ROUGHLY EDITED COPY LUTHERAN WORSHIP 2 78.LW2 Captioning provided By: Caption First, Inc. P.O. Box 1924 Lombard, IL 60148 ******** This text is being provided in a rough draft format. Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) is provided in order to facilitate communication accessibility and may not be a totally verbatim record of the proceedings. ******** >> DAVID: What influence did Luther's reforms have on the liturgy in other German territories? >> DR. JAMES BRAUER: Luther had considerable influence. Remember, I said that when he first put his hand to it, he was kind of fearful of how it would be used. Some people would use it as a law on other folks. And he didn't want that. He understood the freedom under the gospel. But nonetheless, what he did with the Latin Mass and the German mass became the basic designs that allowed people to make the adjustments for their territories. Now, we can put up on the screen a chart that shows this, and there's kind of a band here that shows Luther's Latin Mass and German mass, and then immediately from the Latin mass to use in Wittenberg and then at *Nuremburg, another important reformation center, and that moves to another territory. There are lines drawn that show this. His German mass into the village services on the one hand, and to other cities and then like, under Brunswick, there's a whole list of cities who, in a sense, then copied that pattern, then maybe from a region or similar pastors knew of these materials and other places within Germany. So there's a whole bunch of these mentioned. How do we know all this is because of the visitations that were made and reports on the visitations and the supervisors, in a sense, giving the pastors directions what to do. So these are preserved. They're called *kirchen organum, and there's a number of volumes that have reprinted these for modern scholars to look at. So we�re able to kind of trace and compare from place to place what they did with music and directions to pastors or reporting on what�s being done. So we can make this chart. And this one that is up on the screen as something to look at for sixteenth century orders then, is that kind of what I call a simplified chart of his influence. It just goes all over the place because these were the dominant ones everybody knew and compared their work with. Now, the most interesting part is that eventually this came to Cologne in a 1543 publication. And because the English reformers, under Edward VI, produced a prayer book in 1549, there's even a way that Luther went to Cologne and then that knowledge of what he did with the mass ends up influencing England for a brief time. Not only that, within the sixteenth century but he also influenced the later centuries. And it's interesting that when the cities who had institutions that could do music like Leipzig and other central cities, they would produce musical institutions. They wrote cantatas and pieces that served the services. And on Sunday morning, the service got larger and larger. People didn't mind. I mean, this is what you did on Sunday morning, and they wanted it in German. So that at the time of Bach in Leipzig in the 1700's from 1725 to 1750 or thereabouts, you would actually combine the Latin Mass and the German mass and you would do parts of both Masses. For example, on a festival Sunday, the choir could do the Gloria in Excelsis in a Latin setting, and the congregation could then sing the German hymn from the German mass alongside and after it. Similar things would happen other places in the service so that they actually ended up in many places with a highly inculturated and adapted musical expression that combined the Latin and German mass, a phenomenon that seems really strange to us, but now, we're in an age where bilingual services are starting to become more common to us as well.