Full Text for With a view to the End: Christ in the Ancient Church's Understanding of Scripture (Text)

Volume 703 January XI06 Table of Contents The Faith of Christ: A Lutheran Appropriation of Richard Hays's Arthur A. Just Jr. ............................. .., ................................... .3 Listening to Inkrkxbal Relationships in Paul's Epistles with Richard Hays ................................................................... Charles A. Gieschen 17 Looking at the Moral Vision of the New Testament with Richard Hays Dean 0. wenthe .......................................................................... 33 Walk This Way: A Theme ftom Proverbs Reflected and Extended in Paul's Letters Andrew E. Steinmann and Michael Eschelbach .................... 33 With a View to the End: Christ in the Ancient Church's Undershnding aF Sai- ......................................................................... Joel C. Elow sky. 6 3 A Curridurn from and far the Church ? John T. Pless ., .................................................. ...-...-..-.--.- & We apologize for publication delavs in recent years. We assure you that all overdue issues are in process and wilI be mailed as each is printed. \Ye plan to be back on our n o d quarterly publication schedule January 2008. Thank you for !-our patience! The Editors With a View to the End: Christ in the Anaent Church's Understanding of Scripture Joel C. Elowsky The ancient church took Jesus seriously when he told the Emmaus disciples, "everything written about me in the law of ,Moses, the prophets, and the psalms must be fulfilled" (Luke 2444). Augustine applied Jesus' words even to the Psalm headings: "When you hear the text of the Psalm saying, 'with a view to the end,' let your hearts turn to Christ"' That phrase is nowhere in the formal text of the Psalms. You will find it in the Latin title of many of the Psalms, which is where Augustine found it and where he also found Christ. This cluistological interpretation of the Psalms =as not simply a reading of Christ into the text (eisegesis). This was a reading out of the text enabled by the Spirit that fed into and nurtured the daily ecclesiastical, liturgical, and theological life of the church (exegesis). In what follows, we wiU briefly explore this christocentric exegesis employed by the early church. At its most basic level, the question emerged as to why Scripture was even written in the first place. The two exegetical traditions of Alexandria and A n t i d had slightly different answers to that question, but it is no secret that the Septuagint text the?- were p M y using made all the difference in their approach to the Scriptures, which testified of Christ Once we have explored their use of this text, we will examine, in a more general sense, their exegetical approach and how this contributed to their understanding of Christ as the unitive center of Scriptrw.2 We then %ill look at hvo fathers from the 1 "Cum audis palmum dime 'in isfinem,' wr& c m n t u r ad Christum," Augustine, Enarrationes in P - d m , Corpus C lu i s thmm Series latina (CCSL), 51 vols. (Tumhout: Brrpols, I%%), 402013, 139.3. For &is idea and what follows see Henri De Lubac, .MediPrul Exegesis: The Follr Sw- of --ture, 2 vols., tT. Mark S e k (Grand Rapids: h F i 8.Emchats Publishing Co., 2998), 1:237ff De Lukc's work helped to frame much of the argunwa that follows and, moreover, k l p d to locate many of the patristic quotations, mining mining? his copious notes in the back of his fit volume, although I also consulted the sources kom which these quotes came, providing those references as w d L ZEach patristic w-titer, of course, had his own unique exegetical approach. These can be studied fkiha m E k W m d de Margerie, An Introdrrcfim lo tlz ffisfrr~ qf Eregesxs 3 uols. (Pekrshaa W St Bede's Publicatiom, 1991). Joel C. Elmusky is Operatiuns Mnnager foT the Anaent Christian Commentam of Saipture (InterVarsity Press) at D r m ~ Unirersify in *Madison, Xm* Jer-9, uvhere he is nlw Adjunct Profs-SOT $Religion and a Ph.D. candidate. 64 Concordia Theological Quurterly 70 (2006) earlv patristic period who actually did their exegetical work before the firmfirm establishment of the different exegetical traditions. Justin >%r's typolop and Irenaeus's teaching of recapitulation are classic examples of exegesis centered in Christ and upon which others built their exegesis. I will further provide a unitive example of how this understanding came together as a whole in the ancient Christian interpretation of the book of k&h-almost a kind of Fifth Gospel in ancient Christian exegesis. Finally, I will condude with some implications for the exegesis we do as pastors. I. The Ptrrpose of Scriptme Augustine and the anaent church %ere much more familiar with the presence of Christ in Saipture than man>- modem exegetes- some might say too familiar, finding Christ in some very unlikely places. Origen could find Christ's human and divine natures in the two tunics the high priest wore, for instance. For ancient exegetes, however, Scripture was not written for the sole pxqose of communicating fa& or the historical narrative, although those, too, have their purpose and are not ignored. Rather, the primary aim, or skopos, of Scripture, as Cvril of Alexandria states, is the mysten. of Christ signified to us through a myriad of different kinds of things. Someone might liken it to a glittering and magmficent city, having not one image of the king, but many, and publid? displayed in every comer of the city. . . . Its aim, however, is not to provide us an account of the lives of the saints of old. Far from that. Rather it seeks to give us knowledge of the mystery [of Quist] through those things by which the word about him might become dear and true.3 We learn at least two things from C!*l. First, Christ is present in Scripture in more than simplv as the historical Jesus. There are many different images of Christ throughout the entirety of Scripture: in the Torah, the historical narratives, the wisdom literature, the Prophets, the Gospels, and the Epistles. If these did not speak of Christ, they did not speak of anvthing, or at least they were ultimately unworthy of claiming God as the; author since God would never author anything superfluous. Origen, in the fourth book of On First Principles (4.2.9), went so far as to say anything in Scripture that seemed illogical, caused scandal, or seemed unworthy of God was included in the text by God on purpose in order to indicate that it was to be interpreted spiritually and not according to the 3 C 4 d of Alexandria, Glnphyrorurn in Gemsirn, , Patrologia cursus completus: Series graeca (PG), 162 vols., ed. J.-P. Migne (Paris, 1857-1886), 69:308.6.1. Elowsky: Christ in the Ancient Church 65 letter.4 Later exegetes such as Cyril tempered Origen's allegon-, but this does highIight a second point of C!-ril's quotation. Scripture's primary purpose is not to con\-e!- historical facts or a good ston:. Notice, it is not its pnrrznr-y purpose. This means that an interpretation that concentrates all of its energies on the human author, a reconstruction of the historical context, and the like, would not particularl!- interest the fathers. This is not to sa!- that they ignored these issues or considered them unimportant. In fact, from \TF 2 4:6>66; and Athanasius, S e d Lptfer to Scrapion 8, PG 26:620C. ' Luke 421; 5:43; 2kU-47; John 5:39; Acts 1M. 1.3 In actuali5-, the Geed ed-e confess in our divine liturgy is the result of the C o d of Xicea (325) and Constantinople (%I), the latter of which added the phrase: "according to the Scripture5." ': De Lubac notes: "It is in blelito of Sardis (d. 175) that the first mention of the Old Testament as a collection of books can be found For the New Testament we have to wait for the antimontanist author who was writing around 192-193. The meaning of the expression is still being debated." Medimal ExegeGs, 1:425, n 36. :' De Luhac, .\.fedipi-a1 Exegesp, 1227. See De Luhac where he cites Hugh of 5t. Victor, De arca -Voe mor. 2.8, PL 176:642 C; .Cierfifi-a/ Exege_ik, 1:433, n. 53. '4 "171iin t~rnc hn'stus aperuit librum . . . humnnu orrisus est." Caesarius of Arles, Expositio in Apocalypzim, in 5. Caesarii Opera Omnia (G. Morin, 1942), 2-222. Elowskv: Christ in the Ancient Church 67 uhich things that b-ere closed were ~nlocked."~' Origen refers to the cross and the crucifixion as a sacrament [which] unites the two Testaments into a single body of doctrine, intermingling the ancient precepts with the grace of the GospeI.16. . . \\%at the rod of Moses had accomplished figuratively by striking the rock is accomplished in very truth by a thrust of the centurion's lance. From the side pierced by the lance gushed forth the fountains of the Xew- Testament. If Jesus had not been struck, if Mood and water had not flowed from his side, aH of us would still be suffering from thirst for the \Vord of God.'; Christ brings the Old and New Teskanwnts into a satisfyiing, sacramental, cohesive wholeness. These two testaments, however, also remain distinct and at times in opposition to each another. The opposition is also a result of the advent of Christ, as the first Testament finds itself surpassed, obsolete, outdated or antiquated, if not read in conformi5 with the New Testament.lVugustine referred to the Old Testament as an outline, a rough sketch, "a first dra€tff19 Origen describes it as a shift or transformation in which "Christ did not change their names (i.e. of Moses and the Prophets), but the way in which they were u n d e r s t d . " ~ It was a h , for man\- of them, an abrupt change,zl although one prepared for bt- the prophetic-treatment of the Torah." The fathers nonetheless taught that the Old Testament no longer existed for the Christian except in its relationship w-ith the Xa-- Justin Martyr told Tnpho, the Jewish rabbi, that the Jews read the Saigturs w~ithout understanding because they do not admowledge auist.5 :' Aupstine, Enmrationrs in Ps. 45.1. PL 39:1378. 1- Origen Ori First Prim*pl~ 4.3.13; GCS 2343-344. See also "Homilies on Joshua 9.4," in FC 11)5:99-1M3. '- De Lubac 1:239-240. Orign, "Homilies on Exodus llS" in FC 71356-337. 1- =Although the designation Old and Sew Testament -odd f o d y come into use later, see De Lubac, :~LuJinul Ekrxrsis, 1:Zi. =- " P n m dlmnhafi~," Augustine, Sermon E2B.1; 564g (blorin. 1930) 1:381; WSA 3 2304. Origgn, ~ r n i l i r s an Gemis 13.3; GC5 29:11S, "m enim ihristrrs in zzs nmnina, *d intelligentirrm cummutmit." See also FC ;1:191. The \-enerable W e , writing in the eighth cent? in EngIand notes how this change affected him. "The inward amxiet?- of m?. mind 'disturbed me,' on account of the sudden introduction of the New Testament for the Old, when, instead of the books of the prophets and the law, which I knew were dix-ine and written by the Holy Sgirit, the preadung of the Gospel suddenly filled the whole world." Bede, In Cnnt. 3. FT 91:1186. Ct. Augwtine, E n a m h o n e s in Ps. 113.4, CCSL D1637-1638 where he speaks of "Me hidden andveiled mysteries ot the old books revealed in part by the d d books." 3 Justin, Dzalog ~17th TVIM 29.2. Tftere was one Jewish exegete, however, whose exegesis showed promise. Philo (15 BC-50 AD), a contemporary of Jesus and the early Paul, joined Jew-ish midrashic interpretation to the allegorical method derived from Stoic philosophical thought.24 By doing so, he was able to bring out what he deemed the interior and profound spiritual meaning that was there inherently in the external Law. Philo was a faithful Jewish exegete, and for all we know he he Jew-ish. His allegory, however, was popular among later Christian Alexandrian exegetes hxause it left so many openings for trinitarian and christological interpretations in the Jewish Scriptures, that he ultimatelv was rejected by many of the rabbis who followed him, even as he was prized by the Christians-even called "Bishop Philo" in some later catena.3 A similar process was noted in the ApostIe Paul who extended the meaning of the inspired Old Testament writers, just as they saw John the Baptist doing in referring to Jesus as the Lamb of God, or w-ith Jesus in John 6 referring to himself as the manna. The fathers saw these as extended meanings of the text which did not however betrav the meaning of what those Old Testament writers had written. The fathers were especially interested in St. Paul's exegesis in Romans 7, 1 Corinthians 10, and 2 Corinthians 3 where Paul places the letter and the spirit in opposition. Romans 3-11, Galatians 4, and the entire book of Hebrews were also fertile ground for seeking out examples of allegom and typology. Paul's exegesis in Ephesians 3-32 explained the othem-ise inexplicable inclusion of the Song of Songs in the canon of Scripture as a metaphor for the union of Christ and the church. Here is one example from Origen on the Apostle Paul. In 1 Corinthians 10:l-10, a favorite passage of Origen, Paul rehearses the history of Israel crossing the Red Sea, wandering in the wilderness w s l of john 72027-29 (CSCO -1 3558) on Thomas's confession of Jm as "My Lord and m! Cod." Thomas was simply addressing a word of praise to God who had raised Christ from the dead. See my forthcoming Gxnmnrfuly on ]oh11 in the ACCS series where both of these quotes occur. ' 2 Cyril of Alexandria condemns such exegesis in his fourth anathema: "If anyone distributes between two person or hypostases the terms used in the evangelical and apostolic writings, whether spoken of Christ by the salnts or by him about Ems&, and attaches some to a man thought of separately from the Ubrd of God, and others as befitting God to the Word of God the Father alone, let him be anathema." XTXF 2 323; FG 76:391. Sirnonetti notes, that Theodore w-as aware of the union, but his theological presuppositions did not allow his exegesis to effect that union in a sabsfactory way (73). Elowskv: Christ in the Ancient Church n EL The Septuagint A contribution to christocentric exegesis that is often overlooked is the question of what Bible the anaent church used. Their Scriptures were not primaril5- the Hebrew text but the Septuagint (LXX), a Greek translation of the Old Testament that was completed sometime around the third ten*- before Christ" The importance of the LXX is evident in the Sex\- Testament where a word like ~ i p L K ~ a translation of the word I'd~a-dz - the divine name-in the LXX, had huge christological implications in Paul's exegesis in Philippians 25-11, for instance, where even- tongue confesses that Jesus Christ is K+LK. Anvone reading the LXX \\-ould immediatelv associate K ~ ~ L O ; with ~ahsveh.~ The LXX provided copious allusions to Christ, so much so that rabbinical scholars of the second century commissioned at least three more literal translations into Greek which are commonly indicated as -4quila, Svmmachus, and Theodotion. To provide but one example, the fathers, espciallv Jerome, preferred the rendering of Isaiah 7:14 in the LXX as -upeit.o; versus the Hebrew -=:* although man!- of them were aware of both and could argue christologicdy from either language. Ths- understood -cp&vo; to mean rirgin, while 7- indicated a young svornan, not neccesarily a virb@n.x Thus the word the LXX chose, which fathers such as Augustine considered inspired, clearly indicated the virgin birth, whereas the Hebrew could be considered to be more ambiguous. If you check the textual apparatus of the BSlla Hebraica Stuftgartmsiu, you \ i l l notice that hquila, 5:-mrnachus, and Theodotion changed the Greek word -up&~,o; to i IY&~.L;." There are plenh- of other examples where the LXX rendering 1 4 to a dearer identification with Christ than the Hebrew might, although someone like Jerome found plenty of christological references in the Hebrew as %%-ell evidence that every translation is also an interpretation, but also further proof of the challenge the LXX posed to J e ~ l s h interpreters. \Ye see this in 5: The old Latin translations ( lk t r~s Lufird) LZ-hic-h the fathers also u _ d , \\-ere often based on the LXX as well. See the dixussion on the ori* of the LXS in -t \\-urthw-ein, The Te.rt @f fke Old T ~ t a m m t , tr. Errol F. Rhodes (Grand Rapick: lyilliam £3. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1979, rep. 1%5),49-74. There is m e debate about its origins but no debate a b u t its significance tor fhe ancient church lVurth%iein g w sn iar a to note that Xugustine demanded Jerome use the canonical LXS for his tr&slation rather than the Hebrew- 149) since Xu,vustim believed the LXS &\-as the difis-heiy text. Jerome ohiousI?- &d not complv. " See the forthcoming ACCS volume on Isaiah 1-39 ht- Steven XlcKinion, which contains man?- of the fathers' approack to thk passage. some oi which argue &om the LXX o b from the Hebrew, such as Jemme. :- K Elliger and I\-. Rudolph, &. Biblia Hrl-micn Stuttgnrtmsin, (5tutkgart Deukche Bibel,oeselkMt, 1977), 685, n. 11. 72 Concordia fieologiwl Quarterly 70 (2006) Justin Shrtvr's Dialogue xi th Trpho, which took place in the earl>- part of the second ;en%-. IV. Justin Martyr Justin Slarts-r, as his name implies, was w w d in Rome around AD 163 because bf his defense of the faith, but not before he wrote two apologies, or defenses of Christianih-, as well as a dialogue with a famous rabbi of the time named Trypho, whom we know to have died about AD 131. Justin's Dialogue zt-ith T y h o is not one of those documents that would be liewed as a model for ecumenirm in our day, at least by many of our contemporaries. He minces no words in telling his Jewish counterpart where he has gone &\Tong in his interpretation. Jeu-ish exegetes, he says, make a theological explanation as to why an alpha was added to Abraham's name and a rho to Sarah's name (according to the WU()* hut are silent when it comes to Joshua whose name was changed by Moses from Oshea to Joshua which in Greek is Jesus (?lpok).j7 They are content, in other words, to deal with the letter of the text, but not with the more important spirit of the text, which for Justin is Christ. Justin views ever);thing that Joshua does, then, as if Jesus were doing it: In the episode of the L-icton- over Amalek, Christ is prefigured h- the stone on which llioses lea&, by the sign of the cross described 6- his outstretched arms (an event already exploited by Judaism, not as a sign of the cross, but as a work of Gctd's power), and b\- Joshua's name that is equivalent to Jesus, a combat title (Dial. 90.4) The name of Joshua is a figure of the name of Jesus. Just as Joshua led the people into the Holy Land, so also 'Jesus will bring about the return of the Diaspora of the people and will distribute the good land to each.' Joshua stopped the sun; but Jesus the eternal light, is to shine in Jerusalem. Joshua circumcised the people with a second circumcision; but that circumcision is a figure of the one Jesus effects in hearts and it is he 1vho is the rock of the true circumcision (Dial. 113.1-7). Joshua's victory over M e k is a figure of Jesus' e n d u ~ g \<&OF over the forces of evil (Dial. 99.8). The salvation granted to Rahab because of the scarlet cord is a symbol of the salvation granted to sinners through the blood of Christ (Dial. 109.4).1" It was as if Justin were saying: Moses and Aaron had their da-, so to speak, under the old law- and priesthood. Christians could now follow the =+ -4ccordlng to the LXY, Sara \\-as altered to Sarra, and Ahram to Abraam. Dmlugur i i ~ t h Typlro 113. For a similar argument, see Drologue m f h T y l w 120.4. * De Illargerie, Tile Greek Fnfher.;, 33. Elowsky: Christ in the Ancient Church 73 new Joshua who had entered into the promised Iand of the gospel.3' Justin's counterparts among the Jewish interpreters have not grasped the true significance of Scripture since they ignore the deeper meaning. Justin and most early Christian interpreters equated a strictlb- literal interpretation as a Jew-ish interpretation, ultimately unworthy of a divinelv inspired text. I w-ould hazard to assert that Justin would probabl~ offer a similar critique of todafs historical-aitical method of commenw-. It is not that Justin disparages the letter of the biblical text. Rather, he approaches Scripture, +tally the Torah, typologicall!-. He tells us what he means b?- the word type in his Dialogue rr.iffr Tryplto: "Sometimes the Holv Spirit caused the risible appearing of something which was a ggure (ii-od of the future."* The figures or events are abundant in Justin's exegesis of the Pentateuch.4: In Genesis, for instance: the tree of life is a f i g of Christ,* Adam's temptation bv the serpent in paradise prefigures Christ's temptation in the wilderness+ Eve is a h-pe of J9ary; Christ is the new Soahawho w4l bring us through the final iestruction. The prescribed ceremonies contained in the Torah also point towards Christ The mysterr- of the Lamb that God ordained to be immolated as a Passover lamb (or Paxh) was a h-pe of the anointed Christ: "The Pasch saved those rvho were in Egypt; likewise, the Blood of Christ preserr-e those who belies-e in him."as The offering of w-heat was a b-pe of the bread of the thanksgir-ing [in the Eucharist].* Circumcision on ;he eighth day is a "figure of the true c i r d s i o n given in the name of Him \\ho was raised on the eighth day."*; The Sabbath contributes in no \\-as. to one's " Ct Peter Damian. Op. 32, de quadngu 9; PL 145559 BC, cited in de Luhac, 429, n. 94. Dxfqzzirc. LYM Tr-~Ixc 1%1. " \lost of his typolog- can he found in ihe Sew Testament ifself, esp-iaH>- the h k of Hebrews, although he dms often go beyond the %en- Testament examples or extends the C O M ~ C Z 2: ry , d f ~ s d ->-.- - " L31 Tr@w %.I - ;S ~&yJrl aith TVFm 103.6- - Diaiqur. aith Trypiu? 138.1-3. "At the flood the rn?-sten- of the work&s dalraiion &%-as at work The just man Soah together with the other pemns ot the f l d account namely. his wife, his three som and their x\-hes, made eight in numkr tkreh- s>mblizing the eighth day on which our Christ \%-as raised t$om the dead, that &)- king always impliatly the kt Christ, the iirst-born ot aH creation, has k o m e in a new- sere the head of another race, regenerated hr I l i m , through water, through faith, and ttrr~ugh the r % - d which contained the mr;ster) of the urns,-just as Xoah \\-is saved the s \ d of the carried by the waters of the flood . and I mean that thcw M ho receive preparation through mH-aier, faiih. and wood escape the /udpeni of God that % to come." += D;;!17gce inti1 Tpqh 111.3. * 13-~103~f 7 t h Tryla 90.4. - D:aip-pe ~ 7 t h TryprUI 4 3 2 41.4. 74 Concordia Theological Quarterly 70 (2006) justification*$ but rather is a figure of the time to come when sin would stop.;- "Taking them one bv one," Justin savs, "I could show that all of \loses's other prescriptions are types [ r ~ ~ o i ] , symbols, annunciations of what is to come to pass in Christ."% For Justin, these types of the Old Testament are like a first draft of %\-hat would dbmately be accomplished in Christ. As De Xfargerie notes, these figures were not original with Justin. Thev were part of a tradition, some of which can already by found in the , ~ e k Testament, others of which \%-ere ahead- in use by Justin's contemporaries such as the author of the Eprstle 4Barnaha5. Stdl, his Dialogue uith i'-ryp!zo "holds a central place in the histom of 9-pologym because "it constitutes the corpus of the prinapal figures, which existed before him lalthough] not all in one place."Si These figures would then be taken up by those who iollo\ved, such as Irenams who was influenced directlv bv Justin. Irenaeus r\i l l \cork out the theological kpIications of ust tin's typolog in his doctrine oi recapitulation, which we discuss next. V. Irenaeus Irenaeus, the bishop of Lvons in the late second century, had to deal with the heresy of the ~nostics. Gnostic exegesis would pick and choose texts, taking them out of context and stnngmg them together sometimes like a James Joyce stream-of-conxiousness novel. Saiptural truth and meaning %%-ere considered relative to the culture of the time, and there %.as no sense of the unit of Scripture. Names and familiar passages took on new- meanings as the Gnostics would cut and paste passages and Scriptural thoughts together. Irenaeus compared their exegesis to a mosaic in which the tiles of the mosaic hare been rearranged from depicting the majesty of a king to depicting a dog or a fox, although Gnostics could convince people the dog was a king." The Gnostics use the same Saiptures but the text that results has nothing to do with the on@ because thev have no sense of the whole of Scripture, the body of "the Truth."-: This "Truth" is summed up in the saving and revealing acts of 4- Dnr,zlope ic-zth T?cpia- 46.7. 4- DUIL~C~IW xzfJz T ~ ~ p ~ x l 1 4 . 2 . DIJ~LXW, icil'~th Typho 40.1,42 4. '1 De Vargene, The Greek F~tfwrr;, 33. == Iremeus, .-1galtzsf Here51e.- 1 6.1. " .&s Irenaew says: -he who possesses witiun himself the immutable canon of the truth that he recei\-ed through Baptism w-ill surely recognize [in the r~~it ings of the heretics] terms, expressiom, and parables taken from the Scriptures. But he WIU not recognize the subject they originally treated. . . . On the contran, if he wlU restore each of the texts to its respective place and fit them all to the body of the truth, he cviU expose lthe fiction of the heretics] and demomtrate its incomlstenc~"(Agazn=f Here>~e> 1.9.4). Elawsky: Christ in the Ancient Church 75 God from the beginning of creation to the incarnation of the Word made flesh and through the outpouring of the Spirit to the church. This divine economy, while trinitarian, is centered in Christ and in his central role as the reca&dator of all of Scripture and all of histoq-. Irenaeus takes this idea of recapitulation from Romans 5, where Pad contrasts the first Adam with the second Adarn, who is Christ He applies this understanding of the two Adam then to the passage that encapsulates his understanding of what recapitulation means: "And he made known to us the m?-steq- of his according to his good pleasure, which he purpsed in Christ to be put into effect when the times wit1 have reached their fulfillment -to bring aII things in heaven and on earth together under one head, ex-en Christ" (Eph 19-10). The word recq-tulatrm comes from the Greek word u~rute+aiaioa~, w-hich means to bring together under one prinaple (Eph 1:lO). This term enunciates for henaeus the Father's plan to place even-thing, induding all hurnanic- and all of creation, as well as both the good i d the had angels, under Christ. It is a process which bgan at his incarnation and will cuhka te w-hen Christ comes again2 In his P r ~ f y the Ap~wtolic Preachirzg, known as the Epidenis, lrenaeus V > - s Christ as the net\- Adam in the histo?- of the old Adarn is repeated, although in an opposite direction. In Adarn w-e had been created to be in the image of the Son of Go& in W t the Son of God takes humanity unto himself. As a man, Christ is all that Adam u\-ould have been had he not fallen into temptation. For those who are in Christ, they now have a new point of departure, able again to grow into that image that is the Son an image %-hi& w-as alwavs meant to be theirs but which Adam had given over to Satan in his disobedience. This is why the comparison with Adam and ffvist is so prominent in the proofs he offers for the truth of the apostolic preaching. Adam is formed from the virgin soil and Christ from the Virgin Slaw. The fall takes place through the disobedience of the \\-oman Eve, but In Irenaeus's words: "The Church, indeed, though disseminated throughout the r*-orld, even to the ends of the earth, received from the apstIes and their dixiples the faith in one God the Father Almighty, the Creator of heaven and earth and the seas and all thin3 that are in them; and in the one Jesus Christ, the Son of God who was &le&ed for our salx-atim and in the Hal?- Spirit, who through the prophets preached the Economies, the coming, the birth horn a l'irgin, the passion the resurrection from the dead, and the M?- ascension into heaven of the beloved Son, Christ Jesus mr Lord, and His coming from heaven in the @or)- of the Father to recapitulate all things, and to raise up all flesh nf the whole human race, in order tb t to Christ Jems, uur Lord and God+ %\-,r- These were the Scriptures that the exegete Christ said pointed to him \%lien the ancient church saw these connections and interpreted them for their flocks, the17 were exercising the same pastoral exegesis of their otzm chief shepherd. VIL Pastoral Exegesis The fathers exercised a pastoral interpretation that is the result of God's revelation of himself in the incarnate Jesus Christ, which provides a theological, ecclesiastical, liturgical, and above all a chistocentric understanding and application of the text. Were their allegories excessive? At times, yes, no doubt. And, just because the ancient church did something does not mean we should do it. Luther's aitique of the allegorical method and the four-fold quadriga of meanings still stands. However, Luther still read the fathers and often quoted the fathers because he, too, was a christocentric exegete, although not as exdusix-ely as some in the ancient church.@ Joseph Lienhard makes a helpful distinction on how to 1 iew patristic interpretation in his introduction to the ACCS commentarv on Exodus though Deuteronomy. He first of all notes that, for the writers, the catqgories of allegorical exegesis and literal interpretation "are not parti&l!- useful descriptions of the real dynamics of their reading . . . both Alexandrians and Antiwhenes u n d d that an exclusi\-el\- literal interpretation is impossible, if only k a w the Old Testament r&uired a christological hermeneutic."@ But in the end, their concern was not prima&>- method01ogical. "'Methodology' quotes Henri de Lubac, 'is a t- !iau~er, The F