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QUARTERLY Wume 49, Number 1 JANUARY 1985 Propitiation in Old Testament Prophecy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Douglas Judisch 1 Luther and Moltmann: The Theology of the Cross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bum11 F, Ecknrdt, Jr. 19 Theological Observer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Homiletical Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Book Reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Indices to Volurrle 48 (1984) Author Index . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Title Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Scripture Index to Homiletical Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Theological Observer INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS OF 1984 Studiorum Nwi Testamenti Societas The 39th General Meeting of the S.N.T.S. (Studiorum Nwi Testamenti Societas) was held from August 20 through August 24 in Basel, Switzerland, at the Universi- ty. It began with a business meeting on the first evening and continued for the next three days with a series of full-length main papers (the first being the presidential address of the newly inducted president, Dom J. Dupont), short main papers, and (simultaneous) short papers. In addition, each full day saw a two hour meeting of 14 seminars, with each pa&5pant choosihg one seminar for the duration of the met- inn. from offerinns such as "Paul and Israel." "Inhalte und Probleme einer neu- L e n t l i c h e n Tblogie:' "The Johannine writings:' "The Pseudepigraphaand the New 'Itstarmt:' '"ktual Criticism," and the gnn~p I attended, "Symbols, Metaphors and Models in the N.T.:' which dealt with ~huchlklism and ~eader-~esponse criti- cism. Included on the first full evening was a gala reception in the Base1 Munster (Cathedral) by city and university dignitaries, and the four days concluded with an afternoon trip to a Roman site near Basel comprising Augst-a former colony of Roman veterans which flourished from 15 B.C. to 260 A.D.--and Kaiser Augst-a fortress on the Rhein which served as a bridge defense from 300 to 400 A.D. All pmceeded unbelievably smoothly, and, it should be said without hesitation, this was due principally to the hard work and fine organization of Prof. Dr. and Mrs. Boe Reicke. The highlights of the four days are almost too numerous to recount, but the fol- lowing stand out: the main paper by Hans Wder (Zurich), "Gesetz und Sunde: Gedanken zu einem qualitativen Sprung im Denken des Padus," an imaginative, illustrated-by-overhead-projector [sic!] treatment of Paul and the Law in Romans 512-20, which none in our circles would have disputed; the short main paper by Barbara Aland, "Die neutestamentlichen Funde auf dem Sinai:' a first-hand analy- sis of recently discuvered Biblical and lectionary manuscripts in the St. Catharine's Monastery in the Sinai (with information on new uncials 0285 and 0289); the short (simultaneous) paper by Jack Kingsbury, 'The Parable of the Wicked Husbandmen in Matthew: Some Literary-Critical Observations:' a sound-indeed, rather tame- narratological enquiry which elicited many heated responses, d i n g that most N.T. scholars are incapable of taking the text of a Synoptic Gospel seriously as it stands, without raising questions about brlagen, Synoptic interrelationships, etc.; a display, not only of the first and second editions of Erasmus' Greek N.T., but also and especially of the Greek manuscripts which were used both in its compilation and in its corrections, along with the main short paper of H.J. de Jonge (Leiden), which argued persuasively that in 1516 Erasmus intended to produce, not a Greek edition of the N.T., but a new Latin edition, with the Greek text added to demon- strate his translation's accuracy; the short (simultaneous) paper of P. l? Beatrice (Padua), "Apollos of Alexandria and the Origins of Jewish-Christian Baptism En- cratism:' which argued, bizarrely, that Apollos was W s main opponent at Corinth, his "thorn in the flesh" in 2 Corinthi i 12, and the original source of second cen- tury encratism; meeting and speakmg personally with scholars who were hitherto merely names or bibliographical entries (especially rewarding was participation in a conversation between Peter Stuhlmacher and Joseph Fitzmyer on justification and the Lutheran-Roman Catholic dialogue). Mention must also be made of a significant event which took place on the last evening of the General Meeting at the Gemindehaus of the local Lutheran congre- 30 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY gation in Basel. At a small reception, the outstanding Fi.sfschr$editedby w r w n William C. Winrich was presented by William Farmer (who was instrumental in facilitating the final stages of publication) to Rof. Dr. Bo k i c k upon his retire- ment from his professorial chair at the University of Basel. In attendance were (in addition to Frau Reicke, family members and Pfatnr and Frau wn Schroeder) B. Mazger, J. Carmignac, F. F. Bruee,.W. Rordarf, J, G. D. Dunn, R OrChad, J. Kings- bury, 0. N. Stanton, R. Puller, and adKr scholars coo numems to mention. Dr. Winrich was unable to be present and was represented, however inadequately, by this author. The next general meeting ofthe Society will be in Troodheim, Norway, in August of 1985. Society of Biblical Literature The 1984 Intenytional Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature was held in Strasbourg, France, August 16 and 17, several days prior to the General Meeting of the S.N.T.S., which began on August 20 in Basel. This was the second interna- tional meeting of the society, an American-based organization, the first having been held in Salamanca, Spain, in 1983. In general, the meeting was of good qurlhy and worthy of attendance. Fine papers were pmnted, and an opportunity was giv- en to meet scholars known heretofore by name only. Notable kchlres were: George Beasley-Murray, "John 3:3,5: Baptism, Spirit and the Kingdom of God in the Fourth Gospel:' an outstanding piece of exegesis by an important participant in the Lutheran- Baptist dialogue (the paper pmvided a foundation d sorts for a Baptist acceptance of infant baptism); Charles Homer Giblin. "Until Times for Nationsare Fulfilled (Luke 21:24c):' a sound literary analysis by a Roman Catholic thoqlogian of Luke's version of Jesus' "1;ittle Apocalypse" (cf. Mark U); Joseph Blenkinsopp, "The Place ofP in the Generation of the Flood Narrative," a fresh and lively presentation which d e d how standard critical theories ofthe Pentateuch are cumntly being revised; Eduard Schweizer, "Christologies after Rudolf Bultmann," a fine synthetic survey of the current theological scene. It must be said, hawever, that the SBL International Meeting was not up to stan- dards set by theGeneral Meeting of the S.N.T.S. On the one hand, almost all papers were "simultaneous" (presented concurrently with other papers), with the result that all too Frequently unpleasant choices had to be made. On the other hand, no name- tags were used, and no social activities, except for a very basic, final banquet, were arranged, so that it was quite a bit more difficult to meet the people and to discuss ideas than it was in Basel. It was also a disappointment that Kurt Aland, who was scheduled to lead the afternoon N.T. session on August 16, did not appear. No doubt, -4 improvements will be made, m n at the next meeting, which is sched- uled, tentatively at this time, for Amsterdam in 1985. James W. Voelz Homiletical Studies June 2, 1985 John alone of the Scripture authors mentions Nicodemus, and then three times: our text, 750-51, and 19:39. Out ofthe "many other signs . . . these have been writ- ten that you may believe" (20:30-31). The question before us then is: How do the Nicodemus accounts point us to Jesus as the Christ, the Son of God, and, through Him, to life? The "eternal lib" of 3:16 does not mean "everlasting 'this l i f e but rather "a new quality of life." Note that the three "How can this be?'questions of Nicodemus bve much the same sense as Luther's "What does this mean?" After all the commentary on 3:3, two points stand out. First, both translations, "born again" and "born from abave," should be acknowledged. Rrhaps "born anew" comes close. Compan the Greek of 3:3 with 3:31, 19:11, 2 Cor. 517; Ga. 4:9; Tt. 3:s; 1 Pe. 1:23. Second, there is nxnn to read this rebirth as God's onetime activity in Christ repeatedly brought to the individual Christian life. Note the pneutna-pneumatos in verse 8, and consider On 2% 7;. 379-10, Jn 20:22; 2 'h 3:16 John picks up Marte- via (vll) in 3:31-36; 5:31-47; 8:12-20. The judgment-redemption theme of this text is also t&tcd in 5:22; 8:15; 9:39; 1247. Jesus could assume (3:U) that Nicodemus was familiar with Nu 215-9. 1Way's preacher cannot make the same assumption of his wngrcgation. Introducrion.The odds in this life an long. Then is little chance the boy starting in flag football will ever play in the NFL.. The man starting a small business is glad to survive without much hope of becoming another IBM. The mortician expects our business sooner or later. The odds against man by himself in his spiritual life are even worse. It is very good news, then, that GOD CHANGES THE ODDS IN OUR FAVOR I. Natural man is doomed (v 6a, l3a). A. Nicodemus perfectly represents the aristocratic, well-intentioned but unen- lightened Judaism of his day, and the best of men in our time. The best Nicodemus could do was to move 1. From the darkness of night (v 2), 2. Through the intrigue of politics (750-51) 3. To the gloom (half-light, mostly-dark) of the grave (19:39). B. Our best effprts also are doomed (Is 64:6). 1. We neither understand nor can control earthly things (v 8). 2. Even less do we, on our own, believe heavenly things (vv 9-12, Is 6Q:6b). 11. Jesus came to change the odds for us (v 13). A. God the Father did not want us to perish (v 16). B. Jesus did not come to condemn us (v 1%). C. Jesus came to bring eternal life (vv 15-17). 1. "Eternal life" is not just everlasting "thislife". 2. Those "born anew" in Christ have a new quality of life (v 3b, 5b, 6b). In. Jesus' method was to absorb the consequences of our former odds. A. Jesus did His work in the light (Jn 18:20). B. He came into our darkness (v 2a, Jn l3:30b). C. He even went to the darkness of the cross (v 14). 1. Where snakebite would have killed us (Nu 2159). 2. Jesus absorbed the venom, even died dit for us (On 3:ISb and 2 Cor 5:Z). Conclusion: When all odds were against us, Jesus came from the life of heaven into our darkness that we might be born anew into His light. Warren E. Messman Rushville, Indiana SECOND SUNlMV AFI'ER In nine instances in Mk 1:21 though 3:l2, Jesus not only claims deity, but shws the pawer of deity. He demonstnrtar His paver ps Semnt ova a demon, dkyc , leprosy, paralysis, a publican, the old religion, the Sabbath (our text), defomty, and demons. Jesus accepts implicit mponsibility for His disciples' behavior. Our behavior when we claim discipleship still refiats on Jesus. But mom, Jesus take? this opportunity to teach what had been b m about W s mt. Meditate on On 2:2-3; HO 6:6; Mt 12:ll-12; and Dt 5:l2-15. The Srbboth is &Wed fw physical and spiritual bkssing. See W %:ll, Mt. 11:28; Ga 49-10; He 41-U. Jaws cics David not as men pracedent, but to h l i s h two Priaciples: first, the SPbbath is fw man,notv icevmsa;andd,cer lr t invrwt i spermias ib lemnonthe~ , i.e., works of mercy and oeceseity, Dt 2395. Rnim Luther's explanation of the Third Commandmmt. If we, like the Phuisses, pavert the Wad of God, we deny Christ who both authond and used the O.T. buou%oyt His ministry. It is easier to follow the letter of the Law (though we do notfj than it is to exercise the thought requidbylove.ThepriestWDavidMdhismcnbecPuseheFecognizedtbathis moral obligation supercu&d the cemnonisl regihhn. J e w put every institution on notice that it was made fDT people, not people fw the institution. See Lenski for help with the Abiathar-Ahimelech "contamrsy." Intduction: What are we doing hen this morning? DO WE KEEP THE SABBATH OR DOES TIfE SABBATH KEEP Us? I. We enslave ourselves to the Sabbath when we regard the letter of the Law as inviolable at the expense of God's intention. A. The Pharisees tried to hold Jesus' disciples to an interpretation of the Law that went beyond God's intent, v 24. B. Sometimes we concern ourselves mon: with "nght" doctrine or "right" litur- gy than with true worship, Ho 6 6 C. W can misuse the Sabbath on weekdays too. 1. A people more concerned with its own congregation than the communi- ty or the hurting in our world denies Christ. 2. When we insist on out rights but neglect our responsibilities, we deny Christ. 3. When we are more interested in being lwad than in loving, we deny Christ. 11. God intends the Sabbath to keep us. A. Jesus reaffirmed that the Sabbath was made for man, v 27a. 1. Jesus sewed His disciples by defending them. 2. Jesus used David ( w 25-26) to demonstrate two points: a. Tbe!bbbathismadctosemman. b. CertrinwakismoreimportPMthnnguPltion. B.TbeSsbbrthisinbwdedforourphyricrlandspiritualblessing. 1. C)ut bodies need a period of daily and weekly rest, On 2:2-3. 2. ~ a o u l S n e e d r e s t t o o , M t 1 l : 2 8 3. WalsoremtmbertheSabbedrdrywhenwedooecessaryworkontk Sabbath (such as police, fue, or medical work) in a manaer that glori- fies God, Mt l2:ll. 4. Wk also remember the Sabbath when we do worh motivated by love, even on the Sabbath itself, Mt 12:U. C. TbeSabbatharemsuswbenwealebrstesinsfwsiwn. Wk "re%tb'infor- givu~~~~,o~~stWthesakcoftheSonofManwhosenndus. Conckuion.Which will be dieauecd more around the dinner table today: how the pastor pmchai, or haw the psople ce1ebratedl When Jcaua' Mends ("his own pmph,'' NASB) saw Him working so zealously that He wan Wt able to adtend to His bodily &, tby considered Him "beside himself' (v 21), of His twson. "Em his brodrers did not believe in him" (Jn 7 3 , but thy mre concerasd about Him and wanted to rescue Him from the imporwlise d. Tbe scribes' authorimtiw judgcmmt (v 22) w a abewd. If Jesus were casting out danons by Satan's poarer, Satan's kjngdom wdd be divided against itself, which ~besuicidrl~Sahn.keuscompsresSiltantoastFopemanwhomustfirst beborudifhishaureistobepl~.keusistheone~hobiodsSocaa,spoils hiskiqgdam,andlePdssinaerswhohawbanundersltan'spowertorepen~aace and aPIvation. Siltan is Christ's enemy end is not in league with Him. Therefwe, thescnimustundenrtudthatJesusiscaatingoutdcvilsbythc~rofGod a a d t h a t i n H i m t h e ~ o f G o d h a s c o m c ~ d r e m . H a d q nssoned with the scribes, He mnu them ( w 28-30) that the blaPphemy ~theHo~Spiritcanamrbefweirm(v29).Inamibu~tothechiefof evil spirits wwks of J e a ~ that wm obviously be@ empawered by the Holy Spirit, the scribes were close to, if@ were mt Plndy, calling the Holy Spirit an unclean spirit. The Holy Spirit alone mks npentancc, but if He is called a demon repen- taaceiswrpossible .WhentheHdySpirit~~the'HEordisncognized asWsSpiritMdapasoa~MssphanesHim,theSpirit'spovwtochaage that person has been nullified. Such a person's ctcinal damnation is sealed. In wuc 31 Mark r#wnes the story about Christ's datives fnnn verse 21. 'Ib what extent tbe c h q c oftbe scribes agb t Jewur influenced His relatives to restrain Him is difficult to say. In sny case, when Jesus is infwmed of His relatives' desire to speak to Him, He utilhs the umimly intMTuption to teach an important truth. Je- sus is not ashamed of His earthly rtlationahips, but He emphasizes that there is a higher relationship which hhgm on doing God's will, that is, God's gracious will, 34 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY which is that we repent and believe the Gospel. The central thought of the text is that we do God's'will when, by the working of the Holy Spirit, we belim in Jesus as the conqueror of Satan for us. Intduction: Ties of flesh and blood bind family members. Lave and companion- ship bind husbands and wives. Common ink- and like-miadedness bind friends. In every relationship there are bonds that hold people together. It is so also in our relationship with Christ. FAITH IS THE TIE THAT BINDS US TO CHRIST I. Faith in Christ as the conqueror of Satan. A. Jesus demonstrated His power aver Satan. 1. He d m out evil spirits (Mk 3:ll). 2. When He died and rose from the grave (v D, Col2:lS; 1 Jn 3:8), Jesus delivered us from Satan's p e r and opened the way to a faith relation- ship with Himself as the conqueror of Satan, B. Satan still tries to bind us. 1. By leading us to think, along with Christ's relatives, that too much zeal in religion may be an indication of mental instability. 2. By leading us to misj-, along with the scribes, the'cunning and stm@ of Satan. C. Yet because Christ plundered Satan's house, we can now be brothers and sisters of Jesus. 1. Jesus leads us who were bound by Satan to repentance and faith. 2. Satan is marking time until his final judgment on the Last Day. He can- not talce from us our faith in Christ. 11. Faith worked in us by the Holy Spirit. A. By the power of the Spirit we daily do God's will (v 35). 1. The will of God is that we believe in Jesus as our brother and the con- queror of Samn (v 34; 1 Tm 2:4). 2. We do God's will when we let our faith be nurtured by the Spirit through God's M r d and the Sacraments. B. We guard against blaspheming the Holy Spirit (vv 28-30). 1. Blasphemy of the Spirit takes place if we reject what we know to be true, namely, the Spirit's testimony to Christ in the Scriptures. 2. It is the unforgivable sin to reject against our better knowledge the Spirit who alone can work faith. Conclusion: By Spirit-wrought faith we have come into a relationship that is h@er and nobler than any earthly relationship. We are brothers and sisters, not of Satan (God forbid!), but of Jesus Christ, the Lord! Gerhard Ah0 Homiletical Studies 35 The parable in verse 26-29 emphasizes that the seed (God's Mrd) produces fruit byitscrwnpmrandinitsowntime.~cantrusttheseedtoworkandaotwo~ about it. W cannot malre the Wrd more dFraive than it is. Luther says, "The King- dom of God comes indeed of itself without our prayer.'' Where the Word has been sown, there will be a harvest. The harvest is at our death or at Christ's final wming, whichever occurs first. W cad patiently trust the seed to do its work and bide God's time for the harvest. The accood parable (~30-32) stmses the contrast between the insignificant be- ginning of the kingdom of God and its surprising ending. Rome was oblivious to the kingdom Christ brought, and the Jewish leaders were blind to it. The religious leeders could not conceive of God's kingdom in the person of a child born in a sta- bte who later as a man associated with public sianem. Fuahermore, Jesus' follow- enwmuneducatcdfishermen.Yetfnnntheseiasisnificant~thekingdom gmw to encanpaas not only Jews but Gentiles in many parts of the world. The wn- apstisbetweenthedseedandthegreatbush. 'Rldogthetunoparabl~~bogether,asthetwctdoes,thecemralthoughtisthegrowth ofthewofthekingdom. Inh.rrdrrctiour: Where there is life then is growth. Even after physical growth stops human b&tgs need to keep on gmwing intellectually and in other ways. Gmwth is aaxssary to experience life at its fullest. Growth is a featun also of God's kingdom specifidy of the W of that kingdom.-The parables in the fourth chapter of hfark's -pel, beginning with the parable of the sower, focus on God's Word. Tbe text points out that THE W R D OF GOD GROWS I. TheWrdgmws@ually. A. As the seed is sown (v 26). 1. Psstors and also lay-Christians sow the seed of the Word. 2. The sawing goes on whatever God's Wmi is proclaimed and taught. Gradual sowing is necessary for gradual growth. B. As the plant develops. 1. Nk can pnpare the ground and nurture the plant, but the seed grows of itself, mysteriously (v Zm). 2. Wmaysometimesgadiswuragedbecausethegrawthissogradual, but growth there will be (Is 55:ll). Therefore, we can relax (v 27a) and let the Word work acwrding to its own schedule. While learning to be patient with gmwth that is gradual, we must also face up to thefactthat 11. The Wmi grows inconspicuously. A. The Word is as inconspicuous as a mustard seed in the beginning stages of its growth (v 31). 1. The great and the powerful in Christ's day gave little notice to the Word growing in their midst. 2. Those who wield power and influence in the world today are indifferent for the most part to the growth of the Word. WIIOTmNISTMsl I. HeistheIndofnuure. A. He cmted nature. 1. His %nl and Spirit were the (Jn 1:l-3; On 1:lff; Pr 8:22ff). 2. He is the firstborn and hed of d o n (Col 1:15ff). R He ndermed nature. 1. He tasted death for every man (W 8:4-5; cf. He 268). 2. His blood wps sprinkled on earth for an atonement to free name fmm captivity to sin and mortality (Ro 8:19-23). C. He is the pmvider for all. 1. Sunshiae and rrin in due season to dl (Mt 945). 2. Everything depends upon H i hr wuneneace (Mt 6:25ff). 3. He intemnes to muzzle storms and still the seas (v 39). n. ~ e i s t h e ~ o r d o f ~ c r i p a m . A. He discloses Himself in grace to believers. 1. Though seemingly asleep He CM be wakened (w 38-39). 2. His hiddenness instills fw (v 39). 3. He rescues by rcbukmg fnithlessll~s~ and Hi Himself the Master of the elements 0.c.f. "silenced" and "muzzled" with Mk l25, "de- mon mtdhg"). B. He is the fulfiller of Scripture. 1. Heistheprq?hczicendandtheshaperofallScripureandhistory(Rt 1:4,8). 2. All scripam is witness to His suffering and glory (Jn 539; 1Re 1:ll). 3. He unvleils His teal glory in the Scripurn; nature is but His mask. III. He is my Lnd. A. He unveils His pcnmr daily, especially in the mi& of peril. (The d y Chris- tians mnembmd this account in dre'i persscutions.) B. He relc88ts His grace in daily ibqivmss (1 Jn 17). C. He disciples me, &n with affliction, to keep me His own (He l2:5@. D. I confess His Lodship through the Holy Spirit (1 Cor l2:3). Conclusion: The goal of this sermon is to elicit the confession, "Lord Jesus!" I can confess this only with a S p i r i t e t faith. Hence, "M, increase my fnith!" G. Wdemar Degner The last of this text (Mk 5:43) poses two problems. The first portion states: "And He chaqpd them much that no one should know this." This is the socalled "Me88ianic Secllet:' which coafronts us throughout this Gospel beginning with k44. For a derailed review of alternative answers to this problem see Jack Dean Kiagsbu- ry, lltK Christology gfhfonk's Gospel (Philadelphia: Fortrws Pnss, 1983). In sum- mary, Jesus did not want the "pearls" of the Gospel to be cast to the swine (Mt 7:6); He wanted the Good Nms proclaimed only to those readied by repentance. The "key" to the secret is in Mk 8:31ff, where first the sutkings and death of Christ are mentioned, and then the individual cross-bearing of the follower is stmsscd. To 38 CONCORDIA THEOUX3ICAL QUARTERLY thosewholiveinimpenitaKxandwithoutfaithtbeGospclishiddea;atbest,it is spoken in parables so that hearing, tby do not uadcnrtlrad (see Mk 8:lTf). 'lb the "hardened heart" there is no reception (Mk 652). T h e ~ n d p n r t o f v 4 3 s t a m : " ~ H e c o m m P n d e d t h a t ~ s h o u l d b e given her to eat!' Pbople haw v i d this as a kind of anti-gnostic appeal or as an editorial addition. It is hr better to take the command as genuine. It is a 1- touch of which only the Master Huler wukl think a midst the excibmna and coo- fusionofmnts. ' I b g e t h e r w i t h ~ d l i f e H e a l s o s u s t a i n s t b e ~ ~ t h ~ . The Lord of life perfwms a deed of compassion and a dad which pmvides a pledge of Hi conquering paver over the combined forces of death and unbelid. Introduaion: W think of death as aa m n t at the end of our life. Seldom do m consider it a process that is ping on continuously. St. Mark aligns the parmn tht are hostile to God to shw their inter-relationshipthe stonn at sea (Mk 4:35ff), tbe Gerasene demonic (51-20), the woman with the issue of blood (5:25-34), and final- ly the raising of Jairus' daughter-as a climactic prognssion of distortions of God's purpose.Inthemiddofthesehostilepowl~sthelordshipofChriststandsfotth. In this text Jesus is TEIE UlRD OF LIFE WBO RJWIORES LIFE I. The lost lifk is described. A. The imane of God has been destmyed. powers are now at wotk (Mk 5:l-20). 2. GodgivesdofthesonaofMPmcmrtodeeth@o5:12~,mnthose raised in a godly environment such as Jairus' daughter. B. Sin's paam is evident. 1. S i n ' s p c r a n r i r a e t n i n c r z r y f o m o f ~ l l i ~ ~ , U d e v e r y pemrsioa of W s &. Tbe wqess of sin end in &ath (lb 6:B). Nab tb:noisemrlaBandwsepersinthe~asdry-Pwrtntethedesireaf m m b ~ u p w b a t i s w m n g . 2. The power of sin rules the uncomrerted man (Ro 6:12ft). This is per- sonalized in James 1:M lust in man becomts pregnant and g iw birth to sin, sin gmws up only to become death. 11. The Lod of Life malres alive. A. He gives the life of faith that seeks wholeness. 1. As in Jairus, the life of Mth is manifwt in coming to and in praying fw wholeness; in seeking only a touch of the hand of Jesus (v 23). 2. Where then is a life of faith then is aclrmrwledgcmcnt of human need and conkasion of unworthiness to "bother the Teacher' (v 35). 3. In the midst of the tumult of the noise-makers and pmfkasional w#pers faith latches on to the W of life (w 38-40). 4. Faith reasoas this way: Where sin abounds, grace abounds mn more; where condemnation convicts, God's righteausn#ls acquits; wbm death reigns, life superabounds (Ro 5:lS-17; Is 40:2). B. Faith-lilk attains the restoration that Christ came to bring. 1. Jairus' daughter is raised by the divine command (v 41). 2. Red life now begins. Conclusion: God give us such a radical faith! Homiletical Studies 39 SEVENTH SUNIMY AETER PENTECm July 14,19115 Introduction: Sometimes we envision the ministry of Jesus in terms of strong responses of faith and crowds of people follawing Him. Indeed, at times He took special note of a strong faith. Not long before the events mentioned in our text Jesus spoke to the woman healed of an issue of blood saying, "Daughter, your faith has made you well" (Mk 5:34; see also Mt 8:lO). In contrast to such beautiful responses we need to be a w m also of the negative responses to Jesus' ministry. The text re- lates such a response in Christ's home town of Nazareth. UNBELIEF IN THE WAY OF JESUS' BLESSING I. Unbelief has its roots in envy and pride (vv 1-3). A. The question, "Where did this man get all this?" betrays an envy which will not admit that Jesus had a greater depth of knowledge than they who had the same education and environment. B. The pride of many would not allow them to believe that one who had g m n up among them could be more important than they. 1. Because we are instructad and confirmed in the Lutheran Church are we sometimes offended because someone implies that we should grow in knowledge and in faith and in ability to serve? 2. )ire we jealous or envious of those in teaching and leadership positions? Do we forget that God speaks to us through sinful people? C. In their unbelief many could not acccpt Jesus as the embodiment of the true God (v 3). Haw could Mary's son be the Son of God? (cf. Luther's explana- tion of the Third Article). Zkansition: These thoughts and attitudes caused many to "take offense at Him" and robbed them of the blessings Jesus meant to bestow. 11. Unbelief has sad results (v 5). A. Among the many who were offended a few did believe and were healed. However, the general unbelief of His hometown people pmented Him from bestowing more such blessings. B. The even greater work Jesus wished to do among them was to draw them into His kingdom. For them He was living. For them He would die. For them He would empty the tomb on Easter morning. The saddest result of their rejection of Him was not their lack of physical healing, but their lack of spiritual healing in their relationship to their God. Their sins separated them. Jesus wanted to heal them of this separation, but was prevented by their unbelief. C. So He went to other towns and villages and later sent His disciples to these towns. Conclusion: As we take our place in the ministry of our Lord under His chosen ministers, we are warned against pride and envy and the awful consequences of un- belief. Yet rejection is not a signal for us to stop our ministry but an inducement to bring the Gospel to others. Rudolph A. Haak Montevideo, Minnesota I. 'Ikavcl light (w 8-9). A. It is well to haw a minimum of physical encumbrancea whea unyias out t h e b r d ' s m i s s i o n . T h e r e b y ~ a v o i c l ~ w i t h ~ l ~ # ) a n d c m devoteourenergiestotbegslrofministry. B. 'ltaveliqg light indicates trust in tbe brd's pmrision. C. It prwidea an opporbrnity for a ministry of sharing among those to whom we ale sea. 11. Be co l l ccd with d a b d d p s to pwple and their elations ship to the LMd B. D o m t f i n # ~ o r y a u ~ u p o n p e o p l e ( v U ) . O o d d a s m t fonxHislavcmdgroeuponpeaplc.Itirthe'Yiotpel"thrtweprodrim. IU. Our mhsuy is to the whole pereon (w 7, 12, l3). A. Reach npentuwx. Due to identi@ sin as sin and help people to mmmcc it. hint them to Jtsus-to His life to muow guilt and pmvide rightmus- m s s ; t o H i s d e r t b t o ~ q t b e h o f p l n i s h m e n t f w s i n ; t o H i s ~ - rection to give us vicOory cm sin! Csstouttheevilspirit.Nopenroncaadothisonhiscrwn.htJ~eeusbasgiVM us authority o m them (v 7). With authority and vigor, in the naae of h, cast out tbespifit ofselfishaess, ofluat, ofgteed, ofjcalousy, ofhate. C. Minister to the physically sick in the way the Lord dim% you. Pray fix and with the sick and dying. Conchion: Agah today the b r d seek8 our imolwmcnt in ministry. Nk haw already said "ye# by vittue of our membership in His church. What will we sgr to Him today? What will be our imrolvemmt? Will it be daily prgm for payle by name? Will it be increased financial support? Will I talk to my son or daughter and encourage? Rudolph A. Haak Montvideo. MinaesoEa Homiletical Studies 41 NINTH SUNMY AFTEll IWTMSST "Compassion" (splandinitmncu', v 34) is one of those words on which an entire sermon could be prrrched and atill wt have iu full mePning exhausted. This verb occurs I2 times in the N.T., all in the Synoptics and all having Christ as the subject. Thewwdcamofimmthenaur~whichoriginally meant 'Yheiarmrdp~W, or entrails, cspe&lly the heart, lungs and liver,'' considered the site of man's deepest passions. The mmhg of "compsssioll, mmy, k l pity" is tound only in the writings of Judaism a d the N.T. @NW. The compassion of Christ exerts itself as the controlling theme of this text. The twelve disciples had come bsck from their mission (w 7-13) exhausted, yet excited. Using good psychology, Jesus hurs them out. He senses their need for the rest and He takes them away to a quiet place. But a gnater oeed soon presents itself to which Jesus responds with ccmpassim. The cranrds that hounded Him wew spiritually destitute, "like sheep without a shcphmd." Jesus selflessly gives Himself to the needs ofHisdisciplesontheoaehndandtotheaeedsofthecmwdontheother. People dben picture Jesus the w q m ~ a y see a pastor, as w n e too busy to be bothered. "He's got so muy otber things to do, so mq other people to help, He certainly couldn't be concerned about my problem." But Jesus is concerned. We have a com- passionate Loml who knoum our needs, f#ls for us, and does something to help. Zntroduaion: It b been quipped that m of lik's major mistakes is being the last mmber of the funily to gc.$ the flu-after all the compassion has run out. It is often true of us that a lot of our compassion is wasted on ourselns, or we are compassionate as long as it toe$ us nothing. From our text, we learn of someone whoisnatl iLeus.Vkeeetht CERWI' HAS A PASSION FOR COMRISSION I. His heart goes out to us. A. Jesus is compassionate because He knws our needs. 1. Physical netds (w 31, 3 5 4 ) . 2. Spiritual needs (v 34). B. Jesus is compassiomte, regardless of our motives. 1. The disciples were only concemal about their reporting and resting. 2. The crrnlrds were unnnran of their spiritual pcnrerty. They wanted a miracle-worker and a kbg @z 34; Llc 15:4-7). 3. What about our selfish motives for wanting Jesus and our casual attach- ments to Him? C. Jesus is compassionate, not wanting any to be loat. 1. These were Hi sheep (Ez 34; U 15:4-7). 2. His attachment to us is one of laving ownership (Jn H):14, 15). 11. His compassion m s Him to Action. A. He shepherds. 1. By going out of His rmy and even intempting His plans. 2. By leading with His W. "He began to teach them many things'' (v 34). B. He saves. 1. Redemption by c~cifixion-the supwme act of compassion. CONCORQIA THEOLMiICAL QUARTERLY 2. bgi- d compnssion (d. the Fbrgi- King in Mt 1827 and the Wthg Father in Lk 15:20, both of whom had "compassion"). Conclusiun: Compassion is a bePutiful description of God's attitude towad us. ' I b s h e e p w h o a n p n m t o m n d e r a n d ~ A n d t h e m s e 1 ~ ~ 8 l ~ a n d h u r t , i t i s good news that we haw a aLepherd who pours out his heart to us and who poured out His blood for us. The Reding ofthe 5 m is such an astoding mihrcle and, apponntly of such value for the church, that we And it m&d in all hu t Gospels. Only John's ac- count, however, has the question of Jesus to Philip, ''Whem are we to h y bread, that there may car?" (v 5) and the parenthetical remark of v 6 that this question was p o d cur a teat. Rrrtrer thrn make 8 shrilcw applicuion af the miracle itself (e.g.. 'ks Jeeuclfrdthe5P04 m H e ~ . a d c a r # r f o r u s " ) , wechoosetoapply theplrposeofJeeuclin~themirPcle.Thedircip1eehdbeeninschoolwith thcirMuttrfwramtim,md~Jerusmdremto~whstdryWluraed. DotbytrustWimtopmvideinthe6ceaf~~leproblcm?Ordothey lirnitthemselvatotheirown~andadmitfirilun. Thesynoptic8 include Jesus' m w k , "Mu give thsm ux~hiq? to W,"P challenge which all the more increclsesthetensionofthe~poars. Li the disciples, we &en &el that ci- of life am more than we can handle. But rather than tab them to a SNior who has almdy ptwen to us His abili- ty to help, we would rather "send them away." And when that does not work, we despair, we give up. The god of this sermon is to apply the testing process to our life so that we can see bow we try to cury a d solve our burdens alone, and then tobeawamofthekindofLordwehaVeinChrist, whodesiresandisabletohelp. I ~ : ' I t s t i q g i s a ~ w i t h w h i c b w e a r e a l l ~ . G e o r r a l l y ~ - ing, our ability to pass a teat depends on us--our knowledge, study, and work. Jesus in our kxt admhhm a teat to us which is just the opposite of what we an used to. When we work bad at trying to ace it, we an sure to fail. But when we "cheat" and use the answer sbat Christ prwides, we p. The question is, DO YrlU PASS THE TESn I. Do we try to take the test alone? A. \He offen limit O U ~ ~ C ~ V C ~ to human possibilities and solutions. 1. Philip and the disciples thought only of their inability to IW 5poO. 2. In our independence, we take credit when things go well, and we com- plain, worry, and despair when things get out of hand. B. Consequently, we fsil to "cast our cares on Him:' 1. Even though we hm been schooled ly Jtsus in the past and haw l e d of His desire and ability to help, we forget H i or doubt that He will bring help. Homiluical studies 43 Zhmiom: Jesus tesa, us so that m can see how miserably we W. He wants us to look clwy from aumclvcs for asshacc during the testing pnxxss. And so wa ask: II. Do we get help by using the answer sheet Christ pmvides? A. He give8 us "signs" to point us to Hi. 1. "Sigm." umdhg to John, rue miracles intended to instill Sth in the mincle wwker, not fsscination in the miracle (Jn 2030, 31). 2. Jc8ua wratr us to see Him, not as a " B d King (v IS), but as the " B d of Life" (v 48-51). B. He giw "signs" to delim us "in the dgr of trwble." 1. J e s u s t o o k c a r e o f t h e i m d i a b n c e d o f ~ 5 p o O . 2. He lolcrws alredy what He is going to do in our lib, and it is always tobriDgaboutgood. 3. 'nuuughHialptrrestsign,deathandI.esurreaion, HegiwsusHispmhg grade. Hewbohidmtohathfcdme And to muy pys ha& led me Is and m r shall be mine. He who did so gently school me, He w8o still doih guide and ~ l e me, wil lwnah my help divine. Paul E. Cloucr Witbthemincleofthe~oftbeSpoOatillarccentanddramaticmmgr~ Jenu hd a fitting ihtmion on which to build when the crawds came to him the b l l m h g dy. As He o t w e ~ they came back to Him mostly because they had rraiwdaplryaicrl wfi.6rtimfiWnHim ( ~ 2 6 ) . But Hewas about toteach them tbat thenwursomthiqsfirmorc~thanfood. Attertheusualvcrbaljoust- ing tht sams to typify tbe eacumtem between the Savior and His countrymen. with the pndicbMt Jewisb infibma on a definitive "sign" from Jesus to pnnn that He huly dmcnd their Sth ( m n after they had a dramatic sign still digathg in their stamchs!), the tmmmtion came to the real point. Jesus reveals Himself as the B m d of life. His fwd"w huoger permanently. Like the the at the wall (Jn 4:15), the Savior's hurers desired this kind of pmvision (v 33). Yet their desire was physical and not spiritual. This attitude lrmains today a basic hu- maa Bnw and the challagc ofthe church. The ctntnl drem of the text is that Jesus is finally all anyone ever needs as He aatkdba pennurwtly the spiritual hunger and malnutrition of man by His saving Mrd and p i o u s pr#reace. The pal of the sermon is to lead the hearers to under- 44 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY I. Itisahodfromherrmen. A. The manna from on high in the Old Testament was God's gift. 1. He, not Moses, was the giver of this gift (v 32). 2. He pmided the signs of His ae. B. The manna fmm haven was a temporary physical pi s ion . C. The food from heaven that enduns must also come from God alone. II. It is a bread for life. A. The bnad drat Jeaus had giwn the cmwd could sustaia only theit physiclll life. 1. Since most people are short-term and this-world oriented, this physical filling satisfies only for a time. 2. But people want more because physical hunger caamt be long d. B. The bread that Jesus oiEm all people sustains "real" life. 1. It is alwgrs pnsent. 2. It bas substance and meaning. III. It is a nourishment for eternity. A. Whatcw is physical has a limited existence. 1. ThemultiadeskmvtheywauldIpthungryagain,andforthis~n they even tried to make Jesus their "Bread King." (v 15) 2. Pwple pemive the fleeting nature of earthly life in general and earthly posmuions in particulpr. a. Their desires are amstant to keep their life "full!' b. They want much because "pu can m r haw too much." B. Whstmrisspiritualhasaneternalaristence. 1. Jesus pravidea the kind of lasting "hd" we cannot get by ourselves. 2. The Savior deals in eternals because that is uactly what we need. Conclusion: Jesus e d d y uoderstood physical hunger and the physical duins of people. He did, after all, feed the multitude of 5,000. Yet He also kww exactly what we need to satisfy spiritual malnuwition permanently. He is the Bnad of Life and the Food we need. David E. Sybold Pdonia, wmin Homiletical Studies 45 TheJewswhopldJesusfoUowiagthefaedingofthe5000werenotabout to let the iksue of Jesus' identity die. khaps they could not stop Him from d o i i unexplainable katx with food, but thy were unwilhg to let Him claim to be"the bread which came dawn from heaven" (v 41). That description of Himself was absurd, thy thought, because they knew His parents. But J&us was undeterred. Whether or not His audience believed it, He continued to exmad on the theme of heavenly bread as a self-characterization. He provided the kiciob of life that even the heavenly bread of the Old 'Mamcnt days of wilderness wandering could not provide. The people who ate the manna had long since died. But those who "eat" of the Bread of Life have a permanent life, an eternal life (v SO), which begins the moment that Godbringsthemtofaith. C l d y in this text Jesus is making the very most of the bread image suggested by the f#ding ofthe 5000. The main point ofthe text is that Jesus is the Source of dl life and provides by grace thmugh faith an everlasting life which begins right now. The goal ofthe sermon is to emphasize that those who cling to Jesus can have the absolute confidence that their eternal life has already begun. The pFob1em is thatthereanmanywhothiaktheycanfindtheirawnwaytolifeandthateventrue . . Chns&ans can fwset that their life in Christ never has to end, from this moment on to eternity. The means to the god is the Savior's gracious gift of His awn life (the "bread") which He makes d a b l e for the eternal life of everyone. Inhoductm: Life after life always has been an amactive concept for man. Fnnn the ancient Egyptians who outfitted the pyramids with lavish treasures for the use of their rulers in the w e d after-life to the recent fascination with "after-death" e x p e r i e ~ ~ l of people k l a d clinically dead, man has wanted to believe that he could live in happiness emn after physical death. The message of Jesus is that he can, but only through a relationship of $ith with the true "Bmd of Life." Whst is more, this life can begin right nowcontinuing into eternity even as physical life ceases. It is a thoroughly Christian and completely heartening truth to announce that ETERNAL LIFE IS A PRESENT TENSE I. Jesus provides more than physical life. A. Bread for the body is necessary. 1. Jesus did not turn the ~zultitude cmay when it was time to eat. 2. Jesus does provide everything we need and more to sustain our physical existence. B. Bread for the body is temporary. 1: The wadzing nation of hael abe the pmided manna but still died (v 49). 2. The multitude of 5000 ate the bread given but were not permanently satisfied. 3. The world today also cannot endure by "bread alone." 11. Jesus ofkrs more than future hope. A. Eternal life is not simply a fubure hope. 1. The Savior promises that those who trust in Him have it (not will have it) (v 47). 46 CONCORDIA THeOLXX)ICAL QUAKLgRLY 2. The Savior assuns that those who shsn in His body live Sanm (v 55). B. EtMnal life begins right now. lII. Jesus gives more and permanent life. A. His way to life cannot compare with sny other h u m wry to salMti011. B. His way to life is the only way and more rbuadms way (Jn 10:lO). C.Hiswaytolifedoesnotdiminish,debrionte,oi%dt~. D. His way to life depends on His all-8toaing md once-for-all death (v 51). Gmcl~~~ioPl: The "world" mgr cany a vague hope that lie does not end with death. ~ ~ t h e s u r e C O t l V j c t i o n t h a t w t d y d o w h s v r : i n C h r i s t u r ~ l i f i t but dm we have it right now. Nourished spiriturlly by tbe aenvll B n d of h, we arc filled now in this life and forever in tbe We to corn. David E. Sybold ChPpaer6oftheGospeldJohnconEains~~totbemPnrrOodpwid- ed Ew Israel during wilderness wenderiags ( w 4; 30-34; 49; 58). As this bmul nourished Israel during those years, Jesus reveals that He is W s Living Bned who nourishes us for eternal life (v 51). In Jesus, our Heavenly Father gives us what we aced Ew lik ( w 5la, 57). Hawev- er, some people arc more intensted in amamhg health food8 that add years to life thm in consuming the Bread of Life who grsnrs life beyond yeus. Ebr ~nyone todespioetheBdofUfe i s to imri teaagic~upoot frrmse l~(v53b) . But when men and women feed on Jesus in fsith, tby are b l d . The nrult is liithatc~nnot bedestqd by death (v 58). Thia i s n o t w i a h f u l ~ ! This is the promise of the Christ who lived and died and rose alpin. All who pculbe of Him by hith have His life. The central thought of this text is that Jesus is the Qod-appoinrcd B d that mur- ishes us for eternal life. The goal of the aennon is that the heuer d d not despise the Bread of Life, but would always partake of Him in fpith. Inmdudon: It is the work of God to feed His cnation (W l45:15, 16). In Hia mmy He not only provides b& for our tables, but He Plso provides the Living Bread from heaven. LIVING BREAD FROM BEAXEN I. Jesus is the Bread sent by God. A. God knows what B d His people need. 1. He provided manna in the wilderness. a. It mrs God's gift (Ex 16:4-16). b. It nourished Israel for forty yeam @x 16:35). 2. He sent Jesus for us (w 51, 57, 58). a. Our greatest need is not for food and drink to fill our stomachs (Mt 6:31-33, Lk l2:23a). Homiletical Studies 47 - b. Our need is for Bread to nourish our souls (Jn 62427). Jesus alone is this B d (v 51). W arc nourished by the sacrifice of His flesh and the shedding of His blood (w 51b, 53; He 9:l2). B. Some challenge God's choice of Bread. 1. The Israelites did in the w i l d e m . a. There wen those who despised God's manna (Nu 11:4-6). b. They wae c o n d e d (Nu 11:33). 2. Certain people reject Jesus. a. They scoff at His claim (v 52). b. _They are without life (v 53). 11. God binds His promise of life to His Bread. A. God's promise is of eternal life. 1. Although God's manna fed the Israelites, they all died (v 58b). 2. In Jesus there is life that death does not destrq (w 51, 54, 57, 58; Re 1:17b, 18). B. God's promise is for tJme who pemrlre. 1. This Bread is not to be admired as a centerpiece on a table. 2. This Breed is to be eaten. a. By faith (Jn 6:29, 47, 48). b. In the Sacraments (Mt 26:26-28). C. W s promise is for all. 1. No one is denied this Bread (Jn 6:37b, 51). 2. God's grace is all-inclusive (Is 55:1, 2). Conclusim: May God grant that we partake of His Living Bread from Heaven with the same eagerness that we feed on the bread He pmvides from the fields. Lawnnce W. Mitchell Bloomington, Indiana Some of the 5000 Jesus fed expected to hear how Jesus would keep them in bread (Jn 614,15,33,34). It is a common misconception that Jesus speaks words that make us "happy" and that guarantee material success to every "true" believer. But Jesus says no such thing. The disappointed hearers responded: "This is a hard saying; who can listen to it?" The problem is that people do understand and do not like what they hear ( w 61.66). His words are unique. They bring eternal life to all who share the confession of Peter: "Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life; and we have believed, and have come to k m , that you are the Holy One of God" ( w 68.69). The central thought is that only Jesus has words of eternal life. The goal of the ser- mon is that the hearer not try to force his own words into the mouth of Jesus, but rather accept and believe the wrds of Jesus Himself. Inhoduaion: ?he stmy of Mary and Martha is familiar to most of us (Lk 10:38-42). While Martha was "distracted with much serving:' Mary "sat at the Lord's k t and listened to his teaching." Why? Mary knew that then were no other words like His. 48 CONCORDU THEOIXX)ICAL QUARTERLY I. SomanfnuarbsdbytheeofJeau. A. J u m hd muy ddlwn early in H.ia d n k y (Jn 62). 1. They hd hop^ fa Him (Jn 6:14,15,33,34). 2. Tbe irhopcsd idwr~withHismnds . a. His wtmia spoke of llpiriaul camm (v63b. Lk 532; Jn 12225.26). b. His wmb includsd arr#whdmiqe cldmr rbad Himself (Jn 6:3M51). 3. T h y o b j a A e d t h a t H i s . s U w d r ~ ~ ( ~ 6 4 6 6 ) . B. 'IWy,somPneinitisllyc8gcrtoadlorvJ~. 1. Tbynpscttoh.uarordrtbatwillmrteli6eeny. 2. The wtmia of J a w Ossr no bDimpl. fw euy living (Mt 5:l-l2). 3. Some an afhded d reject His mmlr (Lk 1:1&23). 11. ~ ~ b l a s e d b y t h e ~ o f k r w r . A.Hisanordranunique. 1. TbyquniquebecauseofwhoHeis(v69). 2. ~ a n ~ ~ d t h e l i L e t b y b r i a g ( w 6 3 , 6 8 ) . a. Lide mrw (Lk 7:47-50). b. Lide hemr (Jn 1125, 26). B . H i s ~ a n f o r b e l i e v * . 1. J u m d ~ m t e x p e c t u r t o ~ f W l y a l l t l M t H e s y e . 2. He das expect u to belim (Jn 6:40). a. F'aitb is a prcciow gift from Qod (Jn 644). b. R i t h i s w t ~ a t t h c m n d r o f ~ ( L k 7 : 2 3 ) . Lamme W. Mitchell A banner that received a gmt deal of attention at a past commtkm ofthe L u k - an Church-Missaui Synod contained the hdption: "The Seven Last Wmh of the Church: W N m r Did It That Way Befwe." This statement is a timely reminder of the dominant role tradition can play in the epiritual life of people and the mlue t a n o e o f m a n y t o g i v e u p . h a n d d t b r m s e l ~ ~ ~ t r a d i t i o a s a n n o L m ~ , ~ theyannotall&to~preadence~theclerucommPndsofScripcure. This is the situation that confronts Jesus ad His disciples in the text. The~andHisfoll~r~~be~scicusedbyaminPhariseesandscribes of Wing to "live accding to the tradition ofthe elders'' (v 5), a body of practical rules which thy xegdcd as more importpat rhea the inspind !kriptm (see Len- ski, pp. 283-284). The superior attitude of the scribes and Pheriee+s compe11ad Jesus to d e n o u ~ ~ their tditbdm and label theit bdwior as hypocrisy ia the religious sense. "The wrst frwm of hypocrisy is that which clrriee its self-ion a the point where i t t h i n l t s t h t i t d y i s w h a t i t a c a u l l y o n l y ~ t o b e . . . Thetwognatmarla of fully developed hypocrites are pnaenled in Jebaullh's characterization: honor that i s ~ ~ ( w i t h t h e ~ , m t w i t t r h e u t ) ; ~ t h r t ~ l i k e w i 8 ~ e m p y pnrense@reeenbedasdiviaewheathyarepltfwrmrddybymea).Thetwoal- waysgo~,fwthemomenttbehePrtkapsfarfnmrGoditleavesalsohis W.Theveryfintrsquinmatofb~whichisfundunentalforallmeww- ship of God is genuine sincerity towlFd him and his Wod" (Leaski, p. 287). Innoducn'm: "Did yw wPah p r hndsl" is a quesblon most parents ask their children before thy sit down to cat. Tht PhPriKes and scribes in our text were also coacerned about clean hands. Their amccm, hawever, was not p r h d y hygienic but rchgiou. They were up#1 bcausc tbe M s diacipIcs were not living accord- ingto'Yhetraditionoftheelders."InmumxrtaiatermaJesusstooduptotheir criticisms with the admonition, LET GO OF MKlW TRADITIONS! WHD ON ?O GOD'S COMMANDS! Conclusion: 'Ikditions play aa important role in our lives. It is never easy to give up things with which we have gnrwn comfwtable. Yet Christ would remind us that we must be willing to let go of the entcnral aod formal for what God requires-the faith, lave, and layalty of the heart. Ronald W. Irsch Rochester, Michigan Some gsnenl okandoar an Mark 7:31-37 fdlow: (A.) While the mm bmqht a Juus wu completely dm€, omgildon (as oppo#d to U o a ) would imply m im- ~inhisq~a?chnther~rbro ludedumbaessor iarb i l i ty tospepl t . (B . ) ~themmrsidewudoae,nodoubr,tofixthesnemianofthelfflictsdmm uphlmrelf,ruduponthebrathattheIiordwurbouttosctuponhiseusand his tongue (w Clmmmmy, "The Go@ of Mark," W w 1, p. 296). (C.) After~the~mu!~,hwrisdoutthneaai~tohelphimun- ~ w h a t w r s r b o u t t o h r p p e n : (1.)The&atrctionwastoarnyrtheidcathat Jesuemsabouttodo~aboutthemm'sderf#ss. (2.)Thescamdrrtione (spitthgand~themm's~)indicdethatJesuslwrwwrntstheafHictsd mantoaatcrh i sa tmt ion0nhhmrutbandtongue;J~ iabendstodo~ P b o u t h i s r p e d d r ~ . ( 3 . ) u h 1 0 d o ~ t o b e m n . ThemmwUchcdJe- susdothis.He~~pstheiderthathehelp~Jesusbriqsrhimiafnrmhtrven, is divine, almighty help tht ia hr d i fbmt thau rrnythiqe merely human. With this u p I M t d l o O k J ~ ~ . T h e m m ~ t o 8 e e t h e ~ ; i t i a p u t o f t h e ~ l a q e u a e e which Jesus is using" (Len&, pp. 3310-3U). (D.) Why did h thoee who hsdwitnescedtbismincletobellnoone?"Hehsonlyafnndlstt,udhe doernotwratthearcitemnttosp#d~andwidecrboutbi$~theMessiah. The people Oenerslly coMcctod earthly, p o l W ideas with that Mle, the my ideas which Jeeus combted:' ( L i e d , p. 312). Int-: B c i q a deaf-mute would be a difficult handicap to live with. What i s w o r s e , ~ , m ~ a n d ~ t h a t r r e ~ p i r i t u s l l y ~ l e . T b e n L s t o God'slmtherr:iaawnremdyfwtheIrbbr.ThroughthepormrofWisW wecanknowtheblesringof OPENED EARS AND UMA)OSED 'IUNGUES I. BythepcrarcrofOod,eustbtuedm€cpnbeopeadd. A . ~ I b a u ' c o m m r n d t k e u r o f r ~ ~ ~ o p e n e d . 1. In 1- Jesur drew him nkk in order to minis& to hh nee& (v 3%). 2. A a ~ o t w b r t H e w r s r b o u t t o d q J e s u s p n b ~ i n b o t h e m s n ' s eus (v 33b). B. ThroughOod'srbidiagWtheeusofthespiritusllydeafarcopened. 1. The world is filled with people who m spiritually deaf @z 12:2; Mt. l3:lS). 2. Aput from God, their eur will xmwbe opened. 3. '2beWofOodiaa~thrtopensearsthatmspititualydaf(ls 354-5, Rc 10:Wrr). II. BythepamrofOod,~~ue8i lentcanbeunlOOBdd. A. Th~oughJesus* canmudtheeoqeueofadeof-mubwasld (v35). 1. Jesusrlaoprwidsda~~tbismiraclewhenhespitandtouchedthe mads dosope (~3%). 2. Thesamcdthatopenedthemm'seam, "Bphphrtha."alaounl~ his toQgue (w 34-35). B. D e s p i t e J ~ ' c a n m u d t h e ~ o f ~ w h o w i t m s s e d t h e m i r a C 1 e mre l d (v 36). 1. Thcy '%me afere with t h t * ' (v 37a). 2. Tby pl#:kimd the Lmd's gmams (v 37b). C.Bsmredkw'anmarrdourrongueaueloo#nsd. 1. Mhmksncommiuioasd .. . toureourtcm#uatorpcrlcOod'smessage d madutm (Mt 28:B-m, Ac 1:8; 2 Cor kl8-20). 2. I t i a t h m u g h ( h i a ~ t h a t t h e S p i t i t ~ t o u n l o o 8 e t h e t w g u e s d the rpirihully mute (1 Cor l2:3; Luther's arplanstion to the Third -1. Cbncbh: My we who hrm ears to hear and toques to speak s p d brth the Oood News of W s saving love so that Isaiah's pmpbccy will continue to be ful- filled: "The ears ofthe deaf shall be unstoplped; and the tongue ofthe dumb sing (Is 355). Ronald w. Inch - ~abllymthecertuto~~~pcraoncmpmeata~c~&gc. I . : W face many Eonns of tests and testiags in our world and society. Whmtstu&nthasnot "buroedthemidnightoil" aver midtermand final examina- tions? What man or womaa seeking a promotion or advancement has not been con- arasd about passing some technical quiz concerning his or her field of endeavor? Who tcaqcr, eager to get his driwr's license, has not worried about the state driv- . . iag emmmamd W face may situations in life in which we are called to answer ~ o n a O # l t . Notest,howw, i s m 0 n ~ t h p n t h e o n e w h i c h t h e L o r d g m a His dircipld in our text when He posed the questions: "Who do people sqrthatIam?"and"Whodoyousay thatIam?" Thetest isbeforeus; wearecalled to answer. I. R s o p l e g i v e w i o u a ~ m t o t h e o e e t . A. Som r a r r w e ~ w. 1. "He is Jobn the BaptW who bas cam back fnrm the dead to haunt H d who had behedsd him. "He is Blijah'' whom the Jews belied d be a prelude God's Messiah. "He is one of the prophets" or ju8t a Igeu man of God. Edmoad E. Aho mua. AtiZMIB L e s t ~ k w e l & o u r ~ a n d H i s d i P c i p l l e s i n t h e t e t r a r c h y o f P h i t i p , ~ Philippi. Now we fiad Him and His group on their final aip through Galila, whicb was the t~rarchy of Herod Antipas. It is probably the spring of 29 A.D. and the Master kwws there is m appointment to be liep very soon in Jerusalem. TheLorddoesnawanttobebahcltdwith~rpeop1epnssingupHimfw samemirac1eorcrypticstlrmm.bautthemyagriesofthe~.Heonly~ to im~nss u w n His disciples tht in order to fulfill God's plan, He must go the I. Ood'sr#pectbnoteuned. A . O w h u m i l i t y a n d k d o m t ~ u p t o a o d ' s p e r B s a s 9 a d u d . 1. LitGetbedtcipler,wewouidfihtrbc~dunsem. 2. Evm when m acrvc, our moriw is cliCm ooc of celf'8erving. 3.lakmdpeoomprriroas:"Ihm~wretbrnyoubm!'Ridenseps i n t o & r i n o u r k . B. laklaborundaafilrepacareifare~wcmeunOod'smpcctly o u r h u m b b m . 1. h d h c d t o cwdrpaople'~ qmctundcrafilrepnt#ure (v 30). 2. The~toW8nspectbapsaodtyhonestdmimace~inOur- ~ve4lm1~WLrcdptcbMepeopk. 11. God's rwpsa is a gift. A.Cbrifterrnsditforus. 1. H i s ~ H i m e c I f . U t b e w y t o d e u h o n a c r o s s ( v 3 t a ) ~ f w our pride. 2. Hisr idqOfnantbedcd(v3 lb)gwnmDeedour~kbreaod . B. W b m a r e k l i m t b a ~ d i c d u u J r m b r u s w e c m b c m G o d ~ ~~hsnrm-iluwthypeople. 1. auisthtllgimusHisbumilityincrrchrrqOeforourpride. 2. C h r t t h t l l ~ o a u s H i s g n r t ~ w e i n ~ ~ o u r s m n l l n c a s . m. O o d ' s n r p s c t b ~ t y u s . A. When are #m people who do not demve our nspect. 1. w w to plra d v e 4 l last (v 35). 2. W i n i p e r o ~ ~ ~ o r ~ m d t h r r b y h n e a i a g g r e a t - rress PI the world sea it (v 349 . B. Whcawe~peapltwhouenotinaposition~reaPurdusforOurservice. 1. L i r d e ~ m m t i n a ~ n t o ~ o u r e e r v i c e t o t h e m ( ~ 3 6 ) , u y m m t h r n w e m r M e t o ~ G o d b a c k f o r ~ s e r v e d usinIiisSon. 2. ~ w b c n w e ~ c v c n t b e l a u r t d W s ~ , G o d n s p e d s o u r wrvice h Jeeus' sake end g m c i d y rcwuds us (v 17). Cunchion: Henuan Qockd in his book Give Bur Lijk a Uj? otb drt stoly of averywealthywomrnwhobd~mgr#tsumsdmoaytobarcvolenceoand missions in her church. One dy she decided to take a trip to viait mm oft& mi#- sion projects her wmy hd so genmnrsly endwd. She visiosd a b@td where wonderful help was a f f ded to mdy natives. She stopped at an orphage where littlechiMrenofthestr#twredBDt. Sbemmtoalepcrcdcmy w ~ a l o v i a g nursewu,tI#ingthosewboweleeufiniqefromtbe~*dirure.*~ mented, more to hemelf than to the boct, "My, I mddn't do t&t for r million dollars." Tbe nurse who um arting a patieat .asnnnd, "Neithcr would I!' In the service of Christ to us, crremplified in tbe nurse's service, we find the aarrd dglsrt- nessandthewaytogarwpectinOod'saight. opportunity for mdiEltion and pyler. AtCapernaumthedirciples~amongthemse1~#lastowho~moqethsm ~ 8 8 t o b e g r e a t e s t i n t h e ~ C l v i s t w a s g o i n g t o e a a b ~ . Jesustaughttkm thenatureoftruegmtnmbyplscing achildinthcirmidiffandby s&tiq:"Wbo- soever shall rcoeiyc such a little child in my name, receive& me, and whomewr receives me, recievdh not me, but Him that sent Me." This htructim amccmh accepting the gods and digion dthe victors. Until A.D. 313, C k b t h s periodical- ly were pemecuted for their rrfusal to participarc in the emperor wwship of Rome. After Christianity bacame the religion of the Roman Empire, pagans wan discrimi- natedagainst. Duhgthebp9ofthe Holy Roman Empire~andkrmwere persecuted because d their c0nquertd many Christian against if they did not accspr tbe religion of ~ o i u m k d . The Rmnan iaquirition established a terrible rscord of p a w d o n and intolerance a p h t Jews and kw- ics. RaotantsintheRelwmstionandpcmt-~period~Plso&nguilty ofintoleraace towardtbosewhobeWothenwiae. It hPshsOpensdtbrsbecruse ofthee~iswpurityofdoctriw~hrietiansintbepest,~mllasstpreaeat, ~ s c t s d i a t o 1 ~ y ~ ~ C h r i r ~ . ~ p n j u d i c e a n d ~ aresins~whichal lChtirtkasnccdtobeont&irguud.Intk~Jswur d i s c u s s e s r e ~ ~ e m n c c f r o m r w o ~ p u a p e a i v c a . H s u w h a t J e a u s ' answer is to tbe question, Homiluial Studies 55 Cau:lwion:InthisrsDmicqee,~divinelyinstitubsdmonlidybflouDtd,Chris- tians hsve a g m t oppmnky to revtret the conuption of modern civilizsQion lad prevent the punidmmt which will m l y come if men and mnnen do mt abide by the Cmtor's rules for liviq. ~ k n o n s s d t o ~ t h e ~ o f t h e r o r n y t r u l e f s ~ t o J ~ . W h i l e h t s c c m s d t o h m ~ ~ w a s m i s a i n g . NoticehawMarkmntions tht J e w " I d bb!' Hcm coampmy is Jesus' waming about the dangers of rich! Wbdher the "eve dthe ncsdle" &rs to a s e w k needle or a lrprraw rn lemia our rductllrce to accept W s liLa as a frst gift. I% am nrturally inclined ad cmdhhcd by our so&@ to cam our "bendits." The mras to the goal is our woaderfulGod,whocm&uythiqe. ~ W h i l e " a U F o d s m y l e d t o ~ , " a U c r l l d o n o t l l e s d t o ~ n . i t i s ~ w h a e w e a s ~ d c r i r e t o g o . ~ u s o m a i m e s d o u b t s a r i s e a ~ w see so many appmot optaons d b d , so muy 'prths to lik" Our text gives us O o d ' s ~ t o t h e q u e s t i o a , I. I s i t t h e t d l d A.Thetdlrodprincipk~mellkmrm. 1. Ybu#ythepicb1keatsomes0Ittousethehighway. 2. W o @ € b s l u h P - c n r r ~ o a c s : g a s a o p s , n s b u n n $ , ~ . B. The rich puq luler rook the toll rod. 1. Hepaidtheprice. a. Hirquestion-behdtodosomethiq$togettoheavar(v 17). b. H e ~ h i 8 c l a d e a t i o l s - a n impcable young man (v 20). 2. He mnwl s p e c t ) ~ . a. He looked h r ctenul li6e (v 17). b. Wbe-unrwletbrtbewuranther~hiehmy;~beasked Jews. ~.~henwasrrwdblockinthemy. 1. Tbe lodblock seemed to be monq (w 21-22). 2. The nrl madblock was an umvilliqgoess to surrender hcart and life to Christ, while outwudly oby i God's will. 3. It i s mt almyr the "groap" sins that destmy people, but more often the rbings to which tby become aaached. D. AtollmadtoWisimpoeriMe. 1. Money has the pawer to corrupt the heart (v 23) (cf. the "alnughty hllar"). 2. Men unnat spve men (w 26n. Blph 2:8-9). Defeat and disappointment a n t h e ~ ~ ~ ~ a C a l l w h o t l y t o s m t h e m s e l v e s . The toll mad bkes its toll. It is the hiebway to hell. Thmk God there is awther highwgr. II. It is the freeway. A . T h e f n m y p r i n c i p k i s ~ k n u w n . I. Yw t m l without cost. Our gowmment a tew yeus ago enctw a na- tionwide system of frreways. B. The framy is very q x n s i v b f w God. 1. Planned by bre F'atbcr from eternity (Eph 1:3-4). 2. Built and with the blood of Jesus (in l4:6; 1 Pa 1:18-19). 3. Mainmined by the Holy Spirit (Ro 8:16-17). C. The fmway ends with eternal life with God (Jn 17:3.24; 3:W. Php 1:6). ThisisthermazinggnceofaurGod, w h o d o e s t h e " ~ b l e " i n l a v e f o r u s ! Gmclusion: Isn't God's l m fantutid) He b c b a job no man auld M e . He does the impossible. He plans a to &. His Son both builds it and pays the cost. His Spirit invites us to trawl without cat or price, to believe in Jesus as our Srvior and to live in His lave until the fnewgr ends-& in the arms of Jesus in heaven. I. Inrelrtiontoaod. A.Bcwrnofmovw-Mego. 1. Salamt a d mns (w 35-37; d. Mt 2020) 2 . O u r ~ o f p r i d e , ~ , I f o o d a e s e . B. B c w r n a f u n & r ~ t b e ~ i n H i a k i n g d a m . 1. Example: we rae Hollywod &us, highly p8id athkWh, sucaadul lead- ers, buthmlialeideadtheitsmyplertogetandsty wheretby arc. 2. Junes md Joha m oblivious to J m ' cup of suffer@ (w 38,3244; Mk 14:36). 3. ~ m u s t b e p r e p u r d t o ~ r f w c h r i B ' s a a k c . a. Not glibly (v 39). b. But in daily life and wimess (v 39; 1 Ik 4:l3; 2 Cor 4:D, Jn 1520). CPR ON TBE RMDSIDE I. "C" - JW canm (v 46). A'. Hie repmtion pecda Him. Tbenm~dpiercbet~w8oMtheirheurmasbeadydietofcalcutations. Thydclmmt~,terrwtiPlmomneag,andmastoprndgolightsaskys tounlockthe~ofthepamu6ia. Thistypedcalulstionfrllsuponitc~eore which m wiaur for ray knowledge d the fbtm. But it is the proclamation of theao ipdwbidrmutdomiarbthercb:v i tydthe~ ,a i twi l l~ theeame fae~the~onqrk.Noonecmrcca#ChtiaofaugarCOQiqBthefsted tbolewhofrlltocrlreHiclproclmutioa~y.Buttheh#giftdheeveaawai@ bwhoembnaChhtJemtyE8itb. hmducrh: Spccbhd cakuhtm m available to count caloria, conmt Eng- lirb to metric, chart biorhythms md mrthermticrl functions. Many m twning the ~ i n t o a ~ d ~ t o f i x t h e s a m d c o m i o g o f C h r i s t . W l t t h e fuDctiondthechurchis CALCUWTION BUT PROCLAMATION I. ~isursencyinGorpelpoclrarstion. A. Signs m wrongly hrqmcd by deceivhg calculeoors (v 5). R The Holy Spirit pmvides the Bponanears witness m the truth (v 11). n. ThenisriskinGo6pclpmclrmation. A. J a w pmniees !tdsmcc mOm aWborities (v 9). B. J e w u r ~ f n m i l y m m b e r s r s p i a s t e a c h o t h e r ( v l 2 ) . m. Time is lewurd fw Gospel proclsmation. A. The "reword" ofpcrsecution is dincted at keus, though mcived by us (w 9.U). Philip C. Rsch LeMki,Alford,~,andothersunderegndML l3tospeakofboththedestruc- tionofJeruealemandthePProusir,albrnotiqekZweeathetmointhecourseofthe c-, with w 24-31 applying to the Rrousir. R. T. France, on the other W, in his Jesus d rhe Old Ps#rmmt sees Mk l3:l-31 as dealing exclusively with the destruction of Jerusalem. In this writer's opinion. France's view is the correct one f w t h e h U o w i q g r e a s o a s . T h e ~ ~ ~ ~ a Z I s U a n d 3 4 ( u s e d b y J e a u , ~w24-zS)refmedtothefallaZBPby1onandWsjudgmem~theaations, thus signifyi, on Jesus' l ip. W s judsmnt agninst the Jewish nation. In v 26 theSonofMancomes.WltinDrrnieitheSonofMm~nottoeaRhbutto the Ancient of Days and rcccives "authority, glory and sovereign pawer; all peo- ples, d o n s and men of every languaee WWShipped him" (lh 713-14). (Note the stnlriqgpenllelwiththegmtamrmission.) Jesus also says that thisgenedon ~natpa~s~umilal l thesedriqestalrtplsce(v30) .Thesewrds~i lyspply to the deatrucrioa dkrusakm. Tbe sadiag oftbe to gatbr the elect is remiaie- centofthegreat~on. Notuntilv32doesJesusmcntion''thatday" inthe singular. Until that verse he uses the plural, "days" (w 17.20). The NASB begins e new paragraph at v 33 and has "He" in v 29, though there isnopwuninthetext.TheNIV,W,andRSVallendtheparagrephatv31, andtheNIVandKJVbotb have "it" i n v B , referrbgtotheaearaessofthetime rather dua to Christ h imse l f - former being in keepins with the uo- &rstradiagoftheseverses.ThecenaaltboughtindristextisthatJesuswill~i~ honor and glory and Jerusalem will be destmyed. and all this will certpinly happen sooafwtbepurpoaed~aod'selact~inaDtbeNew~Church. The goal of the sermon is that the hearer will respond with repentant jay to God's call and His desire to gather His people. The malady is that we too often respond toGodonlybecPusewefiwthe~0nsc~ue~~8ofnatresponding. Int~m:Some~hershytoscanpeopleint~the~mofGodby r#rwmiqgtheterr~~oftbetribuletionorthe~e~~ndco~ofChrist. T ewrwds ofourtextmayseemtobewrdsthatdothesame,de88wepltou~l~~ the conmrt of Jesus and His discipka. The disciples heard these mrds and rccqg- nized the very strong Old 'Ztstament tigurative language. When we hear these wrds inthelight oftheOldTlsramentwewill notrecall accwntsofthehomr anddread of the end of the world, but rather we will hear a pmphecy of the destruction of Jerusalem that happened in 'FD A.D. But mom important, we will note that ~immdiate~hall~ofthistartistoamnccttbedirloyebetwrenksu~aad PiLoe. I s t h i s a v e r b a l ~ ~ h w i t h t b a r e t a r o m s n a y i a g t o t h r u s t l r a d ~ Oris thae~dia logwlakingplrce~Theannmrl ies in i indingaann- monbrr#dafthaughtrunniqgthragtheirCOllVttBstim.'Ihtthnsdofthaught centem ia rnm than the kingship ofles~s. It is rather the kblofkhgshipksus c l r i n v o d a p a r i a e s . A c c o F d i q g t o v ~ , h ~ i s ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ o f ~ o g a ~ t h n t J m * k i o g s h i p ~ n d s u d ~ u a e s ~ w y e d t h e w o r l d lbrtbepupoaesoftruth. The(palofth~sermonisthattheheuerWiulicrtent0 J~,isKiagof'Ihrth.Themaladyisthrrt~fiilto~Jm'voiceb caw m look tor it in the wrong realm. I m m : How &en do you hear peqple tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the huth? From the "fine print'' of contracPr we sign to "truth in lend- ing" law % mgr be frustrated or sometimes satisfied in our desire for the truth. At timca we would dip igmre the truth, but that is not a wise action. The truth alwqrs catelm up with us. Jesus p t a high value on truth. He was, in $ct, the truth (cf. h W6). Our tGxt makes cleer that JESUS 4 TEE KING OF THE KINGDOM OF TRUTH I. He implores us to to grips with the truth in our lives. A. Jesus confroMed P i l e with the truth of his motives. 1. Pi laaewantedtof iadmy~toc~andcondemoJesus .Hewas not so much conoernerl about the truth as he was concerned about dis- posing of Jeaus' case now behe him. 2. Jeeus wanted Pilate to faoe the truth. He asked why Pilate questioned H i about his kinghip. Behind this question lay Jesus' concern for the truth, and His desire fw Pilate to h e that truth as well. B . ~ a r e ~ b y t h e K i D g o f t h e k i n g d o m o f a u t h . 1. 'I& offea we wwld hide behind the half-truth of our outward piety. Too d y we @om Jesue' call to npmrance and hith in Him as the true ofG God's^. 2. Jesus wanla us to repent of hiding behind half-truths in dealing with God o r o w ~ . H e w a n ~ ~ u s t o b ~ f w t h t h e f r u i t o f t r u e ~ n t a n c e . 11. HedesiresrhatwebeputdGod'sking&moftruth. A. False kingdoms acek ow attention and devotion. 1. Pilate saw in Jesus a man with no apparent power and a Icing with no o b v i o u P ~ . J e w r s ~ ~ 9 ~ a ~ i n ~ ~ o f d l C w o d P i l a D C l r n e w ~ 2. Kiagdams that seek ow devotion are obviously powerful, visible, and with gnat h m g s of followers. Fslse Christ-denying cults attract many bllawcts. Ramrful npecial h m t groups seek ow support. Highly visi- ble e m p b want our Sveatments oftime a d money to aid their building. 3. But whether in the nume of religion, special inbrest, or financial secu- rity, all such ldngdoms are doomed to ultimate failure. These are not of the essence of Jesus' true kingdom. B. J ~ ' ~ d t r u t h i s f _ m d c d o a t h e ~ d W s t r u t h i n h e a r n e n . 1. Jesus ssys, "If mine wm an earlhly kingdom the visible trappings would 3 present." Servants wwld fight, power wwld be obvious to all. 2. t, Jesus has a grater paver-rmth. He has greater loyalty-the lovers of truth are His subjects. C.Jmus~ustobepartofHiskingdomoftruth. 1. This means more than allowing Jesus to be true. It means recognizing the truth of His mission: to testify of the auth of God's love for all. The greatest testimony of that truth is fuund in the cross of Calvary. 2. This also calls b r us to lay aside worldly definitions of glory and power. ' h e power, lasting and benefiial power, is founded in Jesus' kingdom of truth alone. Conclusion: Jesus coRfronts us with truth's claim on us-the truth concerning our need of Fepentance, and the truth of Christ's cms-earned forgiveness. May we re- joice as subjects of the King of the kingdom of-, ever l b n h g to the King Himself. David L. Bahn Book Reviews W h i l e t h e r u t h o r E s l r e s a ~ t y w m a p p a c h , t h e c n t i n ~ i s m - d a a d i m n l i d b y a m i n a p r i o r i ~ ~ w i t l m t t e a r i a g ~ ~ ~ ~ e x m p l e , ~ P a d L u l r e ~ w i t h M u k h f m m o f t b e a o , ~ w a s a O e n t i l e a n d nor a kwbh Christisn, and Joha wrote i a d q d c d y of the sympk tradition. Not o n l y d o t h e ~ c h n r c h f n t h e n s c o a m d i c t b r # e v i t w r , b u t ~ w c ~ t h e PaurtbE~ao~hmthe~arwd~arwd(wbrs~~dtbstbe?), theimernslevideaafmmthcaorpelethaMcl~#lconmdictthia.Johnsbawsa d e f i n i a e ~ a f t h e s p o p i c a o r p e l s . Sanesepnrlescaiolrrreinrfrarrha~.Ebrclrrmple,docellymiserd istheapola@icsisnifianceof~Jewisbcooy,n?undcdin~,Wthebody ofJaRMhrdbanstolen.WhtistobebelierrsdrboptthecorparralrtslllfbCtion intulceislessdua~clerr.hcxrchsnd,Lutek~to~the~d ofth he^@. 1 2 3 ) u d t b n n t h e n a d p r l g s s y s t b a t t h e E ~ w a s n o t c o n r m a i q e u o n ~ a r m r r : o f l e r r P s ' ~ ~ ~ b u a f f i r m i s O ' m deathclldnot~thecrucifiedJuuls."In~imroductiostheEnqgelietsore s a i d n o t t o h v e t h e m o d e r n ~ t b a t t h e ~ o f J e w u , i s f w a d r t i o D e l f w a g e a e r s l ~ o n . S u c h m o p i a i o l r ~ B D t r l r t i D t o ~ m t h s t J d m ' s accauatnnutb~undmrQoodwithinthe~ofbi~eatinaOrpe1,~henthecon- nactioclismrde@:25).Emthe~wimChristtheRaed~MdM David P. Scaer 66 CONCORDIA THEOUXiICAL QUAKI'ERLY not all Reformed are of Dutch background and are not committed to a particular polity are so harmless that they could have been excluded without a gnat loss. He- link bends aver backwards to diminish the importance of creeds in his tradition and mentions that all Lutherans, except for the M i h r i Synod, have taken the same mute. (At the turn of the century Pieper said just about the same thing about the Reformed.) The chapter on the liturgical character of the Refwmed selfdemucrs when it is men- tioned that the Lord's Supper is celebrated fDur times a year. While Lutheranism is Christocentric, Calvinism's stress is on the sovereignty of God. We are warned by the author of "an unbiblical Chriswntrism:' The Reformed faith is still the religion of the Holy Spirit who. works in a parallel action alongside of the Word. For Lutherans the Holy Spirit works only in the Gospel, i.e., the message about Christ. Heaselink is honest and to the point. He has perfwmed a great service. No other conclusion is possible than that Lutheranism and the Reformed faith are two difkrent religions, beginniog with their difkring concepts of God, Christ, and reve- lation. That is only the start. The problem on the Lord's Supper is only a sympto- matic blemish of the d fundamental problems. A book lib this is always of great value as it shows where some characteristically Reformed thoughts have been panned off as Lutheran. David P. Scaer THE POWER OF THE POWERLESS: The Word of Liberation for i'oday. By Juergen Moltmann. San Francisco: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1983. 166 pages. Cloth, n.p. About twenty years ago Moltmann's theology of hope placed him in a posi- tion of piomhence in the theological world from which he has not fallen. His other books, never matching the first in depth and scholarship, are variations on the theme adopted from the philosopher Ernst Bloch that disappointment provides the future with the foundation of hope. In Power of the Powerless the eighteen chapters are sermons centering on this theme with special atten- tion to man's participation in the social order to bring about a better world ex- istence. With the American background of the Social Gospel, Moltmann's message has found even a more fertile soil on this side of the Atlantic than in its Ger- man homeland. Each chapter is supplied with a Biblical text and many provide a concluding prayer. This is usable material. Attractive in Moltmann's ap- proach is a deliberate attempt to be Biblical both in themes and language, very much like Karl Barth. Of course, this can be its greatest danger. A sermon on Noah becomes a plea for conserving natural resources. One on the peacemakers pushes pacificism. A final sermon urges Christian responsibility for Third World countries. Moltmann is Reformed, but with his concept of God's involvement in the suffering world he is more like Luther in content and language than Calvin with his idea of God's transcendence. Thus the sermon Book Reviews 67 for Good Friday bristles with phrases (of course, abstracted from the totality of Moltmann's theology) that emphasize a suffering Christ, too often forgot- ten. If the suffering theme of Moltmann is a corrective for a Christology which sees humiliation as an embarrassing interlude in the divine plan, it would have no meaning without the "who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven." Since this is missing, Moltmann's Christ is hardly more than the man who in disappointment continues to hope. David P. Scaer MELANCHTHONS BRIEFWECHSEL. Band 4. Rcgesten 3421-4528 (1544-1546). Barbeitet von Heinz Scheible unter Mitwirkung von Walther Thuringer. Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstaat, 1983. Cloth. 477 pages. CoUected here are one thousand one hundred and seven letters from the year 1544 to 1546 of the German reformer, Phillip Melanchthon. The letters are not transcribed word for word, but the editors have organized the original material into straightforward sentences. In the more extensive letters, the sentences are numbered for more efficient reference. Some of the letters are authored by Melanchthon along with Luther and Bugenhagen and others are those received by him. % As these lettys come from the period just around Luther's death, some of them can be mentioned briefly.On February 17,lM,Brenz wrote to Melanch- thon complaining about participating in the Regensburg colloquy with the- Catholics as they had not changed their position on justifikation. On the next day, Melanchthon wrote Luther wishing him a safe journey home, thanking him for informing him about the death of Pope Paul 111, and saying that his wife had sent him the requested medicine. On February 21, the elector sent Melanchthon a letter telling him to make funeral preparations for Luther. Other letters speak about the emperor's mobilizing of the troops to move against the Lutherans. Reformation research will benefit greatly from the publishing of these edited letters. David P. Scaer 68 CONCORDU THEOIXXiICAL QUAKI'ERLY WORD BIBLICAL COMMBNTAIW. Wume 19. By Pleter C. Craigie. W Baok P u u W, 'Ikm, 1983. Ehdbomd, 378 psges. Abnl W a d Comnvmruy hs been Wed as a new qository of Biblical learn- i n g . W B o o k P u b ~ c l a i m t o h v e ~ a t c a m o f i n t c m a t i o a n l s c h o h to povide a dxnwwc ofthe best in cvangdical critical scholarship for a new gener- ation. The compkted commngry will comprise 52 volumw, of which 32 will deal w i l b t h e O l d W . T h e ~ E d i c D n s a n D g v i d A . H u b b a r d a n d C i l e n a ~ , with John D. Watb as the Old rrstamnt editor. Wume 19 mats Psalms 1-5Q IbUcrwiog the division adapsd by the Anchor Bi- ble. The author ofthis volume is Craigie, Dean of the W t y of Humanities in the Uniwdy of Calgary. In his commentsry Craigie gives a d analysis of thelrqBuPIDe~fwm.Hewascoa'rmnedtocommunicatcboththeemationaland ~ i m p e c t d t h e P r r l m e a s b e b c l k v c a t h a c p o a n s ~ o r i g i a a l h l ~ bytheIeneli~intheit~servicesandalsointheirprivate~as.~h d t h e ~ ~ i ~ a n e w ~ w h i c h i s W o n t h e l e t e s t t e x t u a l a n d ~ d . ~ h r s ~ i n U g a r i t i c a n d , L i b e D a h o o d , u s e e U g a r i t i c to explain and cotrtct the Biblical Massoretic text. Pege ZR5 lists all the Ugaritic ~ s n d ~ u e s d s n d ~ t c d i n ~ w i t h t h e f w m , s h r u c a u e , a n d c o n - tent8 of the Psrlmr discussed in volume 19. In addition to notes on each psalm t h e arc a number of imrroductory essays that include "The Origin of Psalmody in I d , " "The Conrpilotioa dthe Psllter," "The F'8alms and the Rnblan of Author- ship,"'~TheologicaIRMspecti~intheBookofRPalms," and "ThePsalmsand R#xm Rererrcb:' ccmriqg pqse~ a-26 The W - c r i t i c a l method is the controlling hennemtic of Cragies in his in- Berpnbtionofml-mc~claimsthathepoemsintheMterarcman's respoaae to Israel's experience with God. Thus the Old 'ItstamM contains some books that arc a rmlrtion fnrm Ood to mm, and other books contain man's re- sponsetohisnligiousexpericnce.Thiameaasthatdycetzainbooksarcactually theWof~.ThstwrnlyisnotthestaMxoftheNew'Itscament. Inmmcrous ~ N e w ~ a u t h o r s q w d e ~ f r o m t h e P s a l m s a s t h e a u t h o r i t a - ti= WofGodanddonotconriderthe Psalmsmerely man'sthoughtsandurwds. Christ is not found at all in the Old ltagmnt by Craigie. Psalms like 2, 8, 1645, 69.89, IlQ,citcdintheNewltagmntasprrdictingmntsaboutChrist,areinter- pnasd in a csmpleaely d i t k n t mslllltr, In firct, Craigie claims that the Fsalms have difhent levels d meaning. Welm 2 is a c o d o n poem, which had a different mPaiqg origidly then when it was later written h; then it was again =inter- pmsd. Onemayrsk: Wtvlaisthe~betweenthistheotythatatexthasdifk- at t h c o 1 ~ levels depmdiqg on the century of man's existence in which it is emplaySa, and the three difhent senses Origen attributed to a text or the h r h l d wme so popular &mugbout dre Middle Ages till the time of the Refwmation? W Publishers claim that their new commentaries "offer a thorough scutiay of the eviderice produad during the current generation" of major discoveries found in the historical, textual, and archaeological fields, presented with a firm commit- ment to the authority of Scripbutie as divine melation. But the historical-critical method undenniaes the authority of Scripture; the Psalms are -&I to contain objec- tionable sayings (the so-called maledictoxy Psalms) and emneous views but does not do justia to the Balms because of its rejection of the basic henmaeutical prin- c i p l c t h a t a t e x t ~ d y oat ieoendedsc118candnotmult iple~. Serious, Book Revicwa 69 INTRODUCMON TD THE SEMITIC LANGWES. By Ooabelf Translated by h r T.Daniels. E i , Winona M e , Indiana, 1983. Paper, m w. $ 2 0 . ~ This is a trrnsletion of Bergsbsesser's E@&mng in die scnJaischen &m&n, originally published in 1928 (third edition i d by Max Huebner -lag. Isman- ing, Muenchen, 1977). Thi8 Germrn scholuly work mlr tnanlrtad by PWM T. D a n i e l s , w b h n s s l s o p n n r i d s d ~ , a M b l i o g r r p b y , a n d ~ ~ o n t h e ~ mitic Scrips. eergsmesserta Intrndicaion to the Semitic kmgrvylcs has cbspbrs on the following bpagcs: (1.) ProbbScmiSic, a puely racoastnrasd h g q p ; (2.) Alrhdiur, (3.) Hehew; (4.) Aramaic, both Old Old and Modem A m m k (5.) Soudr~andEthiopic;and(6)Northpupbic.Tbebodr~01~:1udeewiththra sppeadias:ammon'Saniticwlords,~andSemitic~TbenewAmai- crur~gi'~#la~ofperiodicPLsandcoll~,rn~wMblipr- phy,andan~indexofaudrorsIWlCtiOPLdd~tthebodr,allnewbwhues. Althoughthe~sppeandfiffyyearsqeo,itisstillnotoutdat&.Ihnielsas- serts about the vvwk he d a t e d : ''GoUhelf Berptmam (l886-1933) was one of t h e ~ S r m i t i c l i q s u i s r s a n d p h i l ~ l ~ . T h i s s m s l l ~ ~ ~ h i s l c a m - ing, and every page yields concise stetemeats of nmarkable insight. He imendsd thebookEorelemnEuyclassesinSemitic~,butonlyone6aniliar~.ll begin to spprecirbe the achicvcmmts in t h e brief dmpms" @. xv). Since the ap- jxuaxx of Bergsaaesser's Inhoducrion, U @ i c and Eblaitc (or Eblite) haw bee31 d i s c c m n d , b u t t b y a r c n o t i n c l u d c d i n t h i s ~ b y ~ . H ~ i s t h e ~ givcnhrnotinco~infonnrtionontbeseIraeusgss: "Itswashappilydecid- edinadvamx,s iacethe~lsanonlyprrt iPl ly trarw&dand~tnt ts only fully wcalizd dialects. Ugaritic, as well as othet unvDcPlized dialeccs (Woa aecisn, w c South Arabic) a d the problematic Amorite and Eblite, hawev- er, arc included in the notes in the bibliogrephy" @. xvi). In the mt#l and comments Daniel had the assistance of a number of his teachers, mmmnding scholars ofthe Oriental Institute ofthe Univdty of Chicago. Scatred ~thisoompantivcgrammarantwelwvery~tablea.Shdenlsinba#lbad inthe~~lrrti~nshipofHebrewandAramaictootberSemiticlPqguageawillbegnue- ful that Eisenbrauns undertook the publication of this well-printed book. MARTIN UlTHER'S DEUTSCHE BIBEL. By Hans Wlz. Herausgegeben wn Heb ning Wimdhd. Friedrich Wittig Whg, Hamberg, G e m , 1977.253 p a p . 98 marks. Although this d e n t work wee published in 1977, it might be looked upon as preparcltion for the 450th annivcmary (1984) of the traa9lrtion and publidion of Luther's Old and New 'Mamem as the aetman Bible in 1534. The publication of Luther's German BiMehas ken labelled as the greatest bookcvent ofthe six- teenth century. Dr. Hans k l z (1904-1978), an authority on the Luther Bible and also a contributor on Ludrer's Oerman Bible to the Wimar edition of Luther's wwks, intended this wlume as a publication on the origin and publication of the German Bible, especially for the general public. U n h ~ t e l y , he was n6t able to see the pmjh through, a task d e d out by Henning Wendland. The wlum has ten chapters, plus a time table, a bibliograpiy and a listbg of allpersonsandcvcnts~tointhebook. Theintroductorychaperweewritten by WllhcIm Kanbenbsch a d treats Luther's laaguage in the Oenarra Bible. ?he next chapter preeeng an wxwnurt of the Oerman prehtheran Bibles, published in thelatchfiddle Agca. T h e ~ c h a g t e t g i v & a h i s t o r y o f t h e ~ t h a t ~ Luther's ttrmslrtion lctivitier. The fautb chapbr discusses the lim ofthe men who helped Lutber witb his mnslrtim aad llevieionel activity, such as Philip Melmch- thon, Johannes Bugdqpn, Cqmr Cruciger, Justas Jonas, aSog !3pdath, Mat- t b w s ~ ~ O s o g R o e t a . T b e ~ ~ , i n 1 7 ~ l i s $ ~ ~ theplbliebetsandprinbn~1vsdinthepublicationof~sNewltstamtnt and h e r of the conplsb Bible. In the next chnpter k l z lists the German Bible in single editions, follmd by a chagtet @viq the history of the compleb editiom oftheBible. I n t h e ~ ~ k l z n p o r $ o n t h e s p r r e d a n d ~ w h i c h L u t h a ' s German Bible had on Oennuy and &r European lands. W~aeaberg had a num- berofpriaffsudbindaiesbueyplMishiqBLuther'sBibkand~~. Haw e m , asWlzshawe,inchspbrnine,theBibleofLutherwasalaoplblishedinBasel, Zuerich, Au@urg, Nuernbag, Msinz, %m and Straw-. By means of his Bible tmdation Luther had mated the new High German language hr Oennsns, butIawOermrndsowrsspdoMlinvari0~~pBR8ofwhetlaterweetobeded Germanyandwinstillrwtherchaptcrshawshaweanslstions~lmmedeinLow Oerman.Inhislartchrprntheinn~~l~aofLutber'snanslationaassaninthefib t h a t K i a g C h r i s t i e n I I , w b o h d t o t l s e h i s l a n d ~ o f h i s a # t m p t t o ~ the Reformation, l i d in W m in dre house of Lucaa Cranach, when he wit- aessedthep lb l i ca t ionof Iu lher ' s scpaaberand~Ncw~in1~22 . The king determined to makc the Bible available to the Danes; and in 1524 appeared atrsnslrSionoftheNewTcsgmeatinDanish, publishedinLeipzig,butactuaUy done in Wittenbag by Christian Vinter, Ham Nikelsen, and Henrik Smith @. l24). A n ~ ~ ~ o f t h i s b o o k ~ t h e m a n y r e p r o d u c t i ~ l l s o f p a e e s ~ v a r i - o w books connected with thehhbry of Luther's complete G e n m Bible. The wl- u m e ~ a p l d m i a e o f i n f a n n u i o n a b o u t L u t h e r , h i s ~ r s , a n d a r t i s t s and printers of the German Bible. Raymond F. Surburg