CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY Volume 60: Numbers 1-2 JANUARY-APRIL 1996 The: Anniversary of Concordia Theological Seminary Walter A. Maier ....................................................................... 1 Coxordia Theological Seminary: Reflections on Its On(:-Hundred-and-Fiftieth Anniversary at the Threshold of the Third Millennium Dean 0. Wentht ...................................................................... 7 Celebrating Our Heritage Cameron A. MacKenzie ......................................................... 17 F. (2. D. Wyneken: Motivator for the Mission Norman J. Threinen ................................................................. 19 Father from Afar: Wilhelm Loehe and Concordia Thrmlogical Seminary in Fort Wayne Jrunes L. Schaaf ........................................ ....... ...................... 47 The Protoevangelium and Concordia Theological Seminary Douglas McC. L. Judisch ........................................................ 75 Preach the Word! The One-Hundred-and-Fiftieth Anniversary Hymn ................ 95 Coinfessional Lutheranism in Eighteenth-Century Germany Vernon P. Kleinig .................................................................... 97 Book Reviews ...................................................................... 127 Indices to Volume 59 (1995) Index of Authors and Editors .................................................. 153 hidex of Titles ........................................................................ 154 Index of Book Reviews ........................................................... 156 Books Received ........................................................................... 158 Book Reviews EAFULY ISRAEL: A NEW HORIZON. By Robert B. Coote. Minneapo- lis: 1:ortress Press, 1990. In this work Robert Coote deals with the issues of how Israel originated and what Israel was in the early phases of its existence. He summarizes the understanding of early Israel that has been put forward by certain scholars based upon research (primarily archaeological) of the last decade. Cook also adds his own views, some of which are new to the discussion. Far his reconstruction Coote fust of all puts aside the picture of Israel's histoly presented by Scripture since, he asserts, the biblical narrative does not give a true account of early Israel. The periods of the patriarchs, exodus, conquest, and judges, according to Coote. never existed. He also rejecls the model of Alt and Noth (an infiltration of disparate nomads into the F'alestine hills, merging gradually in a tribal league) and that of Mentlenhall and Gottwald (a peasant revolution). Setting his time frame for the discussion as the thirteenth century through the end of the eleventh century B.C., Coote holds that Israel (early or otherwise) never had any unique ethnic, national, religious, moral, or social character. The beginnings of Israel were, rather, totally withiln the framework of typical political relations in Palestine, involving peoples who were indigenous to Palestine. Israel originated, Coote proposes, as the name for a complex, variable tribal aftiliation of Palestinian farmers and pastoralists under the lordship of tribal sheikhs, in the north of Palestine. As an organized power, Israel grew in official impojrtance during the thirteenth century B.C., when, according to Coote, Egypt dealt with Israel's tribal heads to create a semi-cooperative surrqgate force in the border zone between the Egyptian and Hittite impelrial spheres. Moses, in fact, was an agent of Egypt. The fall of Hatti,, the incursion of "Europeans" (e.g., the Philistines), and the drastic decline of Egypt in Palestine led to the spread of Israelite tribal villages on the highland frontiers of settlement during the twelfth century. The Israellite center of gravity shifted to the highlands of central Palestine. Thus, by the end of the twelfth century two main groups faced each other. The Europeans (chiefly Philistines) were in control of the lowlainds-the coast, Bethshan and its territory, and parts of the Jordan Valley-and the chiefs of Israel were in control of the central highlands. Both camps were engaged in a struggle for sovereignty over the whole of Palestine. By the end of the eleventh century the Europeans looked as if they were ready to win the struggle. They had helped, however, to estab:lish a highland outlaw named David, who eventually turned the tables on the Europeans and established sovereignty over greater Palestine in the name of the tribes of Israel. The Hebrew Scriptures began to be formed 128 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY in the court of David, written in part as propaganda for David and reflect- ing the new political reality (thus, the anti-Egyptian elements in the "J" document), but giving no actual historical account of Israel's origin and early history. Cook's book is an indication, in this reviewer's view, of what will become an incmasingly strong trend in scholarship on the Old Testament, namely. to discard the Vaditional phases of Israel's history (patriarchs, exodus, conquest, judges), as presented by Scripture, in favor of a vastly different reconstruction. The pastor reading this book will want to review the discussions of the archaeological evidence already set forth by more conservative scholars. Early Israel: A New Horizon, furthermore, shows the need for future studies of new finds in Palestine by those regarding the biblical record as accurate. These studies undoubtedly will set forth legitimate interpretations of the evidence which will be a counterbalance to the interpretations of those scholars in the same school as Coote. Walter A. Maier 111 PAUL AND THE RHETORIC OF RECONCILIATION: AN EXEGETI- CAL INVESTIGATION OF THE LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION OF 1 CORINTHIANS. By Margaret M. Mitchell. Louisville, Kentucky: Weminster-John Knox Press, 1993. This book is a revision of Mitchell's doctoral dissertation presented to the University of Chicago Divinity School in 1989. Her advisor was Hans Dieter Betz, known for his rhetorical analyses of Galatians and 2 Corinthians. Betz encouraged her to undertake a similar investigation of 1 Corinthians. Mitchell argues that 1 Corinthians is a unified composition by a single author, Paul. who urges the congregation to become reunified. Paul's key text, his "thesis statement," is 1: 10, "I urge you . . . to all say the same Lhing, and to let there not be factions among you, but to be reconciled." With this proposal, Mitchell is contendig on two fronts. First, she is opposing the "proliferation of partition theories" which have questioned the unity of 1 Corinthians. especially since the commentary of Johannes Weiss in 1910. Her careful linguistic studies have demonstrated, successfully in my view, that at least one of the pillars of partition is untenable. namely, "that chapters 5-16 are lacking in reference to factionalism." The other front is the position of Johannes Munck (1959) and Gordon Fee (1987). who deny or (at least in Fee's case) understate the presence of factions in the Corinthian church. Mitchell's corrective Book Reviews at this point is to be welcomed. Mitchell has drawn on a rich amount of material from Greco-Roman rhetorical handbooks, speeches, and letters. Key terms in advocating peace and concord rather than war and factionalism-words like schism ("schism"). homonoia ("harmony"), sdma ("body"), and about t h i i others-are analyzed in order to throw light on Paul's use of such languiage in persuading his people. We need not be surprised that Paul, who was so well versed in the language and culture of his day, would draw on terminology that was common coin in contemporary political and social1 contexts. On pages 180-182 Mitchell gives a useful summary of politilcal and social terminology used in the epistle, beginning with Paul's appeal for "oneness" (the word "one" appearing "a remarkable thirty-one times"). Another welcome aspect of the book is the careful exegetical work in numerous places. Two examples may be mentioned. One is Mitchell's analysis of the peri de formula (7: 1.25; 8:l; 121; 16: 1, 12). in which she mainlains it may sometimes be simply a shorthand way of introducing the next lopic rather than always being a reference to a previous letter (191). A second example is Mitchell's response to Fee's rejection of the authenticity of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 (281). Thiis reviewer's concerns with the book in hand apply to two major (and related) mas. (1.) There is, in the fmt place. the emphasis on social and political terminology, without giving comparable attention to the epistle's religious terminology and argument. Mitchell herself is aware of the limitations of her study in this respect: "1 Corinthians is [not] merely a pile: of political commonplaces suung together, nor is it [true] that political topoi (topics) are the only sources of Paul's arguments . . . Throoghout 1 Corinthians Paul draws heavily upon traditional Christian material." These cautions, however, do not remove the impression that Mitch~ell's study is another exegetical work (as Markus Barth's Ephesians) focusing on "horizontal reconciliation" between divided groups of human beings and so lacking sufficient sensitivity to the vertical dimension which gives its characteristic stamp to the gospel, which is God's reconciliation of sinful humanity to Himself through the cross of His Son. (2.) In seeing 1: 10 as the theme verse, secondly, Mitchell is at variance with Ithe traditional Lutheran emphasis on the cross, which finds the epistle's thematic statement in 1:18. A thorough response to Mitchell's argument would take us beyond the limits of this review. We may point briefly. however, to the emphasis on "grace and peace from God" in the 130 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY epistle's opening (1:3; comparing 1:4, 7) and on the role of the cross in undergirding the appeal for unity in 1: 13. 17.23: 22. Paul states clearly in 1:17 that his primary mission is to preach the gospel of Christ crucified. Mitchell is able to cite 1 Clement, Ignatius of Antioch, the Muratorian Canon, Origen, and John Chrysostom in support of her contention that the epistle's chief purpose is to combat factionalism. Yet she also cites (page 19) W. Bauer's response to the fathers: "It is really rather peculiar and in need of explanation that this extensive and multifaceted epistle is supposed to have had only this purpose." Gregory J. Lockwood DANIEL: AN ACTIVE VOLCANO. By D. S. Russell. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1989. D. S. Russell believes that the interpretation of an Old Testament book should be "dynamic, showing new insights and understandings in each succeeding generation by the illumination of the Holy Spirit" (page 9). That viewpoint. coupled with his seeing Daniel as a paradigm of how God deals with individuals and nations throughout world history. has resulted in Daniel: An Active Volcano. Throughout this work Russell reflects on the text of Daniel in the light of both the New Testament and our present world making applications to the contemporary situation. His primary aim, therefore, is not a scholarly treatment of Daniel, but one that is confessional, homiletical, and devotional. Two central themes comes through in Russell's discussion of Daniel: fmt. that being faithful to God may not lead to earthly prosperity but to suffering and death; and, secondly, that in the end, the will of God will prevail, He is in control, and thus the believer can take comfort. While those themes will find acceptance with many readers of this journal, those conclusions of Russell which are based on historical criticism will not. Russell holds to a date in the second-century B.C. for the authorship of Daniel, and this view colors much of his writing and interpretation. In dealing with the meaning of a passage, furthermore, Russell often presents the original understanding of Daniel's author as being notably different from the later understanding of the Christian church. Russell explains, for example, that the "son of man" of chapter 7 was originally meant to be the representative of those Jews persecuted by Antiochus Epiphanes @age 86). In the course of time Christ and the church applied a messianic significance to the "son of man" (pages 86-87). The conservative exegete will be uncomfortable with a number of Book Reviews 131 Russell's expositions and applications to the contemporary scene. Thlroughout his book, nevertheless, Russell displays a Christian outlook, holding finnly to the centrality of the resurrection of Christ to the interpretation of history. He has interesting insights and makes astute conn~tctions between passages in Daniel and verses in the New Testament. The pastor who uses Russell's work cautiously will undoubtedly be rewarded with some helpful ideas for sermons and classes on the Bible. Walter A. Maier UI LEAVING HOME. By Herbert Anderson and Kenneth R. Mitchell. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. Leaving Home concerns itself, primarily, with the leaving home of young adults, as both event and as pmess. The volume is a provocative study, part theological and part sociological, about pastoral ministry to perscns who are leaving home and to the families that are left behind. The ;authors have provided readers with a thorough study of the process of leaving home. There is discussion about the nature of one's home of origin and about leaving home both physically and emotionally. Th~e authors deal with the necessity of leaving home as part of the individuation of adult personality. They contend that leaving home is nece:isary for a person to pursue God's calling for that individual. They explore the grief experienced by the family when a member leaves. They discu~ss as well the advisability of a spoken "blessing" of the "leaver" whiclh both "frees" the individual to leave home and also to return home when appropriate. Chapters are devoted to the theological implications of leaving home and to pastoral counseling interventions in the leaving process. The Christian educational-nurturing functions of the family are mentioned, the "home" is viewed as the launching place for the dult. Both "leavers" and those: who are left are reminded of God's continued presence and care. It is suggested, finally, that congregations ritualize the home-leaving process. This idea is something to which pastors might attend particularly as they plan worship in the late summer and early autumn. One of the authors, Kenneth R. Mitchell, died before publication of the book. His death, however, occurred only after he and the co-author had planned a series of books entitled Family Living in Pastoral Perspective. Leaving Home should be priority reading for parish clergy and pastoral counselors. It is also to be hoped that this fme book is an indicator of the 132 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY quality of the series of volumes currently being authored. Gary C. Genzen Lorain. Ohio MASTERING GREEK VOCABULARY. By Thomas A. Robinson. Second Revised Edition. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson, 199 1. The year 1990 saw the publication of two fine guidebooks to Greek vocabulary via cognate groups (word families): Robert E. Van Voorst's Building Your New Testament Greek Vocabulary (Eerdmans) and the first edition of Thomas Robinson's Mastering Greek Vocabulary. The attractive volume by Robinson. Associate Professor of Religious Studies at Lethbridge University, now appears in revised form. Robinson builds on word-frequency principles adopted by Bruce Metzger's Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek and John Wenham 's excellent grammar, The Elements of New Testament Greek. He lists cognate groups according to frequency in the New Testament, beginning with the definite article (21.1 17 occurrences), kai (9039). and auto (5943). Memory aids are provided. Under auto, for example, the aids are "autobiography. autograph, automatic, autistic." Robinson's chapter on cognate groups takes up most of his book @ages 9-1 18). His short first chapter ("Identical GreekEnglish Words") is a gem. From this chapter the student can immediately gain- "without study!-a vocabulary of about 250 words," inspiring "some confidence that Greek is not entirely foreign." The list begins with abba-"abba." abyssos- "abyss," and angelos-"angel." Section 3 lists about four hundred "Derived English Words" ("acolyte," "acoustic," et cetera). Sections 4 and 5 explain Greek prefixes and suffues. Section 6 lists low-frequency words not in the main cognate lists. An appendix explains Grimm's Law of sound-shifts in Indo-European languages. Mastering Greek Vocabulary may be highly recommended. Gregory J. Lockwood APOSTLE TO THE GENTILES. By JUrgen Becker. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. Jurgen Becker intends to provide in this work a study of Paul that takes him "seriously as a human being and as a person of profound religious conviction" (page ix). The reader who takes seriously the New Testament will, however, have difficulty recognizing the Paul that Becker presents. Book Reviews 133 Beclker paints a picture of a Paul who had no idea whatsoever of the importance of his letters (page 8) and who would have been amazed and "perhaps even embarrassed that his letters are included in the canon of the New Testament (page 9). Becker removes Ephesians, Philemon. 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus from the list of Pauline letters and expresses doubts about Colossians and 2 Thessalonians. F~urther complicating his task of understanding Paul is the unreliability of P~cts, a book written "at the earliest" a generation after Paul by a man who did not know Paul and had probably not read any of his letters (pages 13-14). Becker believes that the author of Acts reports Paul's martyrdom "only quite incidentally (Acts rn25.38; 21:13)" (page 15) and records a (fictitious) Apostolic Decree (Acts 15) of which Paul knew nothing and with which he would not have agreed if he did (page 14). Readers of Becker's book will be surprised to discover that Paul conducted ao extensive collection for the relief of Jewish Christians in Jerusalem (page 23). Becker suggests that the author of Acts falsified this information (page 26). The Paul pictured by Becker was a linen-worker who was never instructed in the law as a regular rabbinical student @age 37). This Paul was never confronted by Jesus on the road to Damascus (the author of Acts records only a fictional legend in Acts 9, 22, and 26, reflected also in 1 Timothy I), although he did convert to Christianity at some point in the past (page 73). Eiecker suggests that Paul lost the argument with Peter and the Judaizers (Galatians 2). This defeat motivated Paul to begin independent missionary work among the Gentiles (page 125). Paul was wrong to expect an imminent return of Jesus, a view shared by the early church (page 132). With this picture of Paul it is not surprising that Becker understands the doc~trine of justification by grace through faith in Jesus Christ as merely a "battle doctrine" which Paul employed in polemical sections of his letters (pages 270, 279-304). Blecker's goal throughout the work seems to be to reconstruct a "flesh- and-bone" Paul, a man who felt called to present the gospel to the Geatiles. There is certainly a need to understand Paul as a human being and to avoid the two-dimensional caricature generated by many well- meaning conservative Christians. A aue picture, however, of this apostle to the Gentiles must be drawn from all his letters, not just a few. Luke's account of Paul's ministry in Acts must be given full weight as well. And, finally. to misunderstand the place of justification in Paul's theology is to misunderstand his entire theological framework. Becker's book will 134 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY be of interest to those who wonder what is being taught in some German theological circles and reminds us of the hermeneutical question which every interpreter faces as he opens his Bible. Lane Burgland DIE RECHTFERTIGUNG DES SUENDERS: RE'ITUNGSHANDELN GOTTES ODER HISTORISCHES INTERPRETAMENT? By Gottfried Martens. Goettingen: Vandenhoeck und Rupprecht, 1992. Forschungen zur systernarischen und oekumenischen Theologie, edited by Wolthart Pannenberg and Reinhard Slenczka, Volume 64. This book is essentially the author's doctoral dissertation, accepted by the theological faculty of Erlangen in 1990. It is an impressive achieve- ment, just because it is not a tedious array of pedanuies. but an illuminat- ing treatment of the heart of the faith by a keen theological intelligence. Roughly the first third of the text is devoted to a painstaking determina- tion of just what it was that the Reformation. on the one hand, and the Roman Catholic Council of Trent, on the other hand, meant by justifica- tion. Special attention is given here not simply to the respective confessional or conciliar texts, but to vital background-fmt of all in the final negotiations at Augsburg and in the agreed formulas of Worms and Regensburg a decade later and then also in the work of Chemnitz as both confutator of Trent and main author of the Formula of Concord. From this carefully constructed foundation Martens now proceeds to describe and evaluate some significant contemporary treatments of justification. First comes a thorough analysis of the formulation of the Lutheran World Federation in 1%3. Next. four "ecumenical" documents are examined in respect of their treatments of justification: the "Malta- Report" (Roman Catholic and Lutheran [Vatican and LWF], 1971), the "Leuenberg Concord (European Lutheran and Reformed, 1973). "Justification by Faith" (American Roman Catholic and Lutheran, 1983). and "Lehrverurteilungen-kirchentrennend?" [Doctrinal Condemna- tions-Church-Divisive?] (German Roman Catholic and EKD [Lutheran- Reformed-Union], 1986). The various notions of justification are classified broadly into the two categories of the book's title: either God's salvific activity (if preaching, one might be tempted to say, "rescue-operation") or else a piece of historical interpretation. It turns out that Trent and the Lutheran Confessions had at least this in common, that both W e d justification as Book Reviews God's saving action. in the context of worship (Gottesdienst). By contrast, the modem Qcumentsdespite vestiges of the former approach, particularly in the American paper-treat justification as an intellectual cons,truct, subject to the flux of endless re-interpretations. according to the dictates of modem historicist thinking (in the Continental sense). It is not surprising that the boldness of this scheme provoked some fury wi@in the academic establishment, as one gathers from Professor Slenczka's commendatory introduction. The approach was, for example, dubbed "a nonsensical alternative." Martens was also accused of a "fundamentalism of the means of grace." It is difficult to imagine a higher tribute to his work. Given the wealth of data and analysis in the book (the bibliography comprises nearly a hundred pages), any selection of topics for special notice must needs be arbitrary. This review will take up three: (1.) some details of the historicising interpretation, (2.) the status controversiae between Trent and the Church of the Augsburg Confession, and (3.) an envisaged broadening of the ecumenical scope to include a comparative study of the theme of "deification" in Luther and Eastern Orthodoxy. Despite positive elements of the discussion in Helsinki (such as the renewed stress on the link between justification and baptism), Martens notes that the official theme, "Christ Today," came to be distorted into a pmccupation with "today" and therefore with that mythical creature, "modem man" (before, of course, the rise of the "femspeakers," who would rather be "chairs" than "men" of any sort). The "deep chasm" between past and present was thought to prevent reception of the message of the past concerning justification. The gap had to be bridged. instead, by t~uman efforts at making justification "relevant." An obsession with "communication" in turn makes techniques central. If "we" are to "make" the "mere word" "effective," "lively," and "credible." then Martens is quite right to speak of a usurpation of the place of the Holy Spirit and of a "he~meneutical semi-pelagianism" (page 149). Our mediating, communi- cating activity then also takes over the function of the means of grace. As Martens reminds us, however. "the dialectic of law and gospel cannot in principle be translated into the methodology of detergent-commercials" (page 337). One result of a further distortion was that "the experience of "today" was made a constant of theological assertions, and the form of the 136 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY proclamation of Christ a variable" (page 127). Since "modem man" does not believe in a last judgment, he naturally does not fmd justification in that sense "relevant." One of the major attempts to secure such relevance was Tillich's method of "correlation," in which Christian symbols are reconceived as answers to questions which "modem man" is allegedly asking. Martens comments trenchantly that "man sees his needs and questions satisfied precisely in sin" (page 142). Deploring the substitution of this thin gruel for God's own two-fold action in law and gospel, Martens cites Braaten's astonishing view: "Tillich's method of correlation is a contemporary methodological reformulation of the Lutheran principle of law and gospel" (page 142n). One theologian (Poehlmann) thought that "overemphasis" on justifica- tion was an "intellectual image-cult" which "puts the cult of Mary in the shade" (page 14511). Indeed, the submission of the Theological Commis- sion to the Lutheran World Federation in Helsinki. following the scheme of Warren Quanbeck, had reduced justification to "one of the pictures" for what is central in the New Testament. The references to "pictures" were later, in response to criticism, taken out of the final (unaccepted) report (page 145). Yet the fatal split between "concept" and intended "reality," and the reduction of God's rescuing forgiveness to bloodless abstractions, to be "interpreted" in this way and that, went on apace. As its 'lheologi- cal Commission reported to the next Assembly of the LWF in Evian (1970): "Historical thinking . . . lets us recognize the historical contingen- cy of the biblical statements, as of the ecclesiastical confessions, and thus relativises their validity for the present situation" (page 131). The "Malta-Report" treated this discounting and relativising of everything "historical" as an axiom. Fixed doctrine was in principle impossible, since the "gospel" always "incarnates" itself anew into a situation (page 189). To cope with the welter of diverse theologies, interpretations, and understandings, even within the New Testament itself, Malta adapted the notion of the "centre of the gospel" from the vaditional Lutheran talk about the "centre of Scripture." In sum, "the Pauline proclamation of justification is to be understood as a 'polemic' and a 'sharpening.' which Paul developed in a particular situation and which, accordingly, is not to be regarded as rhe centre of his proclamation even in his own view; rather, it is one interpretation of the saving event among others and must let itself be corrected by them" @age 205). The "Leuenberg Concord," while at least treating justification as a matter for pint confession. also succumbed to the bane of historicist Book Reviews relativism. Its "dynamic concept of doctrine" replaced the contrast between God's word and man's word with the categories of "ground and "expression" respectively. The radical contrast between divine truth and human opinion was thus dissolved into the grey sameness of "historical development" (page 226). Once law and gospel are, as also at Malta, bracketed as a mere confessional peculiarity, justification turns into an abswact ghost of itself, open to reinterpretation in sentimental terms and sociaii action (pages 234-237). The American document Justification by Faith receives high praise for actually tackling, in its historical portion, the dogmatic' differences in detail. The biblicalexegetical component, supplied by John Reumann, is characterized by Martens, on the one hand, as a "basically superb collection of materials" (page 271). but, on the other hand. as a use of historical-critical methodology "to veil and supplant the necessity of theological judgment in exegesis" (page 246). Scripture, indeed, cannot function as rule and norm "where its pneumatic dimension as word of God is not taken into account at all" and "the aim of exegetical investigation consists simply in a demonstration of the diversity of the theologies and theological interpretations in the New Testament" (page 247). Theologically the document achieves "convergence" by going beyond the supposed surface-level of doctrinal conflict, to that of the underlying intent or "concern," where a happy compatibility and complementarity prevail. The Roman Catholic understanding of justification as a process and the Lutheran confession of justification as shaped by the contrariety of law and gospel are regarded simply as different but complementary conceptual and linguistic ways of expressing the same thing (page 254). The Lutheran "concern" is then assimilated to the Tridentine teaching, so that the mutual "convergencen is expressed largely in the very wordings of Trent (page 260). The position of the Reformation may represent a "legitimate concern," but in itself it is no more than a Lutheran peculiarity and certainly not the doctrina carholica and apostolica which it claimed to be: (page 273). 'Ihe clash between true and false doctrine has been defused into a comparison of "then" and "now" within one evolutionary continuum (page 271). A similar "self-surrender" (page 312) on the part of the Lutherans (pined now by Refamed and Union forces) is registered by Martens in the final document which he considers, which sets aside the "mutual" condemnations of the sixteenth century. The summary here is, of course, sketchy and selective and, therefore, cannot do justice to Martens' exquisitely nuanced argumentation. 138 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY II. The contrast between the Lutheran understanding of justification as divine forgiveness, forensically applied, and the Tridentine scheme of a progressive process, therapeutic and meritorious, is, of course, familiar. Martens, however, does not stop there. He traces the discord also to two incompatible views of reality. Trapped in Aristotelian ethics and metaphysics, Trent was unable to think of imputation as sufficiently "real." Faith was empty unless filled, or "formed," by love. For Luther, on the other hqnd, that which "forms" faith and gives it its justifying power is Christ Himself in the fulness of His redeeming work. It is this Christ-cross, resurrection, and all-who is present in ipsafide, in faith itself. What faith has, therefore, is not less real but infinitely more real than any love or ethical renewal in us. Despite, furthermore, its laudable anchorage of justification in baptism, Trent neglected the power and efficacy of the gospel itself (page 74). A corresponding deficiency in the estimation of the "word-event" may be noted already in the Worms-Regensburg discussions, where, as Martens expressly points out, Calvin's presence ruled out unanimity in this maaer on the part of the Protestants (page 6511). The "battle over justification" is "the battle over the right worship of God [Gottesdienst]" @age 113). Here is Martens' ringing opening declaration: "'Justification' signifies in the Confessions as doctrina that event [Geschehen, happening] which implements itself in the church's essential constitutives, word and sacrament, as well as its content" (pages 23-24). And in his conclusion Martens formulates the view in the Lutheran Confessions of justification as "grounding event" (Grundge- schehen) splendidly thus: "Justification is throughout proclaimed and confessed as the act of the Triune God upon sinful man, which is implemented in word and sacrament, thus in baptism, sermon, absolution, and supper, and therefore has its place in the worship [Gorresdienst] of the Christian congregation" (page 322). This liturgical determination of justification is vital in an age which habitually misreads "faith" as mere interiority or "spirituality" in the modem sense. Contrary to this conception. the external, objective evangelical channels of salvation (media salutis) are essential and constitutive for justifying Eaith and so for justification itself in accord with the apology to the Augsburg Confession (IV. 53) and the Solid Declara- tion of the Formula of Concord (111.25). Book Reviews 139 Folllowing Chemnitz, Martens knows well and often deploys this litmus test: What precisely is it that can alone secure our acquittal before the judgment seat of God? And in his treatment of the modem ecumenical discussion, the Roman-Lutheran contrast is sharply drawn. Yet the handling of the Council of Trent itself seems done surprisingly gingerly. Of th~e dreadful Canons 24 and 32 which have good works "increase" justifjication and "truly merit" eternal life, only one is mentioned, and that in a fbotnote. The issue of "merit" is dispatched with more excuses than criticisms. At this point words like "problematical," "insufficiently." and "danger" (page 82) have a distinctly Vivializing effect. And the plausible weaving together of an "inner-biblical net of correlations [Beziehungs- netz]" capturing "central New Testament sets of facts [Sachverhalte]" (page: 76) is not, of course, unique to Trent. We have all seen such perve:rsely ingenious "nets," for instance, in the case df Jehovah's Witncesses, who learnt the art from the Arians. On the other hand, one might wish that more leniency had been exten~ded to Martens' fellow-confessional Lutheran, Dr. Gottfried Hoffmann, even if public expression of disagreement had been deemed necessary. The undersigned sees no vitiation of Hoffmann's view of Apollogy IV:72 in his recasting of the passive iustum e@ci into the active form,, iustum e@cere, for his title (page 3411). Hoffmann also rightly criticizes Schlink for extending the meaning of "regeneration" in the Apobgy's treatment of justification beyond the creation of saving faith to humanly observable change (see page 4%). In his distinction, moreover, between justification and sanctification in respect of nova vita in Apology IV (page 43n), is Hoffmann doing anything other than insisting, with Luther, on "the clear distinction of grace and gift," lest the two be fudged into "'a mixtum compositum." as Martens himself puts the matter so well on page 312? Such, at any rate, are the reviewer's humble perceptions. These incidental reservations, however, are not meant in the least to gainsay the genuine significance and brilliance of Martens' treatise. Th~e "ecumcnical" discussion of justification considered here is, of courw, really an event within the Western church. Perhaps that is not surprising, since the Christian East in a way missed out twice on the debale about saving grace, once in the time of Augustine and again in the time of Martin Luther. Naturally Eastern theologians have assimilated the issues in various ways, and these matters are now pursued in dialogues between churches. The most interesting Eastern-Lutheran dialogue of 140 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY recent years is doubtless that between the (Lutheran) Church of Finland and the Russian Orthodox Church. This dialogue, which began in 1970, has been enormously fruitful in stimulating a new and far-reaching departure in the study of Luther, focusing on the patristic "deification" (theosis) theme in Luther and its relation to justification. The pioneering work was done by Professor Tuomo Mannermaa, of the University of Helsinki, and is being continued and extended by his students. Martens lists the relevant material of Mannermaa in his bibliography, as well as the important (deriving from a symposium in Helsinki) volume Luther und Theosis, published by the Luther-Akademie of Ratzeburg. Since these materials appeared in 1989 and 1990, however, and Martens* dissertation was completed in 1990. he could obviously not at that late date incorporate a major new component. Even less able to do it justice is this short review. Two ob~e~ations will at least indicate the import of the new scholarship in Helsinki. There is. first of all. Luther's insistence, in his commenwy on Galatians (Luther's Works, vol. 26, page 129). that justifying faith does not have Christ simply for its "object," in some abstract conceptual way, but rather that in ipsafide Chrism adest (in faith itself Christ is present"). What are the implications for the under- standing of justification in Article Three of the Formula of Concord (SD) when that article itself concludes by directing those interested in a more detailed explanation of the mauer to Luther's "beautiful and splendid commentary on Galatians? Secondly, as Mannermaa's student Risto Saarinen in particular has argued in some detail, there is a systematic flaw in the conventional portrayal of Luther's theology, owing to certain philosophical prejudices adopted by Ritschl and transmitted to the "Luther-Renaissance" initiated by Karl Holl. This bias dislikes essence and substance and talks, instead. of operations, actions, or influences, distorting Luther's views accordingly. His ontologically robust biblical, incarnational, and sacramental realism was starved down to spectral thinness, and the resulting insubstantial wraith then was then hailed as "dynamic." The implications are, of course, enormous. Martens' work, for one thing, on the ecumenical debate about justification needs to be supple- mented with an equally rigorous examination of the christological underpinnings. If, as Man: Lienhard assures us. the Leuenberg Concord, for instance, really meant by the "collapse of traditional thought-forms" the "two-natures doctrine" and "the doctrine of the communication of attributes" (Lurherisch-Reform'erte Kirchengemeinschafi Heute, page 107), Book Reviews 141 it is difficult to see what concrete meaning and value could then be left to an,y agreed formulas about "justification." It is greatly to be hoped that Martens' masterful investigation will soon be made available in English. It is far too fashionable among modem Lutherans to take justification for granted as a non-controversial, even slightly boring. cliche. Martens' work can shake us out of our complacent slumbers. In his introductory commendation Reinhard Slenczka cites these words from Hans Joachim Iwand: "An evangelical church which regards the doctrine of the righteousness of faith as something self- evident, which need not detain us since other questions are more urgent, has in principle robbed itself of the possibility of arriving at consistent solutions in these other questions" (page 5). Kurt Marquart TEXTS FOR PREACHING: A LECTIONARY COMMENTARY BASED ON THE NRSV-YEAR B. By Walter B~eggemann, Charles B. Cousar. Beverly R. Gaventa, and James D. Newsome. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. The idea of a lectionary commentary certainly seems appealing: by purchasing one volume, a preacher can have on his shelf a reasonably in- depth treatment of every likely sermon text for a whole year. Some may find Texts for Preaching to be just such a book. Lutheran lectionary preachers. however, are likely to be disappointed. The disappointment will not be with the concept. A commentary specifically on preaching texts offers several advantages on which this volume capitalizes. First and most importantly. every text is examined with a view to its place in the ecclesiastical year. An introduction for each Sunday connects the lessons for the day with each other and with the season. These are generally insightful and extremely relevant to preaching. Inclusion of the psalm of the week further enhances this commentary's liturgical usefulness. Secondly, directed as they are toward sermon preparation, the authors often suggest applications of the text which could easily fwd their way into the pulpit. On the crowd's reaction to the feeding of the five thousand in John, for example: "It is the kind of thinking that skews the reality of grace and seeks to make of Jesus a genie or an errand boy" (page 446). Thirdly. this commentary is designed for easy access by preachers of greater or lesser scholarly inclination. The original languages are assumed, but word studies and grammatical issues are always elaborated in the vernacular. 142 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY Nor will there be disappointment with the scholarship of the authors, either. The work is credible enough. B~eggemann in particular is a name familiar to students of the Old Testament. The fact is that Lutheran preachers will be disappointed with something very much out of the hands of the authors. They have, of course, commented on the lessons assigned in the Revised Common Lectionary (1992). Unfortunately, therefore, this commentary simply does not address almost thirty percent of the pericopes in the lectionaries used by most Lutherans. such as that in Lutheran Worship. Some of the omissions will be especially missed, such as Genesis 221-18 and Romans 8:31-39 ( F i t Sunday in Lent), all the lessons of Pentecost including Ezekiel 37, Mark's passion and account of Easter, Ephesians 5:21-31 (on the Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost). A number of the omitted texts are included in Years A and C of the RCL; Westminster-Knox Press expects to publish Texts for Preaching for these years too. The point is that one volume does not meet every Sunday's need. There are, in addition, exegetical concerns with this commentary. Inerrancy and historicity are questioned (pages 9, 453, et alia) and traditional authorship refuted (page 82). Interpretations of the Old Testament vary between surprisingly clear connections to Jesus (page 5, for example) and complete discounting of major messianic passages. ("It is enough to see that . . . [the fmt Servant Song] models profound faith in a situation of exposure and vulnerability." page 241. Likewise, the poetic interpretation of Isaiah 53 is at once insightful and inadequate.) In many instances the commentary raises questions. challenging grist for the preacher's mill, but avoids answering some of the tougher ones. A preacher devoted to the pericope-ven of the Lutheran cycle-might want this book as a source of material. Most readers of the Concordia Theological Quarterly probably would not find it to be the best available source. Carl C. Fickenscher II Garland, Texas BECOMING MARRIED. By Herbert Anderson and Robert Cotton Fite. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster-John Knox Press. 1993. This book is the second book in a series about major events of life, viewed from a pastoral perspective. The fmt book, Leaving Home, written several years ago. I reviewed in an earlier issue of the Concordia Theological Quarterly. Herbert Anderson is a professor of pastoral Book Reviews 143 theology, and Robert C. Fite is a pastoral counselor. In this new book pastors are provided substantial "food for thought" concerning issues related to premarital counseling, planning of weddings, and something probably rarely done, scheduled post-marital counseling during the first few years of marriage. The book advocates the use of an informal genogram as the primary instrument for use in premarital counseling. In the genograms the couples tell their family stories back a few generations. Using this instrument, the couples decide which familial customs, patterns of life-style, and religious values they wish to bring into their new marriage. Instructions on how to do a genogram are provided. The wedding ceremony is viewed as an important public part of the ongoing process of becoming married. The book incorporates a current sociological study of marriage, and also seeks to set forth a general theology of Christian maniage. Lutherans will not likely be comfortable with the sacramental label given maniage, though the use of the term by the authors differs from traditional Roman Catholic usage. The book deals with the fact that more couples are living together prior to the wedding ceremony. While not endorsing this practice, the implications for the wedding ceremony and for the marriage are discussed. While the authors contend that lifelong marriage may be more difficult in a day when people live much longer, that certainly does not abrogate God's intention for marriage. The book contains advice about the content of the wedding homily. Also provided is a list of texts of Scripture usable for weddings. There is also advice about the construction of the wedding ceremony. In area most Lutheran pastors will presumably continue to reach for the Agenda pure and simpie. The work is thoroughly furnished with footnotes, which provide suggestions for further reading. This is definitely a book for pastors to read and ponder. It is exceedingly readable and continues the good work done in the earlier book. One can hope that the authors will see the series through to completion. One may not wish to scrap his present pattern of premarital counseling work to use the genogram primarily. Yet one is likely to come away viewing it as an additional modality in such work. Gary C. Genzen Lorain, Ohio 144 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY A FAMILY OF SERMONS. By Arthur Drevlow. Mankato. Minnesota: Walther Press, 1993. It is true that a family of writers, six no less, is involved in the production of this book of sermons, brothers and nephews, all of whom bear the surname Drevlow. But the primary author and contributor is Arthur Drevlow. a graduate of Concordia Theological Seminary in 1941, now retired after many fruitful years as pastor chiefly in southern Minnesota. To his credit it must be acknowledged that this conscientious Seelsorger, besides tending to his parish and its school, remained a student himself, constantly growing. His sermons evince the love he cherished for the scriptural word, the theology of his beloved church and its leaders, notably Luther and Walther. and the history of the synod which he served. A mere casual reading will soon demonstrate his ability to expound the text (helpfully the texts are printed out) and to benefit his hearers with pertinent comments and lively illustrations. Thus, for example, in preaching on the beginnings of this, he points out in his introduction how on July 4. 1853, the first president of the synod, C. F. W. Walther, gave thanks to God for having made America "the greatest wonder of the century," referencing chiefly the blessings resulting from the religious freedom to worship without let or hindrance. Ten years later, Drevlow goes on, "President Lincoln reminded his countrymen of their Creator's blessings: 'We have been the recipients of the choicest blessings of heaven."' Drevlow's text was Psalm 33:12, "Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord. and the people whom He has chosen as His own inheritance" (NKJV). The sermon turns on three poles, the past, the present, and the future (the once, the now, and the tomorrow). Vividly Drevlow makes his points. As regards America's past, for example, he states: "To apply the terms righteous and upright to any nation, past or present, is indeed a mark of God's unlimited love. Think of these terms as you consider the America of by-gone days. Imagine students coming to Harvard University in September 1992 and being greeted by the Rule of September 26. 1642: 'Let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly [advised] to consider well: the main end of his life and studies is to know God and Jesus Christ, which is eternal life, John 17:3.' Think of college students in 1992 being told that Jesus Christ is 'the only foundation of knowledge and learning.'" Obviously we have come a long way from that day, and Drevlow acknowledges "that will seem strange to us" in our troubled times. Similar sorts of trenchant comments appear in the sermons that highlight the Lutheran Confessions, one of the five sections in the book. Book Reviews The skill and technique of teaching (in sermons) concerning these confessions was the focus of the author's project-dissertation of the Doctor of Ministry degree of Concordia Theological Seminary a number of years ago. Of the approximately fifty sermons in the book. forty are by Arthur Drevlow; the remaining ones are contributed by other members of the Drevlow family, Adolph, Otto, Ferdinand. David, and Marcus. The book thus becomes a fitting memento of this family that has contributed significantly to the ministry of the word for more than a half century. Eugene F. Klug MATTHEW'S CHRISTIAN-JEWISH COMMUNITY. By Anthony J. Saldarini. Chicago: The University of Chicago Ress, 1994. Saldarini maintains that Matthew was intended for a community of Jews of which he was part. Matthew writes with the hope that the Jews, who were not monolithic in their beliefs, may recognize Jesus as the Messiah. This study is fascinating, since Jesus is presented as the Jew He really was. Failure to understand Maahew in this way, as Saldarini has admirably done. leaves important aspects of the life of Jesus untouched. As valuable as this fundamental principle is. it results in overstated conclusions incompatible with certain understandings. Matthew is so enmeshed in Judaism that the church and the synagogue are no longer seen as fundamentally opposed. Its apologetic against first-century Judaism, the view offered by Davies and Allison, is obliterated. Saldarini's approach requires putting a positive face on negative references to Jews and neutering favorable references to Gentiles. This approach destroys Matthew's literary and theological genius of creating a tension between negative references to Gentiles (e.g., their useless, long prayers) and positive portraits of them (e.g., the magi, the centurions, the Canaanite woman). Matthew creates a similar tension by offering salvation to the Jews who then rarely believe and are finally excluded. One may consider side by side the pericopes of the healed leper who follows Jesus' command to present himself to the priest and of the centurion who requests the healing of his servant. Saldarini correctly sees Jesus as an observant Jew. Ignored is the comparison between the lepers and priests who do not respond to miracles and the centurion who believes without seeing one. Should Matthew's reader fail to see this contrast, he is told the sons of the kingdom will be thrown into outer darkness. Any tension between the two groups is conclusively removed when the Gentiles are said to include Jews. The account of the alleged robbery of Jesus' body 146 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY is taken as an apology for the resurrection, which it surely is; but omitted is the repudiation of the perfidy of the Jews who preach their own lie. No mention is made of Joseph's concern with Mary's alleged adultery, which is squarely targeted to Jewish slanders. The removal of the actual tension obscures Matthew's purpose in establishing a basis for the mission to the Gentiles and in warning the Jews of damnation. References to the disciples of Jesus being thrown out of Jewish synagogues challenge this view of a peaceable kingdom of Christians and Jews. Even if, however, Saldarini takes his fundamental thesis too far, he rightly places Matthew within the vortex of the struggle between two movements. Matthew's Christian-Jewish Communiry is aptly titled and gives a valuable insight into the emerging church. The same evidence, nevertheless, could show Matthew's readers to be believers who struggle with their ties to the synagogues. A secondary audience might be found among Jews who are attracted by Jesus but remain with their synagogues. Matthew, then, still addresses Jews, but this point can not be made without taking the teeth out of his message or softening his indictment of the Gentiles. David P. Scaer A HISTORY AND CRITIQUE OF THE ORIGIN OF THE MARCAN HYPOTHESIS 1835-1866. New Gospel Studies. 8. By Hajo Uden Meijboom. Translated and edited by John J. Kiwiet. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1993. Published in 1866, this Dutch dissertation surfaced in a seminar under the late Karl-Heinrich Rengstorf in 1979. Meijboom challenges the twe source hypothesis with Mark as the fmt gospel, then formulated by Holtzmann in The Synoptic Gospels, Their Origin and Their Historical Character (1863). which remains basic to research on the gospels. Meijboom (1842-1933), a virtual unknown, began his career when the tumult created by Strauss's Life of Jesus (1835) was settling down. Following the latter's critique of the gospels, which savaged the historical Jesus and threatened to emasculate Christianity, scholars attempted a recovery in favoring the shorter Mark who was not disadvantaged by narratives of a miraculous birth and resurrection. There is good reason to put aside any hesitancy as to the value of a mid-nineteenthcentury work. While modem dissertations strive to be detached, Meijboom at the age of twenty-four had no difficulty in showing how the evidence was manipulated to support the Marcan hypothesis. He Book Reviews 147 divides his work into three parts with the first tracing the development of the hypothesis from its inception in the 1830's to its dogmatization in 1866. The arguments used on its behalf are answered in the second part. No basis for Marcan priority is found in its brevity. Its christology is not primitive but developed. In the fmal part Meijboom offers an exegetical assessment of Mark. On several counts this work is fascinating. John J. Kiwiet, the translator and a professor at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, has supplied the footnotes lacking in the dissertation. His introduction serves as a history of theology when the theory of Marcan priority was crystallizing. For ease of reading he expands the translation, but preserves Meijboom's integrity by bracketing the additions. Since Kiwiet makes Meijboom's work his own, the woodenness of a translation is overcome. A final intriguing feature is Meijboom's exegesis. Mark 9:49-50. for instance, is an enigmatic and uniquely Marcan pericope (included in the new three-year series of pericopes): "For everyone will be salted with fm, and every sacrifice will be salted with salt. Salt is good; but if the salt has lost its saltiness, how will you season it? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with one another." Meijboom opines that Christians were held together by an unhealthy desire for martyrdom (an argument for a later date). As martyrdom would not continue. they had to look for inner peace to hold them together. Along with the author's detailed table of contents, the translator includes his own and adds indices of topics and persons. Meijboom devoted the remainder of his career to social causes and to studies of the early church, favoring Marcion. He may have lost his first love and gave no answer to the fonn-criticism of Dibelius and Bultmann. The general editor of the series, William R. Farmer, challenges Marcan priority once again by bringing Meijboom into the debate. Only posterity will know the results. David P. Scaer CATHOLIC, LUTHERAN, PROTESTANT: A DOCTRINAL COMPAR- ISON OF THREE CHRISTIAN CONFESSIONS. By Gregory L. Jackson. St. Louis: Martin Chemnitz Press. 1993. This book is clearly a labor of love, and like most good theology, arises out of pastoral experience. When members of different churches fall in love, careful doctrinal guidance is both necessary and difficult. On the 148 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY one hand, the spiritual future of a new family is at stake. On the other hand, the rosy illusions of romantic love are notoriously inhospitable to a sober assessment of differences, let alone differences about matters of ultimate import. Dr. Jackson neither waffles nor scolds. He calmly unfolds the essential issues, concerned not only to show the differences between the Roman Catholic and the Lutheran churches, "but also to emphasize how much they have in common." Gregory Jackson is well qualified to write this book, the title of which at once reminds one of Will Herberg's classic, Protestant, Catholic, Jew. A graduate of Yale (S.T.M.) and Notre Dame (Ph.D.), the author also studied at various Lutheran schools, including Augustana College in Rock Island, Waterloo University in Ontario, Concordia Theological Seminary in Fort Wayne, and Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary in Mequon. Jackson's broad perspective reflects this personal odyssey. Knowing perfectly well the vast confusions in all churches today, he wisely concentrates on the official positions of the churches, not on unrepresentative personal opinions. The book progresses pedagogically from "Areas of Agreement" (Part One) to "Partial Agreement" (Part Two) and then to "Complete Disagree- ment" (Part Three). One is not surprised to find the Trinity and Natural Law in Part One. The Two Natures of Christ are treated there as well. It might have been good to indicate that the Reformed deviations on christology, which Jackson deplores, are foreshadowed already in medieval scholasticism, which departs from the full incarnational realism of the New Testament and the ancient church, to which Luther returned. It is surprising to find Scripture treated also in this first, agreed, area. This approach is made possible by limiting the issue to the Bible as the authoritative word of God-which all the historic confessions affirm-and by approaching it through appropriate citalions from the ancient fathers. This approach is probably most helpful to the interested inquirer, who is thus helped to see the issue not as an eccentricity of the Reformation. but as part of much older common Christian ground. The papal evasions and violations of biblical authority then come in a later chapter dealing with disagreements. Under "Partial Agreement" the author treats the sacraments as means of grace. While noting the partial agreement here between the Lutheran and the Roman Catholic churches, Jackson stresses the sharp discontinuity between the historic church (including Luther) and Zwingli and Calvin- and thus between the Lutheran and the other Rotestant churches. Book Reviews "American Lutheranism," he writes incisively, "has suffered from such a fear of succumbing to Roman doctrine that many positive, historic aspects of liturgical worship and practice have been avoided or abandoned in favor of Zwinglian rationalism, Evangelical revivals, and Pentecostal praise festivals replete with staged healings and calculated emotionalism" (page 77). The most detailed discussions, naturally, occur in the five chapters devoted to areas of "Complete Disagreement." These deal with justifica- tion by faith, purgatory, papal infallibility, mariology, and the antichrist respectively. A great strength of Jackson's treatment of justification is that he is not afraid to refer expressly to "objective justificationw-some- times derided by superficial critics as a "Missourian" invention--and to make that doctrine central and crucial. Apt quotations from the sources make the issues abundantly clear. (The citation on page 106 from the prime dogmatician of the Wisconsin Synod, A. Hoenecke, should say, in English. not that. according to Rome, "faith is not a means of grace," but that "faith does not justify as means or instrument.") Also quite valuable are up-to-date discussions of the deep affinities between pre-Refonnation synergism and that of modem Protestantism. Bracketing Pelagius with Norman Vincent Peale, Robert Schuller, and "Star Wars" (page 112) helps modem readers to see the relevance of ancient heresies. The chapter on purgatory goes into fascinating historical details, showing the origins of this superstition in Plato's opinions. Also noted are the strong links between that notion and the importance of mariology and the "sacrifice of the mass" in Roman thought. Nor are modem Protestants immune from a superstitious mingling of pagan and Christian elements: Paul Yonggi Cho, much-quoted founder of Yoido Full Gospel Church in Seoul, Korea, taught people to visualize-to-order exactly what they wanted from God in prayer: "Let's order him now. Until you see your husband clearly in your imagination you can't order, because God will never answer. You must see him clearly before you begin to pray. God never answers vague prayers" (page 138). Similarly instructive is the chapter on mariology. Many modem Roman Catholics-not to mention Lutherans and others-would be surprised to learn that Thomas Aquinas rejected the notion of the Blessed Virgin's "immaculate conceptionw-that is, her alleged exemption from original sin. Both the "immaculate conception" and the "assumption" of the Virgin Mary were proclaimed as dogmas by papal authority, without benefit even of a council. The one was defined by Pius IX in 1854-already before 150 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY he was declared infallible (1870-d the other by Pius XI1 in 1950. Yet Jackson does not advocate the typically Protestant over-reaction. He shows the biblical sobriety of Luther's mature position and the contrast with Calvin, who, together with Nestorius. rejected the term "Mother of God." The final chapter defends Luther against his detractors, again with a wealth of interesting historical details, including the quite revolutionary views of Luther held by some leading modem Roman Catholic scholars. There are few places at which one is tempted to disagree with Dr. Jackson. Perhaps the main one for this reviewer is the apparent surrender of the term "Protestant," which, like the word "Catholic." has, after all, a perfectly respectable pedigree. Yet one cannot gainsay what Jackson has learnt from bitter personal experience: that the blight of modem Lutheranism's selfdevastation festers airnost entirely in the "Protestant" direction. It is to the church's historic faith and heritage that he eloquently calls us back. A11 in all, the book is informative, relevantly argued, and well-documented, to be sure. But it is not merely academic or cerebral. It is at bottom a confession of faith, and closes. fittingly, with the author's remembrance of his daughters. Bethany and Erin Joy, who have gone before him to heaven in their baptismal faith. He concludes with the prayer from Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress: "0 God! Complete my pilgrimage. Conduct me safely there." BEYOND CHARITY: REFORMATION INITIATIVES FOR THE POOR. By Carter Lindberg. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. Carter Lindberg is a professor of ecclesiastical history in Boston University. The great value of his study is that it very convincingly shows that Christian love and charity, hence Christian ethics. must be seen as emanating from Christian faith. It was Luther's signal contribution, after all. to show that God's word taught the formula fides format cariratem ("faith forms charity") and not the reverse as in Augustine and then in medieval theology, especially monasticism. There the formula was caritas format fidem ("charity forms faith"). Lindberg sets the agenda straight. For too long a time Luther's contributions to social welfare have been dismissed. Emt Troeltsch characterized Luther as engrossed only with theology and somewhat indifferent to social justice and the welfare of the masses. Reinhold Niebuhr. according to Lindberg. chanted the same dirge and pomyed Luther as. for the most park given to quietism and defeatism in regard to Book Reviews the social, political, economic struchues around him. The reviewer recalls from a conversation in Leipzig with Max Steinmetz (a leading ideologue of the East German communist state) that he, too, deplored Luther's failure to advance the cause of the common man-especially in the Peasants' Revolt after having opened windows for the peasants. Lindberg avers that these are distortions of Luther's theology and praxis; and, without trying to romanticize Luther's contributions, he hopes by his study to stimulate "a fresh look at Luther's contributions to social ethics." Otherwise, contends Lindberg, we shall be left with "a deficit in the contemporary life of the church" (162). "Luther was effective not because he told people what they ought to do, but because he fmt told them what God has done for them. . . . Luther had the boldness to address structural sources of injustice and to advocate legislative redress of them because his social ethic was rooted in the worship and proclamation of the community. The congregation is the local source in which God 'creates a new world' (162-163). A key element, according to Lindberg, in Luther's bequest to the church is the way in which liturgy follows upon liturgy among Christian people-the Gottesdienst of serving one's neighbor and thus fulfilling the second table of the law flows from the Reformer's convic- tion, based on God's word, that the Gottesdienst of word and sacrament in worship forms the foundation of Christian service of whatever form- relief of the poor, care of the sick, help for the weak (children, women in various circumstances, prisoners, et cetera). The debate on social issues will always go on. How is poverty to be defined, and what is its cause, and how shall it be addressed, et cetera? There are always those who, while willing to work, are unable to find work that will support them and their families. Hence throughout history a distinction has been made between the so-called worthy poor and the unworthy. In medieval theology and in the theology of many within Christendom down to the present day the thinking was and is that, on the one hand, there is a special blessedness in poverty and the poor are the favored of God and justified by their poverty (24) and that, on the other hand, the wealthy can earn heaven no more quickly than by charitable works. It was such thinking and preaching that radically undercut the gospel sola graiia solafide and so also the fruits which are to flow from faith for the sake of Christ. Professor Lindberg has done a unique and necessary work with this study. He has traced the whole story of poverty and charity through the history of the Christian church, with special attention to the Reformation, including valuable references to the church-orders of various Lutheran 152 CONCORDIA THEOLOGICAL QUARTERLY cities and territories. He shows what Luther contributed to a genuine sense of individual and communal responsibility in dealing with the social needs which always sumund us. Lindberg has researched the matter with evident empathy, written various studies on the question, and gained personal knowledge of the problems involved through his service on several boards and commissions relating to social welfare in his denomi- nation. Eugene F. Klug Books Received Mary A. Kassian. The Feminist Gospel: The Movement to Unite Feminism with the Church. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books, 1992. xi + 287 pages. Paperback. $1 1.95. Robert L. Thomas. Revelation: An Exegetical Commentary. Chicago: Moody Press, 1992. xxvii + 524 pages. Hardback. $28.99. David R. Miller. Breaking Free: Rescuing Families from the Clutches of Logalism. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 176 pages. Paperback. John Ronsvalle and Sylvia Ronsvalle. The Poor Have Faces: Loving Your Neighbor in the 2lst Century. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 156 pages. Paperback. A. Andrew Das. Baptized into Gods Family: The Doctrine of lnfant Baptism for Today. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 1991. 136 pages. Paperback. $7.99. Danna Nolan Fewell, editor. Reading Between Texts: lnterteauoliry and the Hebrew Bible. Literary Currents in Biblical Interpretation. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1992. 285 pages. Paperback. $21.99. J. van Oort and U. Wickert, editors. Christliche Exegese zwischen Nicaea und Chalcedon. Kampen, The Netherlands: Kok Pharos Publishing House, 1992. 226 pages. Paperback. T. H. L. Parker. Calvin's Preaching. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1992. xi + 202 pages. Paperback. $22.99. William F. Keesecker, editor. A Calvin Treasury. Second edition. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1963; 1992. 206 pages. Paperback. $7.99. C. Everett Koop and Timothy Johnson. Let's Talk: An Honest Conversation on Critical Issues: Abortion, Euthanasia, AIDS, Health Care. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992. 138 pages. Paperback. Murray J. Harris. Jesus as God: The New Testament Use of Them in Reference to Jesus. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 379 pages. Hardback. Douglas D. Webster. Selling Jesus: What's Wrong with Marketing the Church. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1992. 165 pages. Paperback. $9.99. Jack Balswick. Men at the Crossroads: Beyond Traditional Roles and Modern Options. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1992. 218 pages. Paperback. $9.99. Quentin J. Schultze. Redeeming Television: How TV Changes Chris- tians-Hao Christians Can Change TV. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1992. 198 pages. Paperback. $8.99. Joel Marcus. The Way of the Lord: Christological Exegesis of the OM Testament in the Goqel of Mark. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1992. xv + 240 pages. Hardback. $25.00. Richard Robert Osmer. Teaching for Faith: A Guide for Teachers of Adult Closses. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1992. 240 pages. Paperback. $13.99. David L. Larsen. The Evangelism Mandate: Recovering the Centrality of Gospel Preaching. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books. 1992. x + 256 pages. Paperback. Books Received Craig A. Evans. Jesus. Bibliographies, No. 5. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 152 pages. Paperback. Ron Rhodes. Christ before the Manger: The Life and Times of rhe Preincar- ride Chrisr. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 299 pages. Paperback. Phyllis D. Airhart. Serving rhe Present Age: Revivalism, Progressivism, and the Methodist Tradition in Canada. McGill-Queen's Studies in the History of Religion, 8. x + 218 pages. Hardback. $34.95. Douglas R. A. Hare. Marhew. Interpretation. A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press. 1993. vii + 338 pages. Hardback. $22.00. Thomas W. Chapman, editor. A Practical Handbook for Ministry. From the Writings of Wayne E. Oates. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1992. xxi t 517 pages. Hardback. $30.00. David N. Power. The Eucharistic Mystery. Revitalizing the Tradirion. New York: Crossroad Books, 1993. xiii + 370 pages. Hardback. $29.95. Helmar Junghans. Martin Luther in Two Cenruries: The Sixteenth and the Twenrierh. Translated by Katharina Gustavs and Gerald S. Krispin. Edited by Terrance Dinovo and Robert Kolb. St. Paul: Lutheran Brotherhood Foundation Reformation Research Library, 1992. v + 99 pages. Paperback. Max L. Christensen. Turning Points: Stories of People Who Made a Difference. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. xiv + 119 pages. Paperback. $8.99. Jacob Neusner. Telling Tales: Making Sense of Christian and Judaic Nonsense. The Urgency and Basis for Judeo-Chrisrim Dialogue. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. vi + 170 pages. Paperback. $10.99. Miriam Therese Winter. The Gospel According 10 Mary: A New Testament for Women. New York: Crossroad Books, 1993. 143 pages. Paperback. $10.95. Walter E. Rast. Through rhe Ages in Palestinian Archaeology: An Inrroducrory Handbook. Philadelphia: Trinity Press Intemational, 1992. xiii + 221 pages. Paperback. James D. Newsome. Greeks, Romans, Jews: Currents of Culture and Beluf in the New Testamenr World. Philadelphia: Trinity Press Intemational. 1992. xiv + 475 pages. Paperback. Gene Edward Veith, Jr. Modern Fascism: Liquidating rhe Judeo-Chrisrian Worldview. Concordia Scholarship Today. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House. 1993. 187 pages. Paperback. $15.95. Rudolph E. Honsey. Job. The People's Bible. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 1992. vi + 364 pages. Paperback. $10.99. Roland Cap Ehlke. Proverbs. The People's Bible. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 1992. v + 322 pages. Paperback. $10.99. David Jasper. Rhetoric. Paver, and Community: An Exercise in Reserve. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. xi + 172 pages. Paperback. $19.99. Paul McGlasson. God rhe Redeemer: A Theology of the Gospel. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. 192 pages. Paperback. $1 1.99. Duncan S. Ferguson, editor. New Age Spirituality: An Assessment. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press. 1993. xiii + 235 pages. Paperback. $21.99. Books Received Saint John Chrysostom. Homilies on Genesis 46-67. Translated by Robert C. Hill. The Fathers of the Church, volume 87. Washington. D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1992. 288 pages. Hardback. $34.95. Michael E. Willett. Wisdom Christology in the Fowth Gospel. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press. 1992. x + 194 pages. Hardback. $69.95. Kenneth L. Vaux. Death Ethics: Religious and Cultural Values in Prolonging and Ending Life. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International. 1992. xiii + 210 pages. Paperback. Daniel B. Clendenin. From the Coup to the Commonwealth: An Inside Look at Life in Contemporary Russia. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1992. 181 pages. Paperback. Eugene S. Gibbs, editor. A Reader in Christian Education: Foundafiom and Basic Perspectives. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 539 pages. Paperback. Roger S. Greenway, editor. Discipling the City: A Comprehensive Approach to Urban Mission. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 302 pages. Paperback. John Joseph Owens. Analytical Key to the Old Testament, volume 2: Judges- Chronicles. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. xi + 937 pages. Hardback. Martin Brecht. Martin Luther: The Preservation of the Church 1532-1546. Translated by James L. Schaaf. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. xvi + 51 1 pages. Hardback. Ronald H. Nash. Great Divides: Understanding the Controversies that Come Between Christhm. Colorado Springs: Navpress, 1993. 240 pages. Paperback. August R. Suelflow. Lutheranism md Pietism: Essays and Reports 1990, volume 14. St. Louis: Lutheran Historical Conference, 1992. iii + 232 pages. Paperback. $7.50. Peter Jones. The Gnostic Empire Strikes Back: An Old Heresy for the New Age. Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P and R Publishing Company, 1992. x + 112 pages. Paperback. $6.95. R. K. Harrison. Numbers: An Exegetical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1992. xii + 452 pages. Hardback. Moises Silva. Philippiam. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. xxv + 255 pages. Hardback. Robert W. Pazmino. Principles and Practices of Christian Education: An Evangelical Perspective. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 181 pages. Paperback. Samuel Hugh Moffett. A History of Christianity in Asia, volume 1: Beginnings to 1500. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1992. xxvi + 560 pages. Hardback. Ted Peters. God as Trinity: Relatb~l i ty and Temporality in Divine Life. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press. 1993. 239 pages. Paperback. $14.99. Wilhelm Schneelmelcher. editor. New Testume~ Apocrypha, volume 2: Writings Relating to the Apostles; Apocalypses and Relared Subjects. Revised edition. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1992. 771 pages. Hardback. Books Received Colin E. Gunton. Christ nnd Creation. Carlisle: The Paternoster Press; Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1992. 127 pages. Paperback. $12.99. Robert M. Grant. Heresy and Criiicism: The Search for Authenticiiy in Early Christian Literature. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. x + 180 pages. Paperback. $17.00. William Baird. History of New Testament Research, volume 1: From Deism to Tiibingen. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992. xxii + 450 pages. Hardback. John C. Purdy. God wirh a Humon Face. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. 116 pages. Paperback. $9.99. Sander Griifioen. Pluralisms and Horizons: An Essay in Christian Public Philosophy. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993. 183 pages. Paperback. $17.99. St. lrenaeus of Lyons Against the Heresies. Translated and annotated by Dominic J. Unger, with further revisions by John J. Dillon. Volume 1, Book 1. Ancient Christian Writers. volume 55. New York and Mahwah. New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1992. vii + 300 pages. Hardback. Paula Fredriksen. From Jesus to Christ: The Origins of the New Testament Images ofJesus New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 1988. xii + 256 pages. Paperback. $12.95. Robert L. Wilken. The LMd Called Holy: Palestine in Christian History and Thought. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 1992. xvi + 355 pages. Hardback. $35.00. Millard J. Erickson. The Evangelical Mind and Heart: Perspectives on Theological and Practical Issues. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1993. 219 pages. Paperback. David Alan Black. Using New Testament Greek in Ministry: A Practical Guide for Students and Pastors. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1993. 128 pages. Paperback. Everett L. Worthington, Jr.. editor. Psychotherapy and Religious Values. Psychology and Christianity. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1993. 291 pages. Paperback. Hugh Wybrew. The Orthodox Liturgy: The Development of the Eucharistic Liturgy in the Byzantine Riie. Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. xi + 189 pages. Paperback. $10.95. Kenneth P. Wesche, translator. On the Person of Christ: The Christology of Emperor Justinian. Crestwood, New York: St. Vladirnir's Seminary Press, 1991. 203 pages. Paperback. $12.95. Carter Lindberg. Beyond Charity: Reformorion Initiatives for the Poor. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993. x + 235 pages. Paperback. Robert H. Craig and Robert C. Worley. Dry Bones Live: Helping Congregations Discover New Life. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1992. x + 114 pages. Paperback. $9.99. Ronald Cole-Turner. The New Genesis: Theology and the Genetic Revolution. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. 127 pages. Paperback. $12.99. William S. Kun. Reading Luke-Acrs: Dynamics of Biblical Narrative. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. 261 pages. Paperback. $15.99. Books Received Richard B. Miller, editor. War in the Twentieth Century: Sources in Theological Ethics. Library of Theological Ethics. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1992. xviii + 469 pages. Paperback. Margaret M. Mitchell. Paul and the Rhetoric of Reconciliation: An Exegetical Investigation of the Language and Composition 4 1 Corinthians. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. xu + 380 pages. Hardback. $24.00 Juergen Becker. Paul: Apostle to the Gentiles. Translated by 0. C. Dean, Jr. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. xiv + 513 pages. Hardback. $30.00. James W. Aageson. Written Also for Our Sake: Paul and the Art of Biblical Interpretation. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. xiii + 156 pages. Paperback. $10.99. Steven L. McKenzie and Stephen R. Haynes, editors. To Each Its Own Meaning: An Introduction to Biblical Criticism and Their Application. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. 25 1 pages. Paperback. $1 2.99. Jon D. Levenson. The Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament, and Historical Criticism: Jews and Christians in Biblical Studies. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. xv + 192 pages. Paperback. $14.99. Philip M. Bickel and Robert L. Nordlie. The Goal of the Gospel: God's Purpose in Saving You. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1992. 271 pages. Paperback. Herbert Anderson and Kenneth R. Mitchell. Leaving Home. Family Living in Pastoral Perspective. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press. 1993. 160 pages. Paperback. $9.99. John A. Sanford. Mystical Christianity: A Psychological Commentary on the Gospel ofJohn. New York: Crossroad Books, 1993. ix + 350 pages. Hardback. $24.95. Henry A. Virkler. Broken Promises: Healing and Preventing Affairs in Chrbiun Marriages. Dallas: Word Publishing Company. 1993. xiii + 306 pages. Paperback. Robert L. Hubbard. Jr., et alii, editors. Studies in Old Testament Theology. Dallas: Word Publishing Company, 1992. 333 pages. Hardback. Jackson Carroll and Wade Clark Roof. Beyond Establishment: Protestant I&ntity in a Post-Protestant Age. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. 361 pages. Paperback. $19.99. William Stacey Johnson and John H. Leith. Reformed Reader: A Sourcebook in Christian Theology, volume 1: Classical Beginnings 1519-1799. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. xxxi + 397 pages. Hardback. $30.00. John H. Leith. Basic Chrisrian Doctrine. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1992. xviii + 350 pages. Paperback. $19.99. Andrew D. Clarke and Bruce W. Winter, editors. One God, One Lord: Christianity in a World of Religious Pluralism. Second edition. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 256 pages. Paperback. Johann Auer. Dogmatic Theology, volume 8: The Church: The Universal Sacranumi of Salvation. Translated by Michael Waldstein. Washington. D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1993. 541 pages. Hardback, $39.95; paperback, $24.95. Books Received John M. Perkins. Beyond Charity: The Call to Christian Community Development. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1993. 192 pages. Paperback. F. F. Bruce. In Retrospect: Remembrance of Things Past. Posthumous edition. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1993. xii + 336 pages. Paperback. Lee Strobel. Inside the Mind of Unchurched Hmry and Mary: How to Reach Friends and Family Who Avoid God and the Church. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1993. 236 pages. Paperback. $9.99. Thomas F. Johnson. 1, 2, and 3 John. New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1993. xv + 208 pages. Paperback. C. Welton Caddy. The Gifr of Worship. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992. xxx + 240 pages. Hardback. Carl F. H. Henry. The Identity of Jesus of Nazareth. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992. 150 pages. Hardback. F. B. Huey. Jr. The New Anlerican Commentary, volume 16: Jeremiah, LamPntdion. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1993. 512 pages. Hardback. Duane A. Garrett. The New American Commentmy, volume 14: Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. Nashville: Broadman Press. 1993. 448 pages. Hardback. John B. Pohill. The New American Commentary, volume 26: Acts. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992. 574 pages. Hardback. Robert H. Stein. The New Amerixn Commentary. volume 26: Luke. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992. 642 pages. Hardback. Craig L. Blomberg. The New American Commentmy, volume 22: Matthew. Nashville: Broadman Press. 1992. 464 pages. Hardback. Lewis A. Drummond. The Word of the Cross: A Contemporary Theology of Evangelism. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992. 383 pages. Hardback. Raymond Bailey, editor. Hermeneutics for Preaching: Approaches to Contemporary Interpretations of Scripture. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992. 223 pages. Hardback. Thomas F. Torrance, editor. Theological Dialogue Between Orthodox and Reformed Churches, volume 2. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1993. xxiv + 232 pages. Hardback. L 15.00. John Patton. Pastoral Care in Context: An Introduction to Pastoral Care. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. 288 pages. Hardback. $20.00. John Nolland. Luke 9:21-18:34. Word Biblical Commentary. volume 35B. Dallas: Word Publishing Company, 1993. lix + 457-896 pages. Hardback. $27.99. Donald J. Wiseman. I and 2 Kings: An Introduction ond Commentary. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Leicester. England, and Downer's Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1993. 318 pages. Paperback. Gerald Bray. The Doctrine of God. Contours of Christian Theology. Downer's Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1993. 281 pages. Paperback. $14.99. Hans-Joachim Schulz. The Byzantine Liturgy: Symbolic Structure and Faifh Expression. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1986. xxiii + 284 pages. Paperback. $17.50. Books Received Louise Schottroff. Let the Oppressed Go Free: Feminist Perspectives on the New Testament. Translated by Annemarie S. Kidder. Louisville: Westminster- John Knox Press, 1993. 208 pages. Paperback. Juergen Becker, editor. Christian Beginnings: Word and Community from Jesus to Post-Apostolic Times. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. 359 pages. Paperback. $24.99. Bucky Dann. More Children's Sermons. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press. 1993. 112 pages. Paperback. $7.99. William W. Klein, et alii. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. Dallas: Word Publishing Company, 1993. 518 pages. Hardback. Nathan R. Pope. Motivation for Ministry: Perspectives fm Every Pastor. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 1993. 248 pages. Paperback. $10.99. George A. Mather and Larry A. Nichols. Dictionary of Cults, Sects, Religions, and the Occult. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1993. 384 pages. Hardback. Alister E. McGrath. Intellectuals Don't Need God and Other Modern Myths: Building Bridges to Faith Through Apologetics. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1993. 241 pages. Paperback. $14.99. Letty M. Russell. Church in the Round: Feminist Interpretation of the Church. Louisville: WestminsterJohn Knox Press, 1993. 253 pages. Paperback. 0 s Guinness. Dining with the Devil: The Megachurch Movement Flirts with Modernity. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1993. 113 pages. Paperback. Waiter C. Kaiser. The Journey Isn't Over: The Pilgrim Psalms for Lqe's Challenges and Joys. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1993. 160 pages. Paperback. D. A. Carson. The Cross and Christian Ministry: An Eqosition of Parsages from I Corinrhions. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1993. 137 pages. Paperback. Paul Ramsey. Basic Chrbian Ethics. Library of Theological Ethics. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1950, 1993. 404 pages. Paperback. $14.99. Gordon D. Fee. New Testament Exegesis: A Handbook for Students and Pastors. Revised edition. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1983. 1993. 194 pages. Paperback. $1 1.99. John Courtney Murray. Religious Liberty: Catholic Struggles with Pluralism. Edited by J. Leon Hooper, S.J. Library of Theological Ethics. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. 278 pages. Paperback. $15.99. Leroy Aden, David G. Benner, and J. Harold Ellens, editors. Christian Perspectives on Human Development. Psychology and Christianity. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. 274 pages. Paperback. Francis Beckwith. Politically Correct Deah: Answering the Arguments for Abortion Rights. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1993. 256 pages. Paperback. Paul McPartlan. The Eucharist Makes the Church: Henri de Lubac and John Zizioulas in Dialogue. Edinburgh: T and T Clark, 1993. xxii + 342 pages. Hardback. $49.95. Books Received Richard A. Muller. Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmarics, volume 2: Holy Scripture: The Cognitive Foundation of Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1993. xvi + 543 pages. Paperback. H. Richard Niebuhr. Radical Monotheism and Western Culture: With Supplemenial Essays. Library of Christian Ethics. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993, reprint of 1943. 144 pages. Paperback. $9.99. Norman R. Peterson. The Gospel of John and the Sociology of Lighr: Language and Characterization in the Fourth Gospel. Valley Forge. Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 1993. 170 pages. Paperback. Gale A. Yee. Jewish Feasts and the Gospel ofJohn. Zacchaeus Studies: New Testament. Wilmington. Delaware: Michael Glazier, 1989. 93 pages. Paperback. $6.95. Arthur A. Just, Jr. The Ongoing Few: Table Fellowship and Eschatology at Emnuus. A Pueblo Book. Collegeville. Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1993. xviii + 307 pages. Paperback. $21.95. Constantine N. Tsirpanlis. In~roduction to Eastern Patristic Thought and Orthodox Theology. Theology and Life Series, volume 30. A Michael Glazier Book. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1991. viii + 277 pages. Paperback. $16.95. Richard D. Balge, general editor. Sermon Studies on the Epistles (ILCW Series B). Milwaukee: Northwestern Pmab1ishing House. 1993. 332 pages. Hardback. $19.99. Donald Capps. The Poet's Gifr: Toward the Renewal of Pastoral Care. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. xi + 192 pages. Paperback. $15.99. Raimon Panikkar. A Dwelling Place for Wisdom. Translated by Annemarie S. Kidder. Louisville: Westminster-John Knox Press, 1993. vi + 179 pages. Paperback. $12.99. D. A. Carson, editor. Worship: Adoration and Action. Carlisle, United Kingdom: Paternoster Press; Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1993. 256 pages. Paperback. Millard J. Erickson. Evangelical Interpretation: Perspectives on Hermeneutical Issues. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1993. 132 pages. Paperback. Kurt Brink. Overcoming Pastoral Pilfalls. Albuquerque. New Mexico: The Reverend Kurt Brink, 1992. 138 pages. Paperback. Andre Vauchez. The M y in the Middle Ages: Religious Beliefs and Devorional Practices. Edited and introduced by Daniel E. Bornstein. Translated by Margarie J. Schneider. Notre Dame and London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1993. xx + 350 pages. Hardback. $36.95. Edouard Massaux. The Influence of the Gospel of Saitu Matthew on Christian Literature before Saint Irenaeus, Book 1: The First Ecclesiastical Writers. Translated by Norman J. Belval and Suzanne Hecht. New Gospel Studies 51. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters Press; Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1990. xxvi + 172 pages. Hardback. Additional lists of "Books Received by the Concordia Theological Quarterly are to be found on pages 6, 18.46, 74.94, %, and 126.