his book, Through Cloud and Sunshine. in it Lauterbach stated: Cloud and sunshine, that is the Lord's pattern for our lives even as it is for the weather. Both are ncccssary and important, and in proper balance they supplement each 0th and enhance the value of life. Just as all sunshine and cloudless skies produce sparse vegetation or barren deserts, so con- tinual clear and cloudkss days in life tend to wither mutual deeds of love and sometimes shrivel and destroy faith. On the other hand, prolonged periods of storm and clouds without in the skies, be it in weather or in the course of our lives, can cam gloom and discouragement. But when sun- shine, clouds, and rain an sent in proper proportion, grass will grow upon the hills, orchards and vineyards will bear abundant fruit, and fields yield bountiful crops to provide fd for man and beast, and all creation will rejoice in the wonderful blessings of W. In line with this observation Lautcrkch has written the devotions he offers in this book; by means of them the ekIer reader can face the peaks and valleys of life with God's help. Readers will find the dwotions in both of Concordia's books helpful and inspiring. Both authors have a number of exceknt writing to their credit and thus write from a background of suaKssful experience. Raymond F. Surburg